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You are on page 1of 55

62323: Architectural Structures II

Introduction to Structural

Design of Steel

Monther Dwaikat

Assistant Professor

Department of Building Engineering

An-Najah National University

Contents

Structural Design

Design Loads

Design philosophies

Structures

General Introduction

Identification of structural framework by engineer

Estimation of structural loads depending on use & occupancy

Analysis of the structure to determine member & connection design

forces

Verification of design

Fabrication & Erection by steel fabricator & contractor

Inspection & Approval by state building official

Primary Responsibilities

Owner

occupancy, & approving the arch. plans of the building.

Architect

architectural plan of the building interior is appropriate

for the intended use & the overall building is

aesthetically pleasing.

Engineer

safety & serviceability of the structure, i.e., designing

the building to carry the loads safely.

Primary Responsibilities

Fabricator primary responsibility is ensuring that the

economically in the shop or field as required.

Contractor/Erector

that the members & connections are economically

assembled in the field to build the structure.

State

ensuring that the built structure satisfies the

appropriate building codes accepted by the Govt.

Structural Design

parameters that can be varied (somewhat) are:

Steel

Reinforced concrete

Steel-concrete composite construction.

The structural framing plan.

the

Braced frames.

Dual frames

Shear wall frames, and so on.

plan for a particular structure if required.

Structural Design

must be considered & designed to compare the

individual material + fabrication / erection costs to

identify the most efficient & economical design for

the structure.

considered, designing the structure consists of

designing the individual structural components,

i.e., the members & the connections, of the

framing plan.

Structural Design

The design process is a loop:

Assume dimensions, structural conditions and cross sections

Structural Analysis

Selection of cross sections to satisfy structural requirements

Does the design violate the initial assumptions?

YES

NO

Final Design

Structural Design

the following requirements:

Strength

Serviceability

Optimal design

Economy

structural steel designer

using engineers intuition and sound engineering

principles, so that they can be practically erected, have

sufficient strength (safe), and are economical.

Practicality:

without problems

Safety:

Ensure deflections and vibrations are

controlled for occupants comfort.

Cost:

(consider labor costs in fabrication and

erection, not just material costs)

Trusses

Frames ( Beam-Column)

Beams

Girders

Columns

Space trusses/frames

Steel Structures

Purlins

Columns

Beams-Frames

Bracing

Steel Structures

Industrial/Parking

structures Frames

Steel Structures

Joists/Trusses

Steel Structures

Steel Structures

Girder bridges

Steel Structures

Truss bridges

Steel Structures

Structural Members

internal forces in them. For example:

axial forces

bending moment only. The

force only

force & flexural loads (shear

Structural Members

In trusses:

In frames:

All external forces are applied at the pins/hinges.

All truss members are subjected to axial forces (tension or

compression) only.

The horizontal members (beams) are subjected to flexural loads

only.

In braced frames:

forces only.

The

diagonal

members

(braces)

are

subjected

to

tension/compression axial forces only.

In moment frames

axial & flexural loads.

Structural Connections

using connections. Prominent connection types include:

more truss members together. Only the axial forces in the

members have to be transferred through the connection for

continuity.

connect beam to column members. Only the shear forces are

transferred through the connection for continuity. The bending

moments are not transferred through the connection.

column members. Both the shear forces & bending moments are

transferred through the connections with very small deformations

(full restraint).

Structural Connections

Truss connection

Simple Shear

connection

Moment resisting

connection

Structural Loads

the loads that are applied to it over its design-life. The

building structure will be subjected to loads that have been

categorized as follows:

These include the self-weight of structural & non-structural

components. They are usually gravity loads.

due to its use & occupancy. The magnitude & location of live loads

changes frequently over the design life. Hence, they cannot be

estimated with the same accuracy as dead loads.

exterior surfaces of the building. They cause horizontal lateral

loads (forces) on the structure, which can be critical for tall

buildings. Wind loads also cause uplift of light roof systems.

Structural Loads

Snow Loads (S): are vertical gravity loads due to snow,

which are subjected to variability due to seasons &

drift.

r

workers, equipment, & materials during maintenance.

the design code.

construction incorporated into the building including but not

limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in

partitions, finishes, cladding & other similarly incorporated

architectural & structural items, & fixed service equipment

such as plumbing stacks & risers, electrical feeders, &

heating, ventilating, & air conditioning systems.

satisfactorily from simple formulas based in the weights &

sizes of similar structures. For example, the average

weight of steel framed buildings is 3 - 3.6 kPa, & the

average weight for reinforced concrete buildings is 5 - 6

kPa.

sizes of the various components of the structure are

determined, their weights can be found from tables that

list their densities. See Tables 1.2 & 1.3, which are taken

from Hibbeler, R.C. (1999), Structural Analysis, 4th

Edition.

concentrated live loads. They have to be designed to safely support

these loads.

Type of occupancy

kPa

Offices

2.5 - 5

Corridors

Residential

Stadiums

Sidewalks

12

Wind Loads

Design wind loads for buildings can be based on: (a) simplified

procedure; (b) analytical procedure; & (c) wind tunnel or smallscale procedure.

procedure is applicable only to buildings with mean roof height

less than 18 m or the least dimension of the building.

model of the building & testing it in a wind tunnel to determine

the expected wind pressures etc. It is expensive & may be

utilized for difficult or special situations.

fairly systematic but somewhat complicated to account for the

various situations that can occur:

Wind Loads

path. The wind velocity & hence the velocity pressure

depend on the height from the ground level. Equation 1.3

is recommended by ASCE 7-05 for calculating the velocity

pressure (qz) in SI

Wind Loads

qz Static wind pressure

V - the wind velocity in m/s

Kd - a directionality factor (= 0.85 see Table 6.4 page 80)

Kzt - a topographic factor (= 1.0)

I - the importance factor (=1.0)

Kz - varies with height z above the ground level (see Table 6.3 page 79)

exposure B structure surrounded by buildings/forests/

height

exposure C open terrain

at least 6m

Wind Loads

location

qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)

The velocity pressure qz is used to calculate the design

wind pressure (p) for the building structure conservatively

as follows:

p = q GCp (N/m2)

A large city centers

B urban/ suburban area

C open terrain with scattered obstructions

D Flat unobstructed surface

Wind Loads

G - gust effect factor (= 0.85)

Cp - external pressure coefficient from Figure 6-6 page 48-49

in ASCE 7-05 or

Cp = 0.8 windward

Cp = -0.5 leeward

Cp = -0.7 sidewalls

Cp = -0.7 slope<0.75

(1.5)

Note that:

A positive sign indicates pressure acting towards a surface.

Negative sign indicates pressure away from the surface

Consider the building structure with the structural floor plan & elevation

shown below. Estimate the wind loads acting on the structure when the

wind blows in the east-west direction. The structure is located in

Nablus.

15 m

15 m

15 m

15 m

Plan

6 @ 3m

6 @ 3m

Kzt - topographic factor = 1.0

I - importance factor = 1.0

V = 100 kph in Nablus

qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)

Kz values for Exposure B, Case 2

Wind

pressure (p)

External pressure coefficient = Cp = +0.8 for windward walls

Cp = -0.5 for leeward walls

Cp = -0.7 for side walls

External pressure = q G Cp

External pressure on windward wall = qz GCp = 402 Kz x 0.85 x 0.8 =

273.4 Kz Pa toward surface

External pressure on leeward wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.5)

= 145.2 Pa away from surface

External pressure on side wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.7) =

203.3 Pa away from surface

The external pressures on the structure are shown in the following

two figures.

203.3

273.4 Kz

145.2

203.3

3m

232.4

3m

221.5

3m

207.8

3m

3m

191.4

180.4

169.5

155.8

3m

145.2

century and the introduction of the Bessemer process. Steel became

the principal metallic structural material by 1890.

Steels consists almost entirely of iron (over 98%) and small quantities

of carbon, silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and other

elements.

vanadium, nickel, manganese, copper, or zirconium.

maximum percentages of carbon content and other additions for a

number of structural steels. Consult Manual, Part 2, Table 2-1 to 2-3

for availability of steel in structural shapes, plate products, and

structural fasteners.

steels

well-defined yield point. Divided into four categories:

A606, A607, A618, A709

Mild steel (0.15 to 0.29%, structural carbon steels)

Medium-carbon steel (0.3 to 0.59%)

High-carbon steel (0.6 to 1.7%)

Higher strengths and other properties

Low-alloy steels quenched and tempered 550 to 760 MPa yield

strengths

steel as a structural material

Advantages

Uniformity

Elasticity

Long lasting

Ductility

Toughness

Easy connection

Speed of erection

Ability to be rolled into various sizes and shapes

Possible reuse and recyclable

steel as a structural material

Disadvantages

Maintenance costs

Fire protection/Fireproofing costs

Susceptibility to buckling failure

Fatigue

Brittle fracture

Types of Steel

Plain Carbon Steel

Low-alloy steel

High-alloy specialty steel

The most commonly used is mild steel - ASTM A36

ASTM A242

ASTM A992

Fy

Fy

Fu

Fu

The higher the steel strength, the higher the carbon content and

the less ductile it is.

Stress-strain curve

Stress f

P ( Load )

A ( Area )

Necking & Fracture

Strain Hardening

Fu

Fy

Elastic

Yield plateau

L ( Deformation) Strain

Lo (Original Length)

unfit for its intended purpose it has reached or

exceeded a limit state

Serviceability limit states

Limit States

Strength Limit States

a) Loss of Equilibrium

b) Loss of load bearing capacity

c) Spread of local failure

d) Very large deformations

a) Excessive deflection

b) Excessive local damage

c) Unwanted vibration

Design Philosophies

life.

Linear elastic analysis is performed.

A factor of safety (FOS) of the material strength is assumed

(usually 3-4)

Allowable Stress

Material Strength

FOS

stress)

Limitations

Arbitrary choice of FOS?!

Plastic Design

The structure is assumed to fail under these loads, thus,

plastic hinges will form under these loads Plastic Analysis.

The cross section is designed to resist bending moments

and shear forces from the plastic analysis.

Members are safe as they are designed to fail under these

factored loads while they will only experience service loads.

Limitations

material strength!

Arbitrary choice of overall FOS?!

(LRFD)

with the assumption of failure! - Reliability Based Design

Service loads are multiplied by load factors () and linear

elastic analysis is performed.

Material strength is reduced by multiplying the nominal

material strength by a resistance factor ()

The design rule is:

Load Effect < Resistance

i Q i i R n

for all limit states!!

Where Rn is the nominal strength and Q is the load effect for the ith

limit state

(LRFD)

Advantages of LRFD

behavior.

Uniform factor of safety as both load and material factors are tied

by reliability analysis

If we have the probability distribution of the load effect (Q) and the material

resistance (R) then:

The probability of failure can be represented by observing the probability of the function (R-Q)

The probability of failure PF can be represented as the probability that Q R:

Probability

of failure

Qi i Rn

1 1.4 D

2 1.2 D 1.6 L 0.5( Lr or S or R)

i

Qi

5 1.2 D 1.0 E 0.5 L 0.2 S

0.75 1.00

i Rn

Live loads (LL)

Occupancy load

(L)

Roof load (Lr)

Snow load (S)

Rain loads (R)

Trucks and

pedestrians

Wind Loads (W)

Earthquakes (E)

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