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Plasma

Membrane
Created by :
Dyah Candra Palupi
Syarifatul Laili
Anggun Arifka
Diah Ajeng S.

Characteristic Plasma
Membrane
All of human cell is surrounded by
plasma membrane
Plasma membrane has semi
permeable characteristic
Cells use another mechanism to
control extracellular macro
molecules.

Function Of Plasma
Membrane
Plasma membrane is a limit between
cell and its environment.
Plasma membrane has receptor that
bond with extracellular matrix element
Plasma membrane also contain
hormone receptor
The cell surface also contain
enzymatic activity

Specific Function Of Plasma


Membrane
1. The Function Of Cell Boundary

Protect the food substances in cell


Some of the elements backfilled through metabolism
energy
The useful substrate been collected or synthesized
by cell
As place to excrete the metabolism waste
2.

Insulating Function
Cells react to changes
Develop the receptor to recognize cell
Hormone start to work on certain receptor in plasma
membrane

Plasma Membrane
Composition
Membrane is 2 layered of
phospholipids
The thickness is 10 nm.
When we observe through electron
microscope will shown as 2 thin
lines that full with electrons and
limited by clear gap.

Plasma Membrane Structure


Diagram

Surface Membrane
The outer surface of both layer is E
surface that faced cell and faced
hydrophobic
The inner surface of both layer has P
surface that faced protoplasm and
hydrophobic

Composition Plasma
Membrane
Plasma Membrane consist of lipids
and proteins
There are 3 kinds of lipids membrane
: Phospholipids, Cholesterol and
Glycoprotein
Plasma Membrane structure and
chemical composition are varies

Phospholipids, Cholesterol
and Glycoprotein
Phospholipids are amphipathic
molecules, thus directly forming a
layer of micelles in a liquid
environment.
Cholesterol in a form of amphiphatic
and located between phospholipids on
membrane.
Glycolipids is amphiphatic membrane
element.

Types of Membrane
Proteins
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cell-cell recognition proteins


Integrins
Intercellular junction proteins
Enzymes
Signal transduction proteins
Aka - Receptor proteins

6. Transport proteins
Passive and active

Cell-cell recognition proteins identify type of cell and identify a cell


as self versus foreign
Most are glycoproteins
Carbohydrate chains vary between species,
individuals, and even between cell types in a
given individual.
Glycolipids also play a role in cell recognition

Integrins are a type of integral


protein
The cytoskeleton attaches to integrins
on the cytoplasmic side of the
membrane
Integrins strengthen the membrane

Intercellular junction proteins - help


like cells stick together to form
tissues

Many membrane proteins are


enzymes
This is especially important on the
membranes of organelles.

Signal transduction (receptor)


proteins bind hormones and other
substances on the outside of the cell.
Binding triggers a change inside the cell.
Called signal transduction
Example: The binding of insulin to insulin
receptors causes the cell to put glucose
transport proteins into the membrane.

Messenger molecule
Receptor

Activated
molecule

Transport of Substances Across


the Plasma Membrane (PM)
1. Passive Transport

Simple Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis

2. Active Transport
3. Bulk Flow

Endocytosis
Exocytosis

Passive Transport
In passive transport substances
cross the membrane by diffusion
Diffusion - net movement of substances
from an area of high concentration to
low concentration
no energy required

Factors Affecting Diffusion


Rate
Steepness of concentration gradient
Steeper gradient, faster diffusion

Molecular size
Smaller molecules, faster diffusion

Temperature
Higher temperature, faster diffusion

Simple Diffusion
Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules
diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer
Simple diffusion does not require the use
of transport proteins.
Examples: O2, CO2, steroids

Polar, hydrophilic substances cannot


pass directly through the lipid bilayer
Examples: water, ions, carbohydrates

Facilitated Diffusion
In facilitated diffusion small polar
molecules and ions diffuse through
passive transport proteins.
No energy needed
Most passive transport proteins are
solute specific
Example: glucose enter/leaves cells
through facilitated diffusion

Facilitated Diffusion
Higher concentration of

Passive transport
protein

Lower
concentration

Osmosis
Osmosis diffusion of water across a
selectively permeable membrane
Water travels in/out of the cell
through aquaporins -> protein yg
berupa pori u membantu jalannya
air melewati membran

Osmosis Terms
Consider two solutions separated
by a plasma membrane.
Hypertonic
solution with a relatively high concentration of
solute

Hypotonic
solution with a relatively low concentration of
solute

Isotonic
solutions with the same solute concentration

Osmosis and Animal Cells

Osmosis and Plant Cells

Active Transport
Active transport proteins move
substances across the PM against
their concentration gradient.
Requires energy (ATP)
Active transport proteins are highly
selective
Active transport is needed for proper
functioning of nerves and muscles

Active Transport

AT
AT
PP

P
ADP

Bulk Flow
Vesicles are used to transport large
particles across the PM.
Requires energy

Types:
Exocytosis
Endocytosis
Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptormediated

Exocytosis
Fluid outside cell

Vesicle
Protein
Cytoplasm

Bulk Flow
Exocytosis
Cytoplasmic vesicle merges with
the PM and releases its contents
Example:
Golgi body vesicles merge with the PM
an release their contents
How nerve cells release
neurotransmittors

Endocytosis

Vesicle forming

Endocytosis can occur in three ways


Phagocytosis ("cell eating")
Pinocytosis ("cell drinking")

Endocytosis
Endocytosis
PM sinks inward, pinches off and forms a
vesicle
Vesicle often merges with Golgi for
processing and sorting of its contents

Endocytosis - terms
Phagocytosis cell eating
Membrane sinks in and captures solid
particles for transport into the cell
Examples:
Solid particles often include: bacteria,
cell debris, or food

Pinocytosis cell drinking


Cell brings in a liquid

Endocytosis
Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are not
selective
Membrane sinks inward and captures
whatever particles/fluid present.
Vesicle forms and merges with the Golgi
body

THANKS FOR
YOUR
ATTANTION

1. Protein apa yang masuk pada proses


endositosis ? {ida r}
2. Pada slide ke 29 pada proses eksositosis
apakah ada faktor protein tertentu yang
mendorong pengeluaran tersebut ? (nira)
3. Apa fungsi reseptor ion, reseptor tirosin kinase
dan protein G ? (ridlo)
4. Apakah fungsi membran plasma selalu tetap ,
kalau bisa rusak, kenapa ? (nayla)
5. Apakah struktur membran sama ketika
melakukan endositosis dan eksositosis seperti
diketahui terdapat sitoskeleton ? (adini)
6. Faktor apa yang menyebabkan salah
penerimaan sinyal di reseptor ? (nina)
7. Jika plasma membran sudah rusak apakah ada
sistem pertahanan di dalam sel ? (noya)