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- a human activity based on intellectual

application in the investigation matter.
 Is a systematic and organized way to find
answers to questions.
 Its primary aim is discovering, interpreting,
and development of methods and systems
for the advancement of human knowledge
on a wide variety of scientific matters of our
world and the universe.

Applied Research
 Pure Research
 Action and Developmental Research

Refers to scientific study and research that seeks
to solve practical problems rather than to
acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake.
Is original work undertaken primarily to acquire
new knowledge with a specific application in
It is used to find solutions to everyday problems,
cure illness, and develop innovative
It is for the sake of technological advancements.
Its goal is to improve the human condition.

Pricing a new product
 Where to locate a new retail store
 How many employees to hire
 How many products to offer
 What to pay employees

It is also referred to as “basic”, is dedicated
to the generations of new ideas and
paradigms for thinking and knowing within
a particular field.
 Is for the sake of curiosity and functions to
advance knowledge for its own sake.
 It create knowledge which may become the
basis of applied research



Theory: color, form, composition

Internship, computer/hardware





Non-linear ( no in order)

Linear( predictable/predicted

Literary( poetic, experimental)

Practical( client and business

Motivated by transfer of

Motivated by profit

High-risk/low output

Low-risk/High output

Is an interactive inquiry process that
balances problem solving actions
implemented in a collaborative context with
data-driven collaborative analysis.
 Research to understand underlying causes
enabling future predictions about personal
and organizational change.

Is a procedure supplementary to
observation in which the researcher seeks
to test the authenticity of the reports or
observations made by others.
 Employed by researchers who are
interested in reporting events and/or
conditions that occurred in the past.
 An attempt is made to establish facts in
order to arrive at conclusions concerning
past events or predict future events.

1. Recognition of a historical problem or the
identification of a need for certain historical
2. Gathering of as much relevant information
about the problem or topic.
3. The selection, organization, and analysis of
the most pertinent collected evidence
4. Recording of conclusions.
5. Forming of hypothesis that tentatively
explain relationship between historical factors
6. The rigorous collection and organization
signs in a meaningful narrative

Primary sources- first hand accounts of
information. It involves logic, intuition,
persistence, and common sense. E.g.
personal diaries, eyewitness accounts of
 Secondary sources- are records or accounts
prepared by someone other than the
person, or persons who participated in or
observed event. (E.g. newspapers,
textbooks, review of research and other


Historical Research
 Descriptive Research
 Experimental Research
Causal Comparative Research

Historical Research is a procedure
supplementary to observation in which the
researcher seeks to test the authenticity of
the reports or observations made by others.

The process of learning and understanding
the background and growth of a chosen
field of study or profession can offer insight
into organizational culture, current trends,
and future possibilities. The historical
method of research applies to all fields of
study because it encompasses their: origins,
growth, theories, personalities, crisis, etc. 

Tells "what is." No manipulations of
variables are attempted, only descriptions
of variables and their relationships as they
naturally occur.

It is used to obtain information concerning
the current status of the phenomena to
describe "what exists" with respect to
variables or conditions in a situation.

An attempt by the researcher to maintain
control over all factors that may affect the
result of an experiment. In doing this, the
researcher attempts to determine or predict
what may occur.

The purpose, therefore, of experimental
designs is to eliminate alternative

It is used when you cannot test a hypothesis by
manipulating a variable. This type of research allows
you to investigate relationships in which variables
like intelligence, creativity, socioeconomic status,
and instructor personality cannot be manipulated.
Causal-comparative research is also referred to as
"ex post facto" research, which means after the fact
or from a thing done afterwards. This simply implies
that the researcher is studying the cause-effect
relationship that already exists, without attempting
any control or change in either the cause or the