Decision Making


is a good decision?  How do we know when we are making highhigh-quality decisions with foresight rather than in hindsight?  What are the quality standards? 


key stages of high-quality decisions highare :
Consideration of all possible alternatives Analysis of the risks associated with each alternative Balanced comparisons leading to an objective decision.

Where do bad decisions come from? 

many cases, they can be traced back to the way the decisions were made
the alternatives were not clearly defined, the right information was not collected, the costs and benefits were not accurately weighed etc. 


manytimes the fault lies not in the decision-making process decisionbut rather in the mind of the decision maker. The way the human brain works can sabotage our decisions.




you think?  OK, you think that you think.  Is thinking something natural or can it be learnt.  Natural process or an action? 


kind of thing is thinking?  Is it a mental process?  Is it a physiological process in the brain?  Is it both?  Or is it something different again an action or activity the person performs?

How do we describe thinking 

as calculating, cogitating, pondering, musing, reflecting, meditating, and ruminating. 

range of actions or activities

remembering, intending, imagining, conceiving, believing, desiring, hoping, feeling emotion, empathizing, following what someone is saying, minding, being conscious of something, and so on. 

is admittedly a mixed bag.

notion of thinking helps us to explain people s behavior. We appeal to thinking to explain actions, qualities of action, abilities and dispositions to act, and even certain kinds of bodily agitation.  The thinking determines the nature of the behavior, then motivates and guides its performance, from within. 

How it works 

aspects  Psychological aspects

Cognitive Science 

Brain as computer-like processing of mental computerrepresentations. Acquires information through sense organs and encodes it into neural form as mental representations. The brain stores each representation When faced with a situation, computes from current and previously stored representations and generate a program of neuron firings that produces a behavioral response appropriate to the current situation. Intelegenece

Difficult Exercises 

of conduct  You can t speak.
Can t ask for the explanation of the question. Can t announce your answer. Just write it. 

question seems very easy or even stupid,
control your sentiments. Remember rule 1, you can t speak. 

Don t

peep on to your neighbour s answer. 


is half of 13  What is this figure

13/2=6.5 13= 1 and 3 THIR TEEN= 4 XIII = 8


Behold! he said to his father and his people, "What are these images, to which ye are (so assiduously) devoted?"

Sura #21 | Makkah



said, "We found our fathers worshipping them."

Sura #21 | Makkah


Nay! they say: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we do guide ourselves by their footsteps.

Sura #43 | Makkah #43

Just in the same way, whenever We sent a Warner before thee to any people, the wealthy ones among them said: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we will certainly follow in their footsteps." ( )

Sura #43 | Makkah 

Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire. ( )  



in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,day,- there are indeed Signs for men of understanding,understanding,-    

Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;earth;(Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.


He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; the sun and the moon; and the stars are in subjection by His Command: verily in this are Signs for men who are wise.  

Sura #16 | Makkah #16 

And what He has created in the earth of varied hues most surely there is a sign in this for a people who are mindful. 

Sura #16 | Makkah #16

Allah sendeth down water from the sky and therewith reviveth the earth after her death. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for a folk who hear.

We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things?

Sura #41 | Makkah #41




We shape our information by choice. choice. What we don't choose that be­comes invisible. invisible. When we choose one opportunity, other possibilities move to the background. Thus we alter our background. reality all the time. The things we do time. not choose are a potential reality. reality. 


reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable man persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.

Logic and Perception


Try to locate Prof. Amanullah


logic is a tool not a solution

Connect the nine dots together with four straight lines without removing your pencil or pen from the paper. Give yourself two or three minutes.

Change is the law of life and those who look only to the past or the present are certain to miss the future. IRVING JANUS,


No one can make you feel inferior without your consent. -ELEANOR ROOSEVELT 



Understanding the System 

Let us not complicate or even dress in jargons. A system is just an arrangement of circumstances that makes things happen in a certain way.
The circumstances may be metal grids; electronic components, rules and regulations or anything else. In each case what actually happens is determined by the nature of the system. One can take the function of the system for granted and become interested in how it is carried out.

brain is a system in which things happen according to the nature of the system.  What happens in the brain is information. And the way it happens is thinking. 

The Intelligence Trap 


Intelligent People are not necessarily good thinkers The two aspects of those people who get into intelligence trap are They think they are right so don t listen to anyone else. And as they think they are right so don t seek out alternatives They consider them selves more intelligent and hence always try to prove others wrong .

some aspects of the system 

The first useful thing that can come out of knowledge of a system is the avoiding of those errors that arise through
thinking the system to be something that it is not. If you want to get your shoes cleaned in an English hotel you simply leave them overnight in the corridor outside your room. Many an unhappy Englishman has learned that in America shoes treated in this way disappear never to be seen again. Left outside the door, the shoes are regarded as a rather eccentric form of tipping or garbage disposal. 

The second useful thing is awareness of the limitations of the system. No matter how good they may be at performing their best functions, most systems are rather poor when it come to performing the opposite functions.
One would no more go racing in a shopping car than shopping in a racing car or using tractor to go to office 

Where one can, one chooses the system to fit the purpose. More often there is no choice,
remember this means that a single system will perform certain functions well but others not so well.

third way in which one could use knowledge of a system would be to make use of the characteristics of the system to improve its performance or to achieve some end.  The practice of medicine is an obvious example of this process. For that matter so is the whole of science, 'Which tries to understand systems in order to make better use of them. 


system is well suited to developing ideas but not so good at generating them.  Knowing about the limitations of a system does not by itself alter them. But by being aware of the nature of the system one can make deliberate adjustments.
Impact of first ever advertisement Subsequent impact of advertising system  

One of the many ways in which our mind attempts to make life easier is to ± solve the first impression of a problem that it encounters. encounters.  Like our first impressions of people,  our initial perspective on problems and situations are apt to be narrow and superficial. superficial. We see no more than we've been conditioned to see --- and stereotyped notions block clear vision and crowd out imagination. imagination. This happens without any alarms sounding, so we never realize it is occurring. occurring. 


are few interesting examples  The bucket activity--- matter of perception activity--- 


to rscheearch at Cmabridge Uinvervtisy, it deosn¶t mttaer in waht oredr the letteers in a wrod are, the olny iprometnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat letteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can pclae. be a ttoal mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is besauae ocne porbelm. we laren how to raed we bgien to aargnre the lteerts in our mnid to see waht we epxcet to see. The huamn mnid deos not see. raed ervey lteter by istlef, but preecsievs the wrod as a wlohe. wlohe. We do tihs ucnsoniuscoly wuithot tuhoght." tuhoght. 

red  green  blue  orange  black  blue  yellow  gray  red  pink

Two of the statements in this window are incorrect. Select which two they are:
2+2=4 [6 x 2.5] ÷ 2 = 7.5 210 - 34 = 176 64 ÷ 8 = 85 x 7 = 34

Links between Intelligence and Genius 

tried to measure the links between intelligence and genius. But intelligence is not enough to warrant genius for e.g  Marilyn Von Savant, whose IQ of 228 is the highest ever recorded, has not exactly contributed much to science or art

Creativity and Intelligence 

reached the conclusion that creativity is not the same as intelligence. An individual can be far more creative than he or she is intelligent, or far more intelligent than creative.  Most people of average intelligence, given data or some problem, can figure out the expected conventional response

Solving a problem 

we are faced with a problem we analytically select the most promising approach based on past experiences, excluding all other approaches, and work within a clearly defined direction towards the solution of the problem.  Because of the soundness of the steps based on past experiences, we become arrogantly certain of the correctness of our conclusion

Reproductive Thinking 

we think reproductively, that is on the basis of similar problems encountered in the past. When confronted with problems, we fixate on something in our past that has worked before. We ask, ³What have I been taught in life, education or work on how to solve the problem?´

What do genius say about solving a problem 

think productively, not reproductively. When confronted with a problem, they ask,  "How many different ways can I look at it?  "How can I rethink the way I see it?", and "How many different ways can I solve it?" instead of, "What have I been taught by someone else on how to solve this?"


is half of ----? ----?  Let me rephrase the problem  In how many ways we can half ----? ----?  step further  In how many ways we can write -----? -----?  13, Thirteen, XIII  Let us half them in different ways 


productive thinker tend to come up with many different responses, some of which are unconventional and possibly unique. A productive thinker would say that there are many different ways to express "thirteen" and many different ways to halve something. 


we have settled on a perspective, we close off but one line of thought. thought. Certain kinds of ideas occur to us, but only those kinds and no others. others. Have you ever looked closely at the wheels on a railroad train?  They are flanged. 

That is, they have a lip on the inside to prevent them from sliding off the track. track. Originally train wheels were not flanged --instead, the railroad tracks were. Hundreds of thousands of miles of track were manufactured with an unnecessary steel lip, because the problem of railroad safety had been expressed as:
How can the tracks be made safer for trains to ride on? Only when the problem was redefined as: How as: can the wheels be made to secure the track more securely? was the flanged wheel invented. invented. 


was once asked what the difference was between him and the average person.  He said that if you asked the average person to find a needle in the haystack, the person would stop when he or she found a needle.  He, on the other hand, would tear through the entire haystack looking for all the possible needles.

Difference Between Einstein and the Average Person 


just stop once we find the first solution.  The attitude is that there is no need to think further.

How would you describe this pattern?

Most people see the pattern as a square composed of smaller squares or circles or as alternate rows of squares and circles.  It cannot be easily seen as columns of alternate squares and circles. Once it's pointed out that it can also be viewed as columns of alternate squares and circles, we, of course, see it.  


is because we have become habituated to passively organize similar items together in our minds. Geniuses, on the other hand, subvert habituation by actively looking for alternative ways to look at things and alternative ways to think about them.

Productive Thinking in lieu of Reproductive   

Feynman proposed teaching productive thinking in our educational institutions in lieu of reproductive thinking. He believed that the successful user of mathematics is an inventor of new ways of thinking in given situations. He believed that even if the old ways are well known, it is usually better to invent your own way or a new way than it is to look it up and apply what you've looked up.

Reproductive Thinking 

thinking leads us to the usual ideas and not to original ones. If you always think the way you've always thought, you'll always get what you've always got--the same old, same old got--the ideas. 


all possible uses of a paper clip  Make a list of those things for which paper clip can not be used.  Let us explore the following possibilities
As food item Can be used for driving

You want to learn creativity then nothing is wrong in going so wild

Some of the strategies that are common to the thinking styles of creative geniuses in science, art, and industry throughout history are. 

Geniuses look at problems in many different ways 

often comes from finding a new perspective that no one else has taken. Leonardo da Vinci believed that to gain knowledge about the form of problems, you begin by learning how to restructure it in many different ways.  In order to creatively solve a problem, the thinker must abandon the initial approach that stems from past experience and rereconceptualize the problem

Geniuses make their thought visible 

revolutionized science by making his thought visible with diagrams, maps, and drawings while his contemporaries used conventional mathematical and verbal approaches.  Once geniuses obtain a certain minimal verbal facility, they seem to develop skills in visual and spatial abilities which give them the flexibility to display information in different ways.

Geniuses produce 

distinguishing characteristic of genius is immense productivity. Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents, still the record. He guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas. His own personal quota was one minor invention every 10 days and a major invention every six months.

Geniuses make novel combinations 

Keith Simonton, in his 1989 book Scientific Genius suggests that geniuses are geniuses because they form more novel combinations than the merely talented.  Consider Einstein's equation, E=mc2. Einstein did not invent the concepts of energy, mass, or speed of light. Rather, by combining these concepts in a novel way, he was able to look at the same world as everyone else and see something different.

Geniuses force relationships 

one particular style of thought stands out about creative genius, it is the ability to make juxtapositions between dissimilar subjects. Call it a facility to connect the unconnected that enables them to see things to which others are blind. Leonardo da Vinci forced a relationship between the sound of a bell and a stone hitting water. This enabled him to make the connection that sound travels in waves.

Geniuses think in opposites 

and philosopher David Bohm believed geniuses were able to think different thoughts because they could tolerate ambivalence between opposites or two incompatible subjects. 


swirling of opposites creates the conditions for a new point of view to bubble freely from your mind. Bohr's ability to imagine light as both a particle and a wave led to his conception of the principle of complementarity. Thomas Edison's invention of a practical system of lighting involved combining wiring in parallel circuits with high- resistance filaments in highhis bulbs, two things that were not considered possible by conventional thinkers, in fact, were not considered at all because of an assumed incompatibility.

Geniuses think metaphorically  

Aristotle considered metaphor a sign of genius, believing that the individual who had the capacity to perceive resemblances between two separate areas of existence and link them together was a person of special gifts. If unlike things are really alike in some ways, perhaps, they are so in others. Alexander Graham Bell observed the analogy between the inner workings of the ear and the vibration in a sheet of steel and conceived the telephone

Geniuses prepare themselves for chance 

we attempt to do something and fail, we end up doing something else. As simplistic as this statement may seem, it is the first principle of creative accident. We may ask ourselves why we have failed to do what we intended, and this is the reasonable, expected thing to do 


the creative accident provokes a different question: What have we done? Answering that question in a novel, unexpected way is the essential creative act. It is not luck, but creative insight of the highest order.

Moral of the Story 

the common thinking strategies of creative geniuses and applying them will make you more creative in your work and personal life. Creative geniuses are geniuses because they know "how" to think, instead of "what" to think


is an innate skill and cannot

be acquired by means of training 

need to be a rebel to be seen as


are the only creative beings

Creative Thinking 

thinking is much more than using our imaginations to invent lots of new ideas. Creative thinking is
a a a a a lifestyle, personality trait, way of looking at the world, way of interacting with others and way of living and growing.  


creatively means

developing our talents, tapping our unused potentials and becoming what we are capable of becoming through self-discovery and self-discipline. selfself Anytime

we are faced with a problem or dilemma with no learned or practiced solution some creativity is required (Torrance, 1995). 1995). 


is a vital ingredient in meeting the challenges of a continuous life cycle, a cycle in which growth and change are the norm from conception throughout life.  A life filled with growth and change requires a conscious effort to think creatively, it takes practice.

develop creativeness, the mind needs to be  exercised  as well as filled with materials out of which ideas can be formed.  The richest fuel for ideation is first hand experience (Osborn, 1963). 1963). 


is the ability to see a situation in many ways and continue to question until satisfaction is reached. This satisfaction can be defined in as many different ways as there are people experiencing it, but it basically boils down to personal satisfaction and how you choose to define satisfaction.

16 Ways to Jump-start Creativity 


ONEONE-A-DAY Ask each person to try to improve one aspect of their job each day, focusing on the areas within their control. At the end of the day, people control. should meet and ask each other what they did differently and better than it was the day before. before. BRAINSTORMING BOARD Put up a bulletin board in a central area and encourage people to use it to brainstorm ideas. Write a theme or problem on a colored card and place it in the centre of the board. Provide pieces of white paper on which people can write their ideas to post on the board. E.g. suppose you have difficulty closing a particular sale. You could describe the sale situation on a colored card, post it on the brainstorming board and ask people to post their ideas and suggestions IDEA LOTTERY Have a monthly "idea lottery," using a roll of numbered tickets. Each tickets. time a person comes up with a creative idea, he or she receives a ticket. ticket. At the end of each month, share the ideas with the staff and then draw a number from a bowl. If the number on anyone s ticket bowl. corresponds to the number drawn, he or she gets a prize. If no one prize. wins, double the prize for the next month. month.

CREATIVE CORNER Provide a special area for people to engage in creative thinking. Stock the thinking. area with books, videos on creativity, as well as learning games and such toys as beanbags and modeling clay. You might even decorate the area clay. with pictures of employees as infants to suggest the idea that we re all born spontaneous and creative. creative. ICONS OF CREATIVITY Ask people to display items on their desks that represent their own personal visions of creativity in business. For example, a crystal ball might represent a view toward future markets, a bottle of Heinz catsup might represent a personal goal of 57 new ideas on how to cut expenses, and a set of jumper cables might symbolize the act of jump-starting your jumpcreative juices to get more sales. LET'S DO LUNCH Encourage weekly lunch-time meeting of three to lunchfive employees to engage in creative thinking. Ask thinking. meeting participants to read a book on creativity; creativity; each person can read a different chapter and share ways of applying creative thinking to the organization. organization. Invite creative business people from the community to speak to the group. You could group. ask them for ideas on how to become more creative in your business. business.

BRIGHT IDEAS NOTEBOOK Present each person with a notebook. Call the notebook the "Bright Idea Notebook," and ask everyone to write three ideas in the notebook every day for one month on how to improve your business. At the end of the month, collect all the notebooks and categorize the ideas for further discussion. STUPID IDEA WEEK Make idea generating fun. Have a "Stupid Idea" week and stage a contest for the dumbest ideas. Post entries on a bulletin board and conduct an awards ceremony with a prize. You ll enjoy the camaraderie and may find that the stupid ideas stimulate good ones. CREATIVITY BY COMMITTEE Establish a "creative-idea" committee made up of volunteers. The "creativegoals of the committee should be to elicit, discuss, and implement employee s ideas. The committee can record the number of ideas on a thermometer-type graph. The company should recognize and thermometerreward people according to the quantity and quality of their creative contributions.

HALL OF FAME Turn an office hallway into an Employee Hall of Fame. Post photographs of those whose ideas are implemented along with a paragraph about the person, the idea, and its impact on the company. LEFT AND RIGHT BRAINS When brainstorming in a group, try dividing the group into leftleftbrain (rational) thinkers and right-brain (intuitive) thinkers. Ask rightthe left-brainers to come up with practical, conventional and leftlogical ideas; ask the right-brainers to come up with far-out, rightfarunconventional and nonlogical ideas. Then combine the groups and share the ideas. IDEA QUOTAS Thomas Edison guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas. His own personal quota was one minor invention every 10 days and a major invention every six months. A way to guarantee creativity is to give each employee an idea quota of, say, five new ideas a week. TICKET OF ADMISSION Require everyone to bring one new idea as their ticket of admission to any group meeting. The idea should focus on some aspect of their job and how they can improve what they do.

CHANGE "Yes, but ..." TO "Yes, and ..." Someone offers an idea in a meeting, and many of us are tempted to say "Yes, but ..." To change this mind set , whenever someone says "Yes, but ..." ..." require the person to change "Yes, but ..." to "Yes, and ..." and continue ..." ..." ..." where the last person left off. off. THREE WAYS Employees shouldn t waste time thinking of reasons why something can t work or can t be done. Instead, they should think about ways to make something work, and then get it done. Ask employees to think of three jobjob-related goals, targets, or tasks they think can t be accomplished. Then ask them to figure out three ways to accomplish each of them. Then do the same thing yourself. FRESH EYES Invite people from other departments to your brainstorming sessions and ask them how they would solve your problems. helped out in bringing new ideas Lastly, don t forget to thank people for their ideas. Design your own "Thank You For Your Great Idea" cards and distribute them freely to contributors. Ask the CEO to sign each card with a personal message. Stock up on instant lottery cards and include one or two in each card to show your appreciation.


Never, ever examine yourself Force everyone to work with your system Make your strategic plans and goals as vague as possible Never offer meaningful incentives or rewards. Never allow people to loosen up in meetings

Never hire smart people.

Whatever it is you do, do it over and over and over again

Discourage all questions

Encourage a corporate mind-set

Discourage all initiative

Kill ideas immediately

Maintain a highly centralized sales organization

Do not be accessible to your people Cultivate blandness. Never allow intuitions

Never Appreciate a creator

Promote your least creative people If someone offers an idea, tell them it's irrelevant If someone wants to try something new, remind them of all their past failures and mistakes. If someone becoming preoccupied with a problem, tell them to think about it on their own time, but not yours

worry about taking risks

Do not buy or read any books about creative thinking

collapse of the company was beyond your control.

Habits stabilize our behaviour. They allow us to act efficiently and concentrate on the tasks we choose to focus on.








Smallest changes builds flexibility for exp 


Take a different route to work. Sit in a different chair when meeting with visitors. Use a fountain pen to sign letters. Have curry or falafel for lunch instead of soup and a sandwich. Take a bath instead of a shower. Watch a different television news broadcaster. Make new friends. Shop for groceries in a different supermarket. Read a different newspaper. Listen to a different radio station. Exchange cars with your spouse or some other family member for a week. Instead of driving to work, take a bus.

2. CHALLENGE ACCEPTED WAYS OF THINKING. 3 . PAY ATTENTION "Every time we get back in touch with ourselves, the conditions become favourable for us to encounter life in the present moment.³ 4. PARTICIPATE IN AN ACTIVITY THAT IS UNCHARACTERISTIC FOR YOU Deliberately program changes into your daily life. Make a list of things you do by habit. Most of the items will probably be those little things that make life comfortable, but also make it unnecessary for you to think. Next, take the listed habits, one by one, and consciously try to change them for a day, a week, a month.


WAYS TO SPICE UP YOUR MEETING Energize your meetings with the following tactics, exercises, and suggestions. 1. IDEA TICKET Ask each person to bring, at least, one new idea or suggestion about the problem which is frame in advance of meeting. Start meeting. the meeting by reading everyone s contribution. contribution.
2. IT S SHOWTIME Think of your meeting as a theatrical production with sets (colorfully decorated classrooms), props (well(welldesigned materials), and plot lines (theme) with the manager as the director. director. 3. THE SOUNDS OF SUCCESS Just like in the movies, in meetings, music can help set the tone and heighten the experience for participants You may want to use the sound of roaring crowds to cheer people on, laugh tracks to loosen people up when they get uptight, jungle noises when someone becomes too negative, and so on. on.

ask the participants to imagine that they are fired. fired. Now ask them to reapply for their own jobs. This will shock and force them jobs. to rethink about their knowledge and competencies and, most importantly, what they need to do to improve. improve. 5. EVERYONE S A CONSULTANT Ask each person to write a current job-related problem or concern jobon a blank sheet of paper. After allowing a few minutes, ask each paper. person to pass his or her problem to the right. That person reads right. the problem just received and jots down their responses. They are responses. given 60 seconds to respond to the individual sheet. Keep the sheet. process going until each person gets his or her sheet back. Then back. share and discuss the ideas. ideas. 6. TOYS R US Just having toys in the room will change the feeling in the room and invite people to be more open and playful. Have the participants choose a toy and give them time to explore it. Then ask them to compare the problem or issue under discussion with the toy.

Write the alphabet vertically on the chalkboard. Then ask for chalkboard. names of famous (real or fictional) people for each letter: A=Neil letter: Armstrong, B=Alexander Graham Bell, C=Charlie Chaplin, D=Leonardo DaVinci, E=Albert Einstein, F= Fred Flintstone and so on. on. Have each person in the group pick a random letter. One letter. might end up with Albert Einstein or David Letterman. Then have Letterman. each person think about how the famous person might approach the problem. problem. Finally, have the group share their perspectives. perspectives. How, for example, would William Shakespeare improve office morale? 7. WALK IN THE CUSTOMER S SHOES In this approach, people turn around to find out what it s really like to be someone in a different position. 8. TELL A STORY Storytelling is one of the oldest ways to teach and transform. Storytelling, for example, can help people envision the future they want and how to achieve it. 9. WHAT IF? Have the group create two opposite extreme ideas. For instance, what would you create if you had all the resources (people, money, time, etc.) in the world? Then, ask what would you create if you had no resources? Then try to combine the two into a practical, affordable idea.

10. LOOK AT SOMEBODY ELSE With this approach, ideas and solutions come by looking for ideas in unrelated fields. fields. 11. 11. TRY A DIFFERENT RHYTHM a regular rhythm propels us along and tells us what to expect next. But if next. the rhythm goes on too long, it dulls our imagination and we stop paying attention to the world around us. Consequently, we need to break the us. rhythm. rhythm. 12. COMBINE THINGS IN DIFFERENT WAYS This is a technique that Fred Stryker used to create daily plots and stories for The Lone Ranger. He created a chart that consisted of the major parts of the story: good characters, bad characters, kinds of crimes, different kinds of weapons, variables for each category and numbered them. Each day, he would ask a colleague for a series of random numbers (one per category). Then he looked up the items corresponding to the random numbers chosen by colleagues, and began writing a new story based on those items. You can do the same with any challenge. Separate and list categories and write possibilities under each category. List a dozen or so different possibilities for each. Then randomly combine them and brainstorm the possibilities.

14. LEFT14. LEFT-BRAINERS AND RIGHT-BRAINERS RIGHTDivide the group into left-brain (rational) thinkers and left-brain leftleft(intuitive) thinkers. Ask the left-brainers to come up with a leftpractical, conventional and logical idea; ask the right-brainers to rightcome up with a far-out, unconventional and illogical idea. Then farbring the group back together and combine the left-brain idea leftwith the right-brain idea to see what you get. right15. 15. TRY A DIFFERENT ORDER The obvious way to plan a project or think through a process is to start at the beginning and work through it logically step by step. But by shaking up the accepted sequence of things, people see processes in a new light and become open to new approaches. 16. 16. IDEA MARKETPLACES Announce the theme of the meeting, and then invite everyone to identify a related issue for which they re willing to take responsibility. When someone suggests an issue, he or she becomes the sponsor, writes the issue on a large sheet of paper, and posts the sheet on a wall. The process continues until all of the suggested issues have been posted. Next, have participants take part in an Idea Marketplace in which each person signs one or more or the large sheets to discuss the issues. The sponsors get together with their groups in private to discuss the issues and record the ideas.

17. 17. IDEA GALLERY 1. Participants stand silently and write their ideas on the sheets. sheets. Then the participants are allowed to walk around the "gallery" and look at the other ideas and take notes. Now, using notes. the other ideas to stimulate further thought, participants return to their sheets and add to or refine their ideas. After additional ideas. writing, the participants examine all the ideas and select the best ones. ones. 2. Another option for the gallery technique is to ask participants to draw or diagram their ideas instead of listing them 18. USE YOUR IMAGINATION When we compare problems to something unusual, we tend to have a need to understand it. Consequently, we break it down and analyze the different parts to see if this will allow us to understand it or make it somehow familiar. When this happens, we form new links and relationships that may lead to breakthrough ideas. 19. SILENT BRAINSTORMING Each participant silently writes three ideas on the tops of sheets of paper. One idea per sheet. The sheets are passed to the person on their right. That person is asked to write down an idea that improves on the one listed at the top of the sheet. If participants have difficulty improving on the idea, ask them to list new ones. Do this for all three ideas. After five minutes or so, the idea sheets are again passed to the right. Continue the process until all members receive their original papers.

AIRPLANES Have each participant construct a paper airplane. Each participant airplane. writes down an idea on the airplane and sends it flying to another participant. participant. Upon reading what s been written on the airplane, he or she writes down a modification or improvement of that idea, or an entirely fresh possibility and then sends it flying to someone else. else. Continue the exercise for twenty minutes and then collect and categorize the ideas. ideas.