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EP 315 Heat Transfer

Chapter 7: Heat exchangers

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Prepared by: Kow Kien Woh

Double pipe

Double pipe 1. The simplest type of heat exchanger consists of two concentric pipes of different

1. The

simplest type of heat exchanger

consists of two concentric pipes of different

diameters, called the double-pipe heat exchanger.

2. One fluid in a double-pipe heat exchanger flows through the smaller pipe while the

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Double pipe

Double pipe 3. Two types of flow arrangement are possible in a double-pipe heat exchanger: in

3. Two types of flow arrangement are possible in a double-pipe heat exchanger: in parallel flow, both the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at the same end and move in the same direction.

4.

In counter flow, the hot and cold fluids enter the

heat exchanger at opposite

ends

and flow

in

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Cross flow 1. Cross-flow exchangers are commonly used in air or gas heating and cooling applications.

Cross flow

Cross flow 1. Cross-flow exchangers are commonly used in air or gas heating and cooling applications.
  • 1. Cross-flow exchangers are commonly used in air or gas heating and cooling applications.

  • 2. Gas is forced across a tube bundle, while another fluid is used inside the tubes for heating or cooling purposes

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Shell & tube

Shell & tube 1. The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is the

1. The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

2. It contains a large number of tubes (sometimes several hundred) packed in a shell with their axes parallel to that of the shell.

3. Heat transfer takes place as one fluid flows inside the tubes while the other fluid flows outside the tubes through

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Shell & tube (S&T)

Shell & tube (S&T) Baffle Baffle 4. Baffles are usually installed to increase the convection coefficient

Baffle

Baffle

4. Baffles are usually installed to increase the convection coefficient of the shell-side fluid by inducing turbulence and a cross-flow velocity component relative to the tubes. In addition, the baffles physically support the tubes, reducing flow-induced tube vibration.

Numbers of S&T

Numbers of S&T 1. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are further classified according to the number of shell

1. Shell-and-tube

heat

exchangers

are

further

classified according to the

number of shell passes involved.

and tube

2. Heat exchangers in which all the tubes make one U-turn in the shell, for example, are called one-shell-pass and

two-tube-passes

exchangers.

heat

3. Likewise, a heat exchanger that involves two passes in the shell and four passes in the tubes is called a two- shell-passes and four-tube- passes heat exchanger.

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Shell & Tube (flow pattern)

Example: 1S-2T

Example: 1S-2T 11

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Plate & frame

Plate & frame 12

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Plate & frame

1. Plate & frame heat exchanger

consists of

a

series of plates

with

corrugated

flat

flow

passages.

2. The hot and cold fluids flow in alternate passages, each cold fluid stream is surrounded by two hot fluid streams, resulting in very effective heat transfer.

3. Advantage: exchangers can grow with increasing demand

for

heat

transfer

by

simply

mounting more plates.

4.

They are well suited for liquid-

to-liquid

heat

exchange

Plate & frame 1. Plate & frame heat exchanger consists of a series of plates with

Source:

http://www.guntner.co.uk/thermowave_plat

e_heat_exchangers_how_it_works.html

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Evaporator 1. If a vaporizing exchanger is used for evaporation of water or aqueous solution, called

Evaporator

1. If

a

vaporizing

exchanger is used for

evaporation of water or

aqueous solution, called evaporator.

it

is

  • 2. A chemical evaporator

is

usually

used

to

concentrate a chemical solution by evaporation of solvent or water.

  • 3. The heat of vaporization is usually supplied by heating steam in tubes.

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Natural circulation evaporator

  • 1. Liquid

which

was

not

vaporized

is

usually

recombined

with

fresh

feed and circulate by to the evaporator.

  • 2. Recirculation is used to

increase

the

liquid

velocity

in

tubes

to

prevent

buildup

of

crystals/deposits/fouling.

  • 3. Recirculation can

be

accomplished by natural

hydrostatic head OR force by pump.

Forced circulation evaporator

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Forced circulation evaporator

Falling film evaporator

  • 1. In falling film evaporator, liquid feed to be evaporated flows downwards by gravity as a continuous film.

  • 2. The fluid will create a film along the outer walls of tubes.

  • 3. Heat is supplied by steam flows inside of tube.

  • 4. As downward vapor velocity increases, increasing the shear force acting on the liquid film and therefore also the velocity of the solution. The result is progressively thinner film resulting in increasingly turbulent flow. The combination of these effects allows very high heat transfer coefficients.

  • 5. Advantage of the falling film evaporator is the very short

residence

sensitive

time

of the

products

liquid

such

pharmaceuticals.

making it

as

milk,

ideal for heat-

fruit

juice,

Falling film evaporator

Falling film evaporator 20
Falling film evaporator 20

Falling film evaporator

Multi-effect evaporator

1. In

the

some

applications,

the

vapor

leaving

evaporator

 

is

condensed

before

discharge

to

the

plant.

2. Instead

of

condensing

the

vapor,

the

hot

vapor

can

be

channeled

to

second

evaporator

Multi-effect evaporator 1. In the some applications, the vapor leaving evaporator is condensed before discharge to

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Multi-effect evaporator

3.

This

is

called

multi-effect

evaporator

where

every evaporator is considered as one effect.

E.g.

triple

effect

means

three

evaporators

connected in same manner.

4. When the liquid feed flows in same direction as vapor, it is termed forward feed. If the liquid is flowing in opposite direction of vapor, it is called backward feed.

Multi-effect evaporator

5. Forward

feed

is

more

energy efficient. Since

vacuum is usually maintained at the last effect, the liquid flows by itself from effect to effect without pumping. In addition, ”free” evaporation occurs in succeeding effect because saturation temperature reduced at lower pressure.

Multi-effect evaporator

  • 6. The viscosity of liquid increases causes low heat transfer in the last effect in forward feed.

  • 7. backward feed

When

is

used,

the most viscous

liquid

is heated

by

steam in

the

first

effect to

reduce

its

viscosity.

However,

liquid

must

be

heated in each effect and pumped from effect to effect.

  • 8. The steam cost will be less in forward feed if the feed liquid is at higher or about the operating temperature of the first effect.

  • 9. The steam cost will be less in backward feed if the feed liquid is cold.

10.The greater number of effects, reduction in operating cost.

hi

i

ff

the greater the

i

ll

i

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1. Condenser is

Condenser

heat exchanger which the

fluids is cooled and condenses to liquid as it flows through.

2. The direct-contact condenser

is

one

in

which the coolant is brought into contact with the vapor. It has the advantage of low cost and simplicity of mechanical design, but its use is restricted to those applications in which mixing of the vapor and coolant is permissible.

3. Examples of direct contact condensers are spray condenser, tray condenser, packed column .

Spray Condenser

The coolant is sprayed,

using

nozzles,

into

a

vessel

to

which

the

vapor is

supplied.

It

is

important

that

the

spray nozzles

 

and

vessel are designed to produce a fine spray of

liquid

(to

give

a

large

interfacial area for heat

transfer),

and

a

long

enough residence time of liquid droplets in the vessel.

Spray Condenser The coolant is sprayed, using nozzles, into a vessel to which the vapor is

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Prepared by: Kow Kien Woh

Tray Condenser

Tray Condenser Coolant is directed to flow over a series of trays in a column. The

Coolant is directed to flow

over a series of trays in a

column.

The vapor is

supplied

to

the

bottom of

the

column.

It

has

the

advantage

of

countercurrent

 

flow

of

vapor and coolant, though

care

must

be

taken to

avoid flooding. (Flooding is

an unstable condition when

the vapor flow is such that the downward flow of

condensate and rises up.)

is interrupted

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Prepared by: Kow Kien Woh

Shell & tube condenser

Shell & tube condenser Source: http://www.expertsmind.com/topic/large-steam-system-condensers/single-pass- condensers-99965.aspx

Source: http://www.expertsmind.com/topic/large-steam-system-condensers/single-pass-

condensers-99965.aspx