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CHOOSING
METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 5
CHOOSING A METHODOLOGY
I. INTRODUCTION
II. POSITIVISM
A. Definition and Brief Description/Illustration
B. Methodologies Associated With Positivism
1. Experimental Studies
2. Surveys (Primary or Secondary data)
3. Cross Section Studies
4. Longitudinal Studies
III. INTERPRETIVISM
A. Definition and Brief Description/Illustration
B. Methodologies Associated With Interpretivism
1. Hermeneutics
2. Ethnography
3. Participative Enquiry
4. Action Research
5. Case Studies
6. Grounded Theory
7. Feminist Gender and Ethnicity Studies

IV. TRIANGULATION
A. Definition and Explanation
B. Types of Triangulation
1. Data Sources
2. Investigator Triangulation
3. Theoretical Triangulation
4. Data Analysis Triangulation

Positivism

Steve ( Yu)
(Reporter)

Atty. Arturo P. Bernardo
(Professor)

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POSITIVISM
is philosophy of science based on the view that in
the social as well as natural sciences, data derived
from sensory experience, and logical and
mathematical treatments of such data, are
together the exclusive source of all authentic
knowledge. Obtaining and "verifying" data that
can be received from the senses is known as
empirical evidence.

Methodologies Associated
With Positivism
Experimental Studies
Surveys (Primary or Secondary data)
Cross Section Studies
Longitudinal Studies

Experimental
Studies

a study in which all of the risk factors are under
the direct control of the investigator

Strength of
Experimental
Studies
Determining causality
Establishing causal direction
Cost (sometimes)
Convenience
Adjustability/flexibility
Replicability
Isolate components of complex relationships

Weaknesses of Experimental
Studies
Lack of “reality
Unrepresentative samples (e.g., college
sophomores instead of “real people”)
Cost (sometimes)
Potentially dangerous outcomes

Survey

a research method involving the use of
questionnaires and/or statistical surveys to
gather data about people and their thoughts
and behaviors.

strength of survey
Surveys are relatively inexpensive .
Surveys are useful in describing the characteristics of a large population.
They can be administered from remote locations using mail, email or telephone.
Consequently, very large samples are feasible, making the results statistically significant
even when analyzing multiple variables.
Many questions can be asked about a given topic giving considerable flexibility to the
analysis.
There is flexibility at the creation phase in deciding how the questions will be
administered: as face-to-face interviews, by telephone, as group administered written or
oral survey, or by electronic means.
Standardized questions make measurement more precise by enforcing uniform
definitions upon the participants.
Standardization ensures that similar data can be collected from groups then interpreted
comparatively (between-group study).
Usually, high reliability is easy to obtain--by presenting all subjects with a standardized
stimulus, observer subjectivity is greatly eliminate

weakness of
survey
A methodology relying on standardization forces the researcher to
develop questions general enough to be minimally appropriate for all
respondents, possibly missing what is most appropriate to many
respondents.
Surveys are inflexible in that they require the initial study design (the
tool and administration of the tool) to remain unchanged throughout
the data collection.
The researcher must ensure that a large number of the selected sample
will reply.
It may be hard for participants to recall information or to tell the truth
about a controversial question.
As opposed to direct observation, survey research (excluding some
interview approaches) can seldom deal with "context."

Cross Section
Studies
Cross-sectional studies (also known as Crosssectional analysis) form a class of research
methods that involve observation of all of a
population, or a representative subset, at one
specific point in time.

Strengths of cross-sectional
studies
Relatively quick and easy to conduct (no long periods of follow-up).
Data on all variables is only collected once.
Able to measure prevalence for all factors under investigation.
Multiple outcomes and exposures can be studied.
The prevalence of disease or other health related characteristics are
important in public health for assessing the burden of disease in a
specified population and in planning and allocating health resources.
Good for descriptive analyses and for generating hypotheses.

weaknesses of cross-sectional
studies
Difficult to determine whether the outcome followed exposure in time
or exposure resulted from the outcome.
Not suitable for studying rare diseases or diseases with a short
duration.
As cross-sectional studies measure prevalent rather than incident cases,
the data will always reflect determinants of survival as well as
aetiology.1
Unable to measure incidence.
Associations identified may be difficult to interpret.
Susceptible to bias due to low response and misclassification due to
recall bias.

Longitudinal study
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study
that involves repeated observations of the same
variables over long periods of time — often many
decades. It is a type of observational study.

strength of
Longitudinal Studies
high in validity - people usually do not
remember past events and if they were asked
about their past, they would not remember
picking up long-term changes

weakness of
Longitudinal Studies
it takes a long period of time to gather results
a need to have a large sample size and accurate
sampling to reach representativeness
participant may drop out, this is called subject
attrition.

Methodologies Associated with
Positivism

Hubo
(Reporter)

Atty. Arturo P. Bernardo
(Professor)

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Methodologies Associated with Interpretivism

As we have learned in Chapter 4, interpretivism is a paradigm that
emerged in response to criticisms of positivism. It rests on the assumption
that social reality is in our minds and is subjective and multiple. Therefore
social reality is affected by the act of investigating it. The research is
involved an inductive process with a review to providing interpretive
understanding of social phenomena within a particular context.
Hermeneutics
Ethnography
Participative Enquiry
Action research
Case Studies
Grounded Theory
Feminist, Gender and Ethnicity Studies

Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics is a methodology that focuses on the
understanding and interpretation of the text in the
context of the underlying historical and social forces. It
assumes that a relationship exists between the conscious
description of experience and the underlying dynamics
or structures.

Ethnography
Ethnography is a methodology derived from
anthropology in which researchers use socially
acquired and shared knowledge to understand the
observed patterns of human activity. Ethnography
provides insights about a group of people and offers
us an opportunity to see and understand their world.
Ethnology is any full and partial description of a
group.

Participative Enquiry
Participative is a methodology that involves the participants as fully as possible in
the study, which is conducted in their own group or organization. The research
may even be initiated by a member of the group and participants are involved in
the data collection and analysis. The participants also determine the progress and
the direction of the research.Thus enabling the research to develop questions and
answers as a shared experience with a group as co-researchers. Therefore this type
of methodology is about a research with people rather than on people.
Three types of research.
I. Co-operative enquiry
II. Participatory action research
III. Action research (or science research)

Action Research

Action research, or science research, is a methodology
used in applied research to find an effective way
bringing about a conscious change in a partly
controlled environment. Thus, the main aim of action
research is to enter into a situation, attempt to bring
about a change and to monitor the results.

Case Studies

Case study is a methodology that is used to explore a single phenomenon (the
case) in a natural setting using a variety of methods to obtain in-depth
knowledge.
Types of case study: descriptive case studies, illustrative case studies,
experimental case studies, explanatory case studies, and opportunity case studies.

Grounded Theory
Grounded theory is a methodology in which a systematic set
of procedures is used to develop an inductively derived
theory about phenomena.
The overall features of grounded theory have been
summarized into three stages:
I. An initial attempt to develop categories that illuminate the
data.
II. An attmept to saturate these categories with many
appropriate cases in order to demonstrate their importance.
III. Developing these categories into more general analytic
frameworks with relevant outside the setting.

Feminist, Gender and
Ethnicity Studies
Feminist studies are used to investigate and seek
understanding of phenomena from the perspective
of the role of women in society vis a vis men, while
gender studies are concerned with the experiences
of both men and women. On the other hand,
ethnicity studies focus on the experiences of
different enthnic groups in society (often on
particular ethnic minority groups).

Triangulation

Maria Victoria P. Laxamana
(Reporter)

Atty. Arturo P. Bernardo
(Professor)

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Definition

Triangulation is an approach to research that
uses a combination of more than one research
strategy in a single investigation.

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• Why do we conduct Triangulation?
• Types of Triangulation

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Choosing Triangulation as a Research
Strategy

• Qualitative investigators may choose
triangulation as a research strategy
to assure completeness of findings or
to confirm findings.

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Confirm Findings
• By combining different strategies, researchers
confirm findings by overcoming the limitations of a
single strategy.
• Uncovering the same information from more than
one vantage point helps researchers describe how
the
findings
occurred
under
different
circumstances and assists them to confirm the
validity of the findings.

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Types of Triangulation
•A. Data Sources Triangulation

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Time, Space, Person

•B. Investigator Triangulation
•C. Methodologic Triangulation
Multimethod, or Mix-method, or methods
Triangulation

•D. Theoretical Triangulation

multiple theories or hypotheses

•E. Data Analysis Triangulation
Two or more methods of analyzing data

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Data Sources
Time

Person

Space



time
triangulation,
researchers collect data
about a phenomenon at
different points in time.

Using person triangulation,
researchers collect data
from more than one level
of person, that is, a set of
individuals,
groups,
or
collectives.

Space triangulation

consists of collecting
data at more than one
site.
•At
the
outset,
the
researcher must identify how
time or space relate to the
study and make an argument
supporting
the
use
of
different time or space
collection points in the study.

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INVESTIGATOR TRIANGULATION

• Investigator triangulation occurs when two or more
researchers with divergent backgrounds and expertise work
together on the same study. To achieve investigator
triangulation, multiple investigators each must have
prominent roles in the study and their areas of expertise
must be complementary.
• All the investigators discuss their individual findings and
reach a conclusion, which includes all findings.
• Having a second research expert examine a data set is not
considered investigator triangulation.
• Use of methods triangulation usually requires investigator
triangulation because few investigators are expert in more
than one research method.

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METHODS TRIANGULATION

Methods Triangulation has also been called multi method,
mixed method or methodological Triangulation.

Methodological triangulation is an attempt to improve
validity by combining various techniques in one study.

•Methods triangulation can occur at the level of design or
data collection.
•Methods triangulation at the design level has also been
called between-method triangulation and methods
triangulation at the data collection level has been called
within-method triangulation.

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THEORETICAL TRIANGULATION

• Theory triangulation incorporates the use of more
than one lens or theory in the analysis of the same
data set.
• The intent is to conduct the study with multiple
lenses and questions in mind, to lend support to oe
refute findings.
• Researchers investigate the utility and power of
these emerging theories by cycling between data
generation and data analysis until they reach a
conclusion.

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DATA-ANALYSIS TRIANGULATION

Data-Analysis triangulation is the combination of
two or more methods of analyzing data. these
techniques can include different families of
statistical testing or different statistical techniques
to determine similarities or validate data.

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Thank you^__^