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You are on page 1of 66

BFC 21103

CHAPTER 4

NON UNIFORM FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

Rapidly‐Varied Flow

Occurs

**when the depth of flow
**

change rapidly within short distance,

e.g. hydraulic jump.

Hydraulic jump occurs when

supercritical flow changes suddenly

to subcritical flow within a short

distance.

i.y2 > yc > y1 where.e. i. and the downstream flow becomes subcritical flow.e. y1 = depth of flow just before the jump y2 = depth of flow just after the jump y1 and y2 are known as conjugate depths . y1 < yc.Hydraulic Jump Hydraulic jump only occurs if the upstream flow is supercritical.

Hydraulic jump downstream of sluice gate ‐ Harran canal. Turkey .

Oregon U.Waves hitting sea wall in Depoe bay. .S.

Surge waves due to fast flowing flood in Tangjiasan. China .

Raise the water level for irrigation or water distribution purposes iii. in water treatment process v.e.g. reduce velocity and prevent erosion ii. increase DO .e. Increase weight on apron by raising the depth of water to prevent uplift pressure iv. i. Aeration of flow.Applications of Hydraulic Jump i. e. Energy dissipaters . i. Mix chemical substance .

.

.

TYPES OF FLOW DING TO FROUDE NUMBER ACCORDING TO FROUDE NUMBER .

.

4.1.3 : Critical flow. Energy loss and conjugate depths in hydraulic jump .

Upstream depth (y₁) flow being supercritical and downstream depth (y₂) flow being subcritical. and given a discharge and the conjugate to any flow depth. Conjugate depths have equivalent momentum.Conjugate depth The paired depths that result upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump. . Conjugate depths can be found either graphically using a specific momentum curve or algebra of equations.

Conjugate depths can also be calculated the Froude number and depth of the supercritical or subcritical flow. Inserting rectangular relations & doing math manipulations: using either y1 y2 1 1 8Fr12 2 y2 y1 1 1 8Fr22 2 .

Showing conjugate depths corresponding to a Momentum: .

.

Conjugate Depths y1’=y2 y1’>y2 y1’<y2 ideal case the jump moves downstream the jump moves downstream .

.From the momentum equation of flow in a rectangular channel.

since y1 and y2 are positive .

y1 y1 1. 3 1 1 8 Fr y1 2 y2 2 Note that for hydraulic jump to occur. 1 y2 y2 .Else if division is made by y₂³.

Conjugate Depths v Alternate Depths The loss of energy: ∆E = E1-E2 Relation between conjugate and alternative depths. Conjugate depth (between which momentum is conserved) with Alternate depth (between which energy is conserved) Conjugate depths have the same pressure-momentum force Alternate depths have the same specific energy Two conjugate depths can never be alternate depths or vice versa .

ENERGY LOSS There will be considerable loss of energy in hydraulic jump between sections 1 and 2. .

Energy Loss in Hydraulic Jump

V12

E y1

2g

V22

y 2

2g

**the energy loss per unit weight of water
**

Energy Loss in Rectangular channel

E

y 2 y1

4 y1 y 2

3

Power Loss

Can be calculate through :

**Unit for power
**

loss is

watt

Height Jump

The height of jump is given as :

Length of the jump (Lj ) is defined as the distance from the front face of the jump to a point on the surface immediately downstream the roller associated with the jump. Length of Jump .

Based on Froude number upstream of the jump Fr1. .

2 A spillway discharges flow at a rate of 7. y1 = 0. What tail water depth is needed to form a hydraulic jump? If a jump is formed.75 m3/s/m.75 m3/s/m.Activity 4.5 m (i) type (ii) length (iii) head loss . At the downstream horizontal apron.5 m. find its Given q = 7. the depth of flow was found to be 0.

1 2 .

.

Find the height of the jump and power loss due to the jump. Hydraulic jump occurs immediately downstream.3 A 25‐m wide spillway is discharging flow with velocity of 30 m/s at a depth of 1 m. .Activity 4.

V1 = 30 m/s .Given B = 25 m. y1 = 1 m.

.

.4. Example : Drawdown produced by sudden change in channel bed slope.3 Gradually-Varied Flow • • i) A steady non-uniform flow in a prismastic with gradually changes in its flow surface elevation.

ii)) Backwater produced by increased in bed elevation. .

TYPES OF SLOPE .

CLASSIFICATION OF GRADUALLY-VARIED PROFILE .

.

)The profile extends to several kilometers upstream before approaching the normal depth. . dam or other control structures. )Example : weir.OCCURRENCE OF FLOW PROFILE a) Backflow M1 profile )Occurs due to obstruction to subcritical flow.

.

M2 profile Occurs when there is a sudden drop in the bottom of the channel. . constriction of channel or channel outlet into reservoir.a) ii. Example : canal outlet to reservoir.

.

Example : 1) Flow from spillway OR 2) Sluice gate to a mild channel. .a) iii) M3 PROFILE Occurs when supercritical flows enter a MILD SLOPE.

.

B ) i) S1 PROFILE Occurs when supercritical flow changes to pool of water (subcritical flow) due to obstruction such as : 1) Weir 2) Dam .

.

C) C1 AND C3 PROFILE Highly UNSTABLE and rarely occur y > yo = yc and yo = yc > y .

b) ii) S3 PROFILE Occurs when flow from RESERVOIR enter a STEEP SLOPE or when there is a change from MILD SLOPE to STEEP SLOPE. This profile is of shorter length. .

D ) H2 AND H3 PROFILE Occurs when the bed of mild slope become FLATTER. There is no region 1 since yo = ( )infinity .

.

. This profiles occurs within a short length. which is rare.E ) A2 AND A3 PROFILE Occurs when flow is on adverse slope.

.

EXAMPLE 4.Determine the type of profile for the following flow.4 .

Along the GVF in the channel.0008 has discharge of 1.016.5 A rectangular channel with bottom width 4 m and bottom slope 0.Activity 4. determine the type of GVF profile.3m. . the depth at a section is found to be 0. Assuming Manning n =0.5 m3/s.

. 2. The pressure distribution at any section is hydrostatic.Analysis of GVF Profile Two basic assumptions are involved in the analysis of GVF: 1. The resistance to flow at any depth ( ) where R is the hydraulic radius of the section at depth y.

Differential Equation of GVF The total energy H of a gradually‐varied flow in a channel of small slope is: H= z+y+ v ² .

A. where. Direct Integration Between two sections (x1. y1) and (x2. y2). .

.

.

.

2. 5. N) and F(v. 3. J) Calculate length of the reach U & N please refer notes Chapter 4 page 67 . in direct integration method: Calculate yo and yc Determine N and M Calculate J Calculate u and v Find F(u. 6.Steps 1. 4.89 .

.

.

.

Thank You very much .

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