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# GROUND & AIRBORN ANTENNAS FOR DATA-LINKS

BY
MAHAKAR SINGH

OUTLINE OF THE LECTURE

1. BASICS OF ANTENNAS
2. GROUND ANTENNAS
3. AIRBORNE ANTENNAS

ANTENNA & ITS FUNCTIONS
ANTENNA:
An antenna basically is a transducer. It converts the electrical energy
into electromagnetic energy incase of transmission and vice-versa incase
of reception.

FUNCTIONS:
*It sends the electrical signals in the form of EM waves.
*It extracts energy from the passing EM waves.
*It sends the signals or waves in the desired direction of propagation.

WHY TO USE AN ANTENNA

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
*Directivity
*Gain
*Bandwidth
*Polarization
*Efficiencies
*Noise Temperature
*Figure of Merit
*Phase Centre
*Axial Ratio
*Mismatch Losses

DIRECTIVITY:

GAIN
GAIN:
Gain is a measure of the ability of the antenna to direct the
input power into radiation in a particular direction.It is
measured at the peak radiation intensity.
G = n.D

REALIZED GAIN:
When the VSWR efficieny is taken into consideration,then the

PATTERN:

FRONT-TO-BACK RATIO

POLARIZATION
What is polarization?
CO-pol
Crosspol
XPI
XPD
Types of polarization
Linear
Circular
Elliptical
Plane of polarization

POLARIZATION
It tells the orientation of electric vector in a electromagnetic wave.

Types

1. Linear Polarization
2. Circular Polarization
3. Elliptical Polarization

Axial ratio

The ratio of the max. to min. responses on ellipse is said to be axial ratio

EFFICIENCIES
2. Apperture Efficiency
*Illumination Efficiency
*Spillover Efficiency
*Blockage Efficiency
*Xpol Efficiency
*RMS Efficiency
3. VSWR Efficiency
4.Beam Efficiency
.

BEAM EFFICIENCY

ANTENNA NOISE TEMPERATURE

FIGURE OF MERIT

Figure of Merit = G/T

CATALOG OF ANTENNAS
Antennas can be made by combining different elements in configurations which will
Give us a seemingly limitless number of different antennas. The list of major divisions
of antennas types along with common examples is presented as a quick reference.
a.

Directional antenna: having property of radiating or receiving more effectively
in some direction than others.

b.

Fan beam antenna: Producing a major lobe whose transverse cross section has
a large ratio of major to minor axis.

c.

Omni directional antenna: Having an essentially non directional pattern in a given
plane of the antenna and directional pattern in any orthogonal plane.

d.

Pencil beam antenna: Where radiation pattern consists of a single main lobe with
narrow principal plane beam widths and side lobes having relatively low levels.

1.

Small resonant omni-directional : usually linear polarization
Examples: dipole (small,  /2 sleeve, monopole), loop, slot

2.

Conformal, unidirectional:- linear or circular polarization, narrow bandwidth
Examples:- microstrip patch, slot, cavity –mounted elements

3.

End-fire, pencil beam, slow- wave line structure
Examples:- helical wire, cigar, yagi-uda, dielectric rod

4.

Long-wire, end-fire, pencil beam, except for polarization null on axis
Examples:- beverage, vee, rhombic

5. Leaky-wave, pencil or fan beam, fast wave structure
Examples:- waveguide with holes or slots
6. Self scaling, unidirectional or bidirectional, wide bandwidths
Examples:- spirals (equiangular, conical, Archimedean), log-periodic
7. Horns unidirectional or fan beam, bandwidth determined by feed waveguide
Examples:- sectoral, pyramidal, conical, corrugated
8. Reflector, uses free space for feeding large apertures, band width and polarization
determined by feed, pencil or fan beam
Examples:- paraboloidal, parabolic cylinder, dual (Cassegrain, gregorian, off set), off set fed, corner.
9. Lens, uses free space to feed large aperture with feed mounted behind aperture: pencil or fan beam
Examples:- dielectric, waveguide flat plate, artificial, bootlace.

DIPOLE ANTENNA
Electric field of dipole is given by

E  j

I 0 l
r
sin( ) exp( j (t  ))
4 0 cr
c

1.

Can not provide any desired beam width

2.

Spill over efficiency is poor for higher F/D paraboloids

3.

Gives uniform illumination in one of two orthogonal planes

4.

Poor side lobes when used as feed for paraboloids

5.

Provides linear polarization as it is but using more than one
element circular polarization can be achieved

RECTANGULAR HORNS
1.

Pyramidal horn

2.

Sectoral horn

path error,

B2
e 
8Re

A2
h 
8by,
Rn
At the aperture, electric field is approximated
(a) E-plane

(b) H-plane

X
2Y 2
2X 2 

EY  E0 cos(
) EXP   J 2 {Se( )  Sn (
) }
A
B
A

Excitation is by TE10 mode.

Patterns can not be predicted accurately for smaller apertures.

Path errors are different in the two orthogonal planes.

Two different locations of phase centers in two planes are not well defined.

E and H- plane patterns are not identical.

Cross polarization is poor.

Can generate pencil beam /fan beam.

For large aperture horns, theoretical and measured gains are very close to each other.

Can be used as standard gain horns.

E

10

H

10

88

B

 31 

, For B

79
A

 2.5

, For A

3

CONICAL HORNS
1.

Can be excited by TE11 mode.

2.

Can support any orientation of e-field (polarization).

3.

Well defined but two different locations of phase centers.

4.

E-plane and h-plane patterns are not identical.

5.

Cross polarization is poor.

6.

Path error is same in all planes.

7.

Can generate pencil beam.

8.

Easy to fabricate.
Electric fields are given as:

E0
X 
J1( 11 ) cos C

a

 E0 X11
X 
EC 
J1 ( 11 ) sin C
a
a

Se  S h 
 D 2 8R

d  L
G (dB )  20 log
C

LC  GAIN LOSS
E 

DUAL MODE HORNS
1.

Give equal beam widths at E- and H-planes.

2.

Low cross polarization level.

3.

The electric field component almost parallel to the x- axis.

4.

Bandwidth can be increased by using a combination of mode converters.

5.

The radiated fields with unit input power is given as:

EC ( ) 

ECe ( ) exp{ jCE ( )  K d Cd exp( j d ) Ecm ( ) exp jcm ( )}
1  ( K d Cd ) 2

Where( K d Cd ) 2  PTM 11 / PTE11
K d  0.8233
Cd  Ece ( ) / K d Ecm ( )

CORRUGATED HORNS
Excitation is by TE11 mode but aperture illumination is by HE11 mode.
1.

Generate axially symmetric beams.

2.

E-plane & H-plane patterns are identical.

3.

Low side lobes.

4.

Better cross–polarization characteristics.

5.

Well defined & single location of phase centre.

6.

Are heavier, bulky & more expensive.

7.

Efficiency of horn is less.

8.

Provide wider bandwidth.

9.

Can provide multi-frequency operation.

Field Pattern for dominant HE11 mode
2

X  Y U0
E  AJ0 (Kr)ix  (
)
J2 (Kr)(cos2φix  sin2φi y )
4
Rr1
Jn  BESSEL Fn OF FIRST KIND AND ORDER n
U0  NORMALIZED TRANSVERSE WAVE NUMBER
K  TRANSVERSE WAVE NUMBER
k  FREE SPACE WAVE NUMBER
X  NORMALIZED REACTANCE

AT r  r1

Z

X   j Zφ0   j
Y  j

ZZ

E φ ε 0 12
[ ]
HZ μ0

Hφ μ0 12
 j [ ]
EZ ε0

2f(X  Y)  0, THEN E IS FN OF φ AND FREE OF XPOL.

HELICAL ANTENNA
1.

Gives circular polarization.

2.

Wide band characteristics.

3.

Can be used in axial or normal radiation mode.

4.

E SIN ( N / 2)
E ( )  0
N / 2

TAN   S / C

C  D

DIRECTIVITY

2

12C  NS 

HPBW  52 C NS 
BWFN  115 / C NS
R  150 / C
Axial Ratio 

2N 1
2N

12    18
0.78  C  1.33

L  (S 2  C 2 ) 

D
cos 

ANTENNA TYPES

RDIATION PATTERNS

ANTENNA TYPES

ANTENNA TYPES

GROUND SEGMENT ANTENNA SYSTEMS

An earth-station antenna system consists of many component parts
such as receiver,low-noise amplifier and antenna.The antenna ,of
course, is one of the more important component parts since it
provides the means of transmitting signals to the air-segment and/or
collect the signals transmitted by the air-segment.The antenna also
provides the means of polarization discrimination of unwanted
signals.The operational parameters of the individual communication
system dictate to the antenna designer the necessary –
electromagnetic, structural and environmental specifications for the
antenna.

ANTENNA REQUIREMENTS
It can be grouped into several major categories:
2.Control-system requirement.
3.Pointing & Tracking accuracy requirement.
4.Environmental requirement.
5.Miscellaneous requirement.

But only the electrical requirement will be discussed here.

ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF A GROUND ANTENNA

The primary electrical specifications of an earth-segment antenna are:
1.Gain
2.VSWR
3.Polarization
5,Axial Ratio
6.XPD
7.G/T
8.Power Rating

GROUND ANTENNAS CATEGORY
Ground segment antennas are can be grouped into two broad categories:
1.Single-beam Antennas
2.Multiple-beam Antennas

SINGLE-BEAM GROUND STATION ANTENNAS

Single-beam antenna types used as ground antennas are:
1.Prime-focus Paraboloid
2.Cassegrain Antenna
3.Gregorian Antenna
4.Single Off-set
5.Cassegrain Off-set

MULTIPLE-BEAM GROUND STATION ANTENNAS
This is achieved by employing fixed reflectors and multiple feeds.The main type of
multiple beam antennas are:

1.Spherical Reflector Antenna
2.Torus Reflector Antenna
3.Dual Reflector Antenna

AIRCRAFT ANTENNAS
The design of antennas for aircraft differs from other applications. Aircraft antennas
must be designed to withstand severe static and dynamic stresses.The size and shape
of the airframe plays a major role in determining the electrical characteristics of an
antenna. For this later reason ,the type of antenna used for a given application will
often depend on the size of the airframe relative to the wavelength.
The overall capability of an EM radiating system depends on its ability to
operate effectively in a complex environment.In that its pattern performance can be
adversely limited by pattern distortion effects due to blockage and structural
scattering. In many cases,these detrimental effects can be minimized by judiciously
locating the antennas.This task is complicated by the large number of systems that are
competing for prime locations on a fighter aircraft or a modern military ship.

SELECTION OF POLARIZATION

1.Linear Horizontal
2.Linear Vertical
3.Circular

SELECTION OF ANTENNA CONFIGURATION

1.Directional Antenna
2.Omni-directional Antenna

AIRBORNE DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS

1. Light weight
2. Low profile
3. Compact
4. Suitable to aerodynamics
5. Power handling capability

OBJECTIVE
Our objective is to provide information that will present approximate
techniques to enable system engineers and designers to meet EMC
specifications and standards for high power microwave systems.The
areas to be covered by me are:
•Antenna treatments
•Site treatments

ANTENNAS

EMC CONSIDERATIONS:

The use of innovative antenna techniques for the purpose of reducing offfrequency and off-boresight radiation and reception has been the subject
of many widely dispersed investigations.
The design of an antenna is a function of the mission or purpose for
which the overall system is intended.

ANTENNA AND ITS FUNCTIONS

ANTENNA:
An antenna basically is a transducer. It converts electrical energy into
electromagnetic energy in case of transmission and vice-versa in case of
reception.

FUNCTIONS:
•It transmits electrical signals in the form of EM waves.
•It extracts power from passing EM waves.
•It guides waves or signals in a desired direction of propagation.

TECHNIQUES

The techniques used to make antennas more selective-both from a
frequency and spatial standpoint,can be classified as:

1.SITE MODIFIERS:
•Clutter fences
•Removal of obstacles etc.

2.CONFIGURATION MODIFIERS:
•Hooded antennas
•Tunnel antennas
•Selective placement of RAM
•Dielguide antennas
•Extension of reflector areas etc.

3.SIGNAL PROCESSING MODIFIERS
•SL blanking and cancelling

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ANTENNA
The characteristics of an antenna are usually specified in
terms of:
•Terminal impedance
•Bandwidth
•Power gain
•Polarization
•Scanning characteristics
The most important of the characteristics in regard to EMC are
It might be more descriptive to say that the characteristics
which are more amenable to change for the purpose of achieving
compatibility are the bandwidth and out of the main beam
pattern.

ANTENNA PATTERN CONSIDERATION IN EMC
•SIDELOBE LEVELS
•OUT OF BAND REJECTION
•CROSS POLARIZATION DISCRIMINATION

PATTERN DETAILS

•Main Beam
•Beamwidth
•Sidelobe
•Nulls
•Vestigeal sidelobe

ANTENN PRAMETERS

INTRODUCTION
The subject of interference suppression requires a knowledge of all the
areas contributing to the problem.
•The generators of desired and undesired signals
•The coupling paths between them.
•The receiving systems alongwith their information processing and
decision making functions.

OMNI PATTERNS