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• The next step after

stating the
management problem,
research purpose, and
research hypotheses
and questions, is to
formulate a research
• The starting point
for the research design
is, in fact, the research questions and
hypotheses that have been so carefully

 Research Design


Research Design

Research Design?
• The research design is a plan of action
indicating the specific steps that are
necessary to provide answers to those
questions, test the hypotheses, and
thereby achieve the research purpose
that helps choose among the decision
alternatives to solve the management
problem or capitalize on the market

Research Design?
• The research
design answers
the question:
How are we going
to get answers to
these research
questions and
test these

Research Design?
• The research design has been
considered a "blueprint" for research,
dealing with at least four problems:
what questions to study, what data
are relevant, what data to collect,
and how to analyze the results.

Research Design?

According to David J. Luck and Ronald S. Rubin,

"A research design is the determination and statement of the
general research approach or strategy adopted/or the particular
project. It is the heart of planning. If the design adheres to the
research objective, it will ensure that the client's needs will be

According to Kerlinger

"Research design in the plan, structure and strategy
of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research
questions and to control variance." 

According to Green and Tull 

"A research design is the specification of methods
and  procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the
over-all operational pattern or framework of the project that
stipulates what information is to be collected from which source
by what procedures."

Research Design?
• Research design can be divided into fixed and
flexible research designs (Robson, 1993).
• Others have referred
to this distinction with
research designs” and
“qualitative research

Fixed (Quantitative)

• In quantitative research your aim is to determine
the relationship between one thing (an
independent variable) and another (a dependent
or outcome variable) in a population.
• Quantitative research
designs are either
descriptive (subjects
usually measured
once) or experimental
(subjects measured
before and after a

Descriptive Research
• Descriptive research design is a scientific
method which involves observing and
describing the behavior of a subject without
influencing it in any way. The main goal of
this type of research is to describe the data
and characteristics about what
• Theisidea
behind this
type of research is to
study frequencies,
averages, and other
Although this
research is highly
accurate, it does not

Experimental Research
• Experimental
Because of this
research is
of defined
as research in
in which
the causal
expected to
a can
of control
in order to change
the period
the study to
establish with
confidence that cause
and effect occurred. 

Flexible (Qualitative)

• Qualitative research seeks out the ‘why’, not the
‘how’ of its topic through the analysis of
unstructured information – things like interview
transcripts, open ended survey responses, emails,
notes, feedback forms, photos and videos. It
doesn’t just rely on statistics or numbers, which
are the domain of quantitative researchers.

Case Study

• This method of study is especially useful for
trying to test theoretical models by using them in
real world situations.
• Basically, a case study is an indepth study of a particular
situation rather than a sweeping
statistical survey. It is a method
used to narrow down a very broad
field of research into one easily
researchable topic.

• Also known as "Ethnography," is a qualitative
research method involving the study of a group of
people in their natural setting. The researcher
tries to study the people without affecting their
• One way to do this is to participate as a member
of the group. When this is done, it is called
"Participant-observation." As a "Participantobserver," the researcher studies the group from
the inside as a member. “Naturalistic
Observation” yields rich information about how a
society lives.

Focus Groups
• When people are available to provide information,
a focus group may be used. A focus group is a
group of people gathered together to discuss a
certain issue, and it is another
way of conducting
qualitative research.
•A focus group involves a
small number of people,
who are usually hired,
meeting and discussing the
benefits and shortcomings
of a particular product, issue
or event. The people chosen
for the focus group share
qualities relevant to the


• Surveys provide a way for researchers to obtain a
lot of information from a large number of people.
And, they allow respondents to communicate their
opinions, feelings, and personal information
• Many anonymously.
surveys include a Likert scale, which
includes rating statements on a scale of how much
one agrees or disagrees. While others have openended questions for respondents to include their
opinions and comments. Information obtained
from surveys can provide data needed to begin a
empirical research experiment.
• quantitative,
Another dimension of study is the use of surveys.
This qualitative research method can be conducted
in person or via mail, e-mail, or the telephone.

 Research Design
 Respondents of the Study


Respondents of the

 Research Design
 Respondents of the Study
 Sampling technique


• The
In statistics and survey
selection of a suitable
sample for
sampling is concerned with the
selection of a subset of individuals
from within a population to estimate
characteristics of the whole


Random Sampling
• The first statistical sampling method
is simple random sampling. In this
method, each item in the population
has the same probability of being
selected as part of the sample as any
other item.

Random Sampling
• For example, a tester could randomly
select 5 inputs to a test case from the
population of all possible valid inputs
within a range of 1-100 to use during
test execution, To do this the tester
could use a random number generator
or simply put each number from 1-100
on a slip of paper in a hat, mixing
them up and drawing out 5 numbers.

Systematic Sampling
• Systematic sampling is another
statistical sampling method. In this
method, every nth element from the
list is selected as the sample,
starting with a sample element n
randomly selected from the first k

Systematic Sampling
• The population has
1000 elements and a
sample size of 100 is
• Then k would be
1000/100 = 10.
• If number 7 is
randomly selected from
the first ten elements
on the list, the sample
would continue down
the list selecting the 7th
element from each
group of ten elements.

Stratified Sampling
• The statistical sampling method called stratified
sampling is used when representatives from each
subgroup within the population need to be
• represented
The first stepininthe
sampling is to divide
the population into subgroups (strata) based on
mutually exclusive criteria.
• Random or systematic samples are then taken
from each subgroup. The sampling fraction for
each subgroup may be taken in the same
proportion as the subgroup has in the population.

Stratified Sampling
• For example, if the person conducting a customer
satisfaction survey selected random customers from
each customer type in proportion to the number of
customers of that type in the population.
– For example, if 40 samples are to be selected, and 10%
of the customers are managers, 60% are users, 25% are
operators and 5% are database administrators then 4
managers, 24 uses, 10 operators and 2 administrators
would be randomly selected. Stratified sampling can
also sample an equal number of items from each
subgroup. For example, a development lead randomly
selected three modules out of each programming
language used to examine against the coding standard

Cluster Sampling

• A random sample is
then taken from
within one or more
selected clusters.

• In cluster sampling, the
population that is being
sampled is divided into
groups called clusters.
Instead of these
subgroups being
homogeneous based
on a selected criteria
as in stratified
sampling, a cluster is
as heterogeneous as
possible to matching
the population.

Haphazard Sampling
• There are also other types of
sampling that, while non-statistical
(information about the entire
population cannot be extrapolated
from the sample), may still provide
useful information.
• In haphazard sampling, samples are
selected based on convenience but
preferably should still be chosen as
randomly as possible.

Haphazard Sampling
• For example, the auditor may ask to see a
list of all of the source code modules, and
then closes his eyes and points at the list
a module
• to
could alsotograb
one of the listing
binders off the shelf, flip through it and
“randomly” stop on a module to audit.

• The haphazard sampling is usually
typically, quicker, and uses smaller
sample sizes than other sampling
techniques. The main disadvantage of
haphazard sampling is that since it is
not statistically based, generalizations
about the total population should be
made with extreme caution.

Judgmental Sampling
• In judgmental
(another nonstatistical)
sampling, the
person doing the
sample uses
his/her knowledge
or experience to
select the items to
be sampled.

 Research Design
 Respondents of the Study
 Sampling technique


 Instruments used in the

Aggregate Data Analysis
Case Studies
Content Analysis
Evaluation Research
Experimental Research

Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured
Organizational Analysis
Policy Analysis
Social Impact Analysis

Aggregate Data Analysis

The aggregate data study design defines a
group as the unit of analysis. It is used when
individual data is not available. Aggregate data
are easily and relatively cheaply available as
compared to individual data

Case Study

The Case Study (CS) is a type of Field Research
which examines a site using a combination of
personal interviews, analyses of written
documents, & observations

Content Analysis

The review of narrative data  (from open ended
surveys, interviews, books, press, media, etc.)
that looks for regularity 

Content Analysis

The Content Analysis Process has SIX Steps

The Researcher  
1.  Reviews a sample of responses to an openended question from a Record 

Content Analysis

2.  Decides how many different kinds
( categories ) of responses exist 

3.  Defines each category & illustrates w/ a
concrete example 

Content Analysis

4.  Attaches a numerical code to it 

5.  Reviews the full set of verbal responses to
determine if all categories are represented 

Content Analysis

6.  Establishes Internal Reliability: 

     a.  Since a lot of judgment is involved in this
translation,  accepted practice dictates  that at
least 2 people independently code the entire set
of responses 

Content Analysis

     b. Then their judgments are compared 

c. Differences are resolved & consistency is


A qualitative research method aimed to learn
and understand cultural phenomena which
reflect the knowledge and system of meanings
guiding the life of a cultural group.

Evaluation Research

Evaluation is a methodological area that is
closely related to, but distinguishable from more
traditional social research.

Evaluation Research

Evaluation utilizes many of the same
methodologies used in traditional social
research, but because evaluation takes place
within a political and organizational context, it
requires group skills, management ability,
political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple
stakeholders and other skills that social
research in general does not rely on as much.

Experimental Research

A systematic and scientific approach to research
in which the researcher manipulates one or
more variables, and controls and measures any
change in other variables.


The qualitative research interview seeks to
describe and the meanings of central themes in
the life world of the subjects. The main task in
interviewing is to understand the meaning of
what the interviewees say.

Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured

Naturalistic observation is a research method
commonly used by psychologists and other
social scientists. This technique involves
observing subjects in their natural environment.
This type of research is often utilized in
situations where conducting lab research is
unrealistic, cost prohibitive or would unduly
affect the subject's behavior.

Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured

Naturalistic observation differs from structured
observation in that it involves looking at a
behavior as it occurs in its natural setting with
no attempts at intervention on the part of the

Organizational Analysis

The study of the processes that characterize all
kinds of organizations, including business firms,
government agencies, labour unions, and
voluntary associations such as sports clubs,
charities, and political parties. 

Organizational Analysis

Any organization is a social unit with three

(1)it is a corporate (or group) actor,

Organizational Analysis

(2) it claims a special and limited purpose (such
as making profits or providing medical care),

(3) its creators intend it to last beyond the
accomplishment of a single action, if not

Policy Analysis

Is determining which of various alternative
policies will most achieve a given set of goals in
light of the relations between the policies and
the goals.

Social Impact Analysis

Can be defined as the process of assessing
or estimating, in advance, the social
consequences that are likely to follow from
specific policy actions or project development,
particularly in the context of appropriate
national, state, or provincial environmental
policy legislation.

Social Impact Analysis

Is the process of assessing and managing the
impacts of a project, plan, program or policy on


Survey methodology is the field that studies
the sampling of individuals from a population
with a view towards making statistical
inferences about the population using the
Polls about public opinion, such as political
beliefs, are reported in the news media in