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BFC 21103


Rapidly‐Varied Flow

when the depth of flow
change rapidly within short distance,
e.g. hydraulic jump.
Hydraulic jump occurs when
supercritical flow changes suddenly
to subcritical flow within a short

i.y2 > yc > y1 where.e. i. and the downstream flow becomes subcritical flow.e. y1 = depth of flow just before the jump y2 = depth of flow just after the jump y1 and y2 are known as conjugate depths . y1 < yc.Hydraulic Jump Hydraulic jump only occurs if the upstream flow is supercritical.

Hydraulic jump downstream of sluice gate ‐ Harran canal. Turkey .

Oregon U.Waves hitting sea wall in Depoe bay. .S.

Surge waves due to fast flowing flood in Tangjiasan. China .

Raise the water level for irrigation or water distribution purposes iii. in water treatment process v.e.g. reduce velocity and prevent erosion ii. increase DO .e. Increase weight on apron by raising the depth of water to prevent uplift pressure iv. i. Aeration of flow.Applications of Hydraulic Jump i. e. Energy dissipaters . i. Mix chemical substance .





4.1.3 : Critical flow. Energy loss and conjugate depths in hydraulic jump .

 Upstream depth (y₁) flow being supercritical and downstream depth (y₂) flow being subcritical. and given a discharge and the conjugate to any flow depth.  Conjugate depths have equivalent momentum.Conjugate depth The paired depths that result upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump.  .  Conjugate depths can be found either graphically using a specific momentum curve or algebra of equations.

Conjugate depths can also be calculated the Froude number and depth of the supercritical or subcritical flow. Inserting rectangular relations & doing math manipulations: using either     y1 y2   1  1  8Fr12 2 y2 y1   1  1  8Fr22 2 .

Showing conjugate depths corresponding to a Momentum: .


Conjugate Depths y1’=y2 y1’>y2 y1’<y2 ideal case the jump moves downstream the jump moves downstream .

.From the momentum equation of flow in a rectangular channel.

since y1 and y2 are positive .

y1 y1 1. 3 1  1  8 Fr y1 2  y2 2 Note that for hydraulic jump to occur. 1 y2 y2 .Else if division is made by y₂³.

Conjugate Depths v Alternate Depths The loss of energy: ∆E = E1-E2 Relation between conjugate and alternative depths. Conjugate depth (between which momentum is conserved) with Alternate depth (between which energy is conserved) Conjugate depths have the same pressure-momentum force Alternate depths have the same specific energy Two conjugate depths can never be alternate depths or vice versa .

ENERGY LOSS  There will be considerable loss of energy in hydraulic jump between sections 1 and 2. .

Energy Loss in Hydraulic Jump

E   y1 

   y 2 

the energy loss per unit weight of water
Energy Loss in Rectangular channel

E 

 y 2  y1 
4 y1 y 2



Power Loss
Can be calculate through :

Unit for power
loss is


Height Jump
The height of jump is given as :

Length of the jump (Lj ) is defined as the distance from the front face of the jump to a point on the surface immediately downstream the roller associated with the jump. Length of Jump .

Based on Froude number upstream of the jump Fr1. .

2 A spillway discharges flow at a rate of 7. y1 = 0. What tail water depth is needed to form a hydraulic jump? If a jump is formed.75 m3/s/m.75 m3/s/m.Activity 4.5 m (i) type (ii) length (iii) head loss . At the downstream horizontal apron.5 m. find its Given q = 7. the depth of flow was found to be 0.

1 2 .


Find the height of the jump and power loss due to the jump. Hydraulic jump occurs immediately downstream.3 A 25‐m wide spillway is discharging flow with velocity of 30 m/s at a depth of 1 m. .Activity 4.

V1 = 30 m/s .Given B = 25 m. y1 = 1 m.


.4. Example : Drawdown produced by sudden change in channel bed slope.3 Gradually-Varied Flow • • i) A steady non-uniform flow in a prismastic with gradually changes in its flow surface elevation.

ii)) Backwater produced by increased in bed elevation. .




)The profile extends to several kilometers upstream before approaching the normal depth. . dam or other control structures. )Example : weir.OCCURRENCE OF FLOW PROFILE a) Backflow M1 profile )Occurs due to obstruction to subcritical flow.


M2 profile Occurs when there is a sudden drop in the bottom of the channel. . constriction of channel or channel outlet into reservoir.a) ii. Example : canal outlet to reservoir.


Example : 1) Flow from spillway OR 2) Sluice gate to a mild channel. .a) iii) M3 PROFILE Occurs when supercritical flows enter a MILD SLOPE.


B ) i) S1 PROFILE Occurs when supercritical flow changes to pool of water (subcritical flow) due to obstruction such as : 1) Weir 2) Dam .


C) C1 AND C3 PROFILE Highly UNSTABLE and rarely occur y > yo = yc and yo = yc > y .

b) ii) S3 PROFILE Occurs when flow from RESERVOIR enter a STEEP SLOPE or when there is a change from MILD SLOPE to STEEP SLOPE. This profile is of shorter length. .

D ) H2 AND H3 PROFILE Occurs when the bed of mild slope become FLATTER.  There is no region 1 since yo = ( )infinity .


. This profiles occurs within a short length. which is rare.E ) A2 AND A3 PROFILE Occurs when flow is on adverse slope.


EXAMPLE 4.Determine the type of profile for the following flow.4 .

Along the GVF in the channel.0008 has discharge of 1.016.5 A rectangular channel with bottom width 4 m and bottom slope 0.Activity 4. determine the type of GVF profile.3m. . the depth at a section is found to be 0. Assuming Manning n =0.5 m3/s.

. 2. The pressure distribution at any section is hydrostatic.Analysis of GVF Profile Two basic assumptions are involved in the analysis of GVF: 1. The resistance to flow at any depth ( ) where R is the hydraulic radius of the section at depth y.

Differential Equation of GVF The total energy H of a gradually‐varied flow in a channel of small slope is: H= z+y+ v ² .

A. where. Direct Integration  Between two sections (x1. y1) and (x2. y2). .




2. 5. N) and F(v. 3. J) Calculate length of the reach U & N please refer notes Chapter 4 page 67 . in direct integration method: Calculate yo and yc Determine N and M Calculate J Calculate u and v Find F(u. 6.Steps 1. 4.89 .




Thank You very much  .