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STANDARD DEVIATION

• It is based on deviations from the mean of
the data values.
• First find the mean and then subtract the
mean from each data value.

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Example: 1
Find the deviations from the mean for the data
values 32, 41, 47, 53, 57.
Add these values and divide by the total no. of values,
5. This process shows that the mean is 46. To find the
deviations from the mean, subtract 46 from each value.
DATA VALUE
DEVIATION

32
-14

41
-5

47
1

53
7

57
11

32 – 46 = – 14
57 – 46 = 11
*To check, add deviations. The Ʃ of the deviations for
the set or data is zero .
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Example: 2
DATA VALUE

32

41

47

53

57

DEVIATION

-14

-5

1

7

11

SQ. of DEVIATION

196

25

1

49

121

(-14) (-14) = 196

(11) (11) = 121

• We divide by n-1 instead. *Although the reasons cannot be
explained at this level, dividing n-1 rather then n produce a
sharp measure that is more accurate for purposes of inference.
In most cases the results using the two different divisors differ
only slightly *.
• The average that results is itself a measure of dispersion called
the variance, but a more common measure is obtained by
taking the square root of the variance.
SDof the deviations from
• This gives, in effect, a kind of average
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the mean and is called the sample
.

DATA VALUE

32

41

47

53

57

DEVIATION

-14

-5

1

7

11

SQ. of DEVIATION

196

25

1

49

121

S=

196+25+1+49+121
4

=

392

√4

S = √98 ~~ 9.90
*The algorithm (process) described above for finding
the sample standard deviation can be summarized.

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CALCULATION OF STANDARD DEVIATION

Let a sample of n nos. x1, x2, . . . Xn have mean x.
Then the sample standard deviation, s, of the
numbers is given by:

S = Ʃ(x – x)²
n-1
The individual steps involved in this calculations are as
follows:
1. Calculate x, the mean of the numbers.
2. Find the deviations from the mean.
3. Square each deviation.
4. Sum the squared deviations.
5. Divide the sum in step 4 by n-1
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6. Take the square.

Example: 2

Find the standard deviation of the sample:
7, 9, 18, 22, 27, 29, 32, 40
by using a) the step-by step process and
b) the statistical functions of a calculator.

A. Carry out the six steps summarized above.
Step1: Find the mean of the values.
7 + 9 + 18 + 22 + 27 + 29 + 32 + 40 =
8
Step2: Find the deviations from the mean.
Data Value
Deviation

23

7

9

18

22

27

29

32

40

-16

-14

-5

-1

4

6

9

17
6

Step3:

Square each deviation.
Square of deviations:
256 196 25 1 16 36 81 289
Step4: Sum the squared deviations.
256 +196 + 25 + 1 + 16 + 36 + 81 + 289 = 900
Step5: Divide by n-1
8–1=7
900 ÷ 7 ~
~ 128.57
Step6: Take the square root
√128.57 ~
~ 11.3

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Example: 3
• Find the sample standard deviation for the frequency distribution shown here
Value
Frequency
2
5
3
8
4
10
5
2
IN DEVIATION:
Value

Frequency

Value x Frequency

Deviation

Squared Deviation

Sq. Deviation x Frequency

2

5

10

-1.36

1.8496

9.2480

3

8

24

-.36

0.1296

1.0368

4

10

40

.64

0.4096

4.0960

5

2

10

1.64

2.6896

5.3792

19.76

X = 84/25 = 3.36 S =
24

19.76 = √0.8233

~~ 0.91
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Reference:

Instructor’s Edition

Mathematical Ideas
• Tenth Edition and Expanded tenth Edition
Miller
Heeren
Pages 748 – 751

Hornsby

REPORT NI VERONICA VIRAY LAMBRENTO
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