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68402: Structural Design of Buildings II

61420: Design of Steel Structures

62323: Architectural Structures II

Introduction to Structural
Design of Steel
Monther Dwaikat
Assistant Professor
Department of Building Engineering
An-Najah National University


Structural Design

Design Loads

Structural Steel - Properties

Design philosophies

Determining load and resistance factors

Load and resistance factors

Introduction to Design of Steel


General Introduction

Structural design is a systematic & iterative process that involves:

Identification of intended use & occupancy of a structure by owner

Design of structural members & connections

Development of architectural plans & layout by architect

Identification of structural framework by engineer
Estimation of structural loads depending on use & occupancy
Analysis of the structure to determine member & connection design

Verification of design
Fabrication & Erection by steel fabricator & contractor
Inspection & Approval by state building official

Primary Responsibilities

The primary responsibilities are:


- primary responsibility is deciding the use &

occupancy, & approving the arch. plans of the building.


- primary responsibility is ensuring that the

architectural plan of the building interior is appropriate
for the intended use & the overall building is
aesthetically pleasing.


primary responsibility is ensuring the

safety & serviceability of the structure, i.e., designing
the building to carry the loads safely.

Primary Responsibilities
Fabricator primary responsibility is ensuring that the

designed members & connections are fabricated

economically in the shop or field as required.


- primary responsibility is ensuring

that the members & connections are economically
assembled in the field to build the structure.


Building Official primary responsibility is

ensuring that the built structure satisfies the
appropriate building codes accepted by the Govt.

Structural Design

Conceptually, from an engineering standpoint,

parameters that can be varied (somewhat) are:

Reinforced concrete
Steel-concrete composite construction.

The choices for structural framing plan include:

The material of construction

The structural framing plan.

The choices for material include:


Moment resisting frames.

Braced frames.
Dual frames
Shear wall frames, and so on.

The engineer can also innovate a new structural framing

plan for a particular structure if required.

Structural Design

All viable material + framing plan alternatives

must be considered & designed to compare the
individual material + fabrication / erection costs to
identify the most efficient & economical design for
the structure.

For each material + framing plan alternative

considered, designing the structure consists of
designing the individual structural components,
i.e., the members & the connections, of the
framing plan.

Structural Design

Determination of dimensions and selection of cross sections.

The design process is a loop:
Assume dimensions, structural conditions and cross sections
Structural Analysis
Selection of cross sections to satisfy structural requirements
Does the design violate the initial assumptions?

Final Design

Structural Design

Optimal structural design shall achieve balance between

the following requirements:


Optimal design

Roles and responsibilities of the

structural steel designer

Arrange and proportion the members of the structures,

using engineers intuition and sound engineering
principles, so that they can be practically erected, have
sufficient strength (safe), and are economical.


Ensure structures can be fabricated and erected

without problems


Ensure structures can safely support the loads.

Ensure deflections and vibrations are
controlled for occupants comfort.


Minimize costs without sacrifice of strength

(consider labor costs in fabrication and
erection, not just material costs)

Basic Structural Shapes


Frames ( Beam-Column)

Space trusses/frames

Steel Structures




Steel Structures

structures Frames

Steel Structures


Steel Structures

High rise buildings

Steel Structures

Girder bridges

Steel Structures

Truss bridges

Steel Structures

Cable stayed & suspended bridges

Structural Members

Structural members are categorized based up on the

internal forces in them. For example:

Tension member subjected to tensile axial force only

Tension/Compression member subjected to tensile/compressive

axial forces

Beam member subjected to flexural loads, i.e., shear force &

bending moment only. The

axial force in a beam member is negligible.

force, & bending moments)

Column or compression member subjected to compressive axial

force only

Beam-column member member subjected to combined axial

force & flexural loads (shear

Structural Members

In trusses:

In frames:

All the members are connected using pin/hinge connections.

All external forces are applied at the pins/hinges.
All truss members are subjected to axial forces (tension or
compression) only.
The horizontal members (beams) are subjected to flexural loads
In braced frames:

The vertical members (columns) are subjected to compressive axial

forces only.
tension/compression axial forces only.

In moment frames

The vertical members (beam-columns) are subjected to combined

axial & flexural loads.

Structural Connections

Members of a structural frame are connected together

using connections. Prominent connection types include:

Truss / bracing member connections are used to connect two or

more truss members together. Only the axial forces in the
members have to be transferred through the connection for

Simple shear connections are the pin connections used to

connect beam to column members. Only the shear forces are
transferred through the connection for continuity. The bending
moments are not transferred through the connection.

Moment connections are fix connections used to connect beam to

column members. Both the shear forces & bending moments are
transferred through the connections with very small deformations
(full restraint).

Structural Connections
Truss connection

Simple Shear

Moment resisting

Structural Loads

The building structure must be designed to carry or resist

the loads that are applied to it over its design-life. The
building structure will be subjected to loads that have been
categorized as follows:

Dead Loads (D): are permanent loads acting on the structure.

These include the self-weight of structural & non-structural
components. They are usually gravity loads.

Live Loads (L): are non-permanent loads acting on the structure

due to its use & occupancy. The magnitude & location of live loads
changes frequently over the design life. Hence, they cannot be
estimated with the same accuracy as dead loads.

Wind Loads (W): are in the form of pressure or suction on the

exterior surfaces of the building. They cause horizontal lateral
loads (forces) on the structure, which can be critical for tall
buildings. Wind loads also cause uplift of light roof systems.

Structural Loads
Snow Loads (S): are vertical gravity loads due to snow,
which are subjected to variability due to seasons &

Roof Live Load (L ): are live loads on the roof caused


during the design life by planters, people, or by

workers, equipment, & materials during maintenance.

Values of structural loads can be computed based on

the design code.

Dead Loads (D)

Dead loads consist of the weight of all materials of

construction incorporated into the building including but not
limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in
partitions, finishes, cladding & other similarly incorporated
architectural & structural items, & fixed service equipment
such as plumbing stacks & risers, electrical feeders, &
heating, ventilating, & air conditioning systems.

In some cases, the structural dead load can be estimated

satisfactorily from simple formulas based in the weights &
sizes of similar structures. For example, the average
weight of steel framed buildings is 3 - 3.6 kPa, & the
average weight for reinforced concrete buildings is 5 - 6

Dead Loads (D)

From an engineering standpoint, once the materials and

sizes of the various components of the structure are
determined, their weights can be found from tables that
list their densities. See Tables 1.2 & 1.3, which are taken
from Hibbeler, R.C. (1999), Structural Analysis, 4th

Dead Loads (D)

Live Loads Summary Table

Building floors are usually subjected to uniform live loads or

concentrated live loads. They have to be designed to safely support
these loads.

Type of occupancy



2.5 - 5



Stairs and exit ways




Wind Loads

Design wind loads for buildings can be based on: (a) simplified
procedure; (b) analytical procedure; & (c) wind tunnel or smallscale procedure.

Refer to ASCE 7-05 for the simplified procedure. This simplified

procedure is applicable only to buildings with mean roof height
less than 18 m or the least dimension of the building.

The wind tunnel procedure consists of developing a small-scale

model of the building & testing it in a wind tunnel to determine
the expected wind pressures etc. It is expensive & may be
utilized for difficult or special situations.

The analytical procedure is used in most design offices. It is

fairly systematic but somewhat complicated to account for the
various situations that can occur:

Wind Loads

Wind velocity will cause pressure on any surface in its

path. The wind velocity & hence the velocity pressure
depend on the height from the ground level. Equation 1.3
is recommended by ASCE 7-05 for calculating the velocity
pressure (qz) in SI

qz = 0.613 Kz KztKd V2 I (N/m2)

Wind Loads
qz Static wind pressure
V - the wind velocity in m/s
Kd - a directionality factor (= 0.85 see Table 6.4 page 80)
Kzt - a topographic factor (= 1.0)
I - the importance factor (=1.0)
Kz - varies with height z above the ground level (see Table 6.3 page 79)
exposure B structure surrounded by buildings/forests/
exposure C open terrain

at least 6m

Wind Loads

A significant portion of Palestine has V = 100 km/h. At these


qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)
The velocity pressure qz is used to calculate the design
wind pressure (p) for the building structure conservatively
as follows:

p = q GCp (N/m2)

ASCE 7-05 pg. 79

Kz - varies with height z above the ground level

A large city centers
B urban/ suburban area
C open terrain with scattered obstructions
D Flat unobstructed surface

Wind Loads
G - gust effect factor (= 0.85)
Cp - external pressure coefficient from Figure 6-6 page 48-49
in ASCE 7-05 or
Cp = 0.8 windward
Cp = -0.5 leeward
Cp = -0.7 sidewalls
Cp = -0.7 slope<0.75


Note that:
A positive sign indicates pressure acting towards a surface.
Negative sign indicates pressure away from the surface

Example 1.1 Wind Load

Consider the building structure with the structural floor plan & elevation
shown below. Estimate the wind loads acting on the structure when the
wind blows in the east-west direction. The structure is located in

15 m

15 m

15 m

15 m


6 @ 3m

6 @ 3m

Example 1.1 Wind Load

Example 1.1 Wind Load

Velocity pressure (qz)

Kd - directionality factor = 0.85

Kzt - topographic factor = 1.0
I - importance factor = 1.0
V = 100 kph in Nablus

qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)

Kz - varies with height z above the ground level

Kz values for Exposure B, Case 2

Example 1.1 Wind Load


pressure (p)

Gust factor = G = 0.85 for rigid structures

External pressure coefficient = Cp = +0.8 for windward walls
Cp = -0.5 for leeward walls
Cp = -0.7 for side walls
External pressure = q G Cp
External pressure on windward wall = qz GCp = 402 Kz x 0.85 x 0.8 =
273.4 Kz Pa toward surface
External pressure on leeward wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.5)
= 145.2 Pa away from surface
External pressure on side wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.7) =
203.3 Pa away from surface
The external pressures on the structure are shown in the following
two figures.

Example 1.1 Wind Load


273.4 Kz



Example 1.1 Wind Load











Background of Structural Steel

Economical production in large volume not available until mid 19th

century and the introduction of the Bessemer process. Steel became
the principal metallic structural material by 1890.

Steels consists almost entirely of iron (over 98%) and small quantities
of carbon, silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and other

The quantities of carbon affect properties of steel the most.

Increase of carbon content increases hardness and strength

Alloy steel has additional amounts of alloy elements such chronium,

vanadium, nickel, manganese, copper, or zirconium.

The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) specifies exact

maximum percentages of carbon content and other additions for a
number of structural steels. Consult Manual, Part 2, Table 2-1 to 2-3
for availability of steel in structural shapes, plate products, and
structural fasteners.

ASTM classifications of structural


Carbon steels A36, A53, A500, A501, A529, A570. Have

well-defined yield point. Divided into four categories:

High-Strength Low-Alloy steels A242, A572, A588,

A606, A607, A618, A709

Low-carbon steel (< 0.15%)

Mild steel (0.15 to 0.29%, structural carbon steels)
Medium-carbon steel (0.3 to 0.59%)
High-carbon steel (0.6 to 1.7%)

Well-defined yield point

Higher strengths and other properties

Alloy Steels A514, A709, A852, A913.

Yield point defined as the stress at 0.2% offset strain

Low-alloy steels quenched and tempered 550 to 760 MPa yield

Advantages and disadvantages of

steel as a structural material


High strength per unit of weight smaller weight of structures

Long lasting
Easy connection
Speed of erection
Ability to be rolled into various sizes and shapes
Possible reuse and recyclable

Advantages and disadvantages of

steel as a structural material


Maintenance costs
Fire protection/Fireproofing costs
Susceptibility to buckling failure
Brittle fracture

Types of Steel

Three basic types of steel used for structural steel

Plain Carbon Steel
Low-alloy steel
High-alloy specialty steel
The most commonly used is mild steel - ASTM A36

Fy 248 MPa (36 ksi )

Typical high strength steel:

Fu 400 MPa (58 ksi )




290 344 MPa (42 50 ksi)


344 MPa (50 ksi )


444 482 MPa (63 70 ksi)


448 MPa (65 ksi )

The higher the steel strength, the higher the carbon content and
the less ductile it is.

Stress-strain curve

Standard Plain Carbon Steel

Stress f

P ( Load )
A ( Area )
Necking & Fracture

Strain Hardening



Yield plateau

L ( Deformation) Strain
Lo (Original Length)

What is a Limit State

When a structure or structural element becomes

unfit for its intended purpose it has reached or
exceeded a limit state

Two categories of limit states:

Strength limit states

Serviceability limit states

Limit States
Strength Limit States
a) Loss of Equilibrium
b) Loss of load bearing capacity
c) Spread of local failure
d) Very large deformations

Serviceability Limit States

a) Excessive deflection
b) Excessive local damage
c) Unwanted vibration

Design Philosophies

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Plastic Design (PD)

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

Allowable Stress Design

Service loads are calculated as expected during service

Linear elastic analysis is performed.
A factor of safety (FOS) of the material strength is assumed
(usually 3-4)
Allowable Stress

Material Strength

Design is satisfactory if (maximum stress < allowable


Case specific, no guarantee that our design covers all cases

Arbitrary choice of FOS?!

Plastic Design

Service loads are factored by a load factor.

The structure is assumed to fail under these loads, thus,
plastic hinges will form under these loads Plastic Analysis.
The cross section is designed to resist bending moments
and shear forces from the plastic analysis.
Members are safe as they are designed to fail under these
factored loads while they will only experience service loads.

No FOS of the material is considered, neglecting the uncertainty in

material strength!
Arbitrary choice of overall FOS?!

Load and Resistance Factor Design


LRFD is similar to plastic design in that it performs design

with the assumption of failure! - Reliability Based Design
Service loads are multiplied by load factors () and linear
elastic analysis is performed.
Material strength is reduced by multiplying the nominal
material strength by a resistance factor ()
The design rule is:
Load Effect < Resistance

i Q i i R n

This rule shall be attained

for all limit states!!

Where Rn is the nominal strength and Q is the load effect for the ith
limit state

Load and Resistance Factor Design


Resistance: Shear, Bending, Axial Forces

Advantages of LRFD

Non-case specific, statistical calculations guarantee population

Uniform factor of safety as both load and material factors are tied
by reliability analysis

Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

If we have the probability distribution of the load effect (Q) and the material
resistance (R) then:

The probability of failure can be represented by observing the probability of the function (R-Q)
The probability of failure PF can be represented as the probability that Q R:

of failure

AISC Load combinations

AISC considers the following load combinations in design

Qi i Rn

1 1.4 D
2 1.2 D 1.6 L 0.5( Lr or S or R)

3 1.2 D 1.6 ( Lr or S or R ) 0.5L or (0.8W )



4 1.2 D 1.6 W 0.5 L 0.5 ( Lr or S or R )

5 1.2 D 1.0 E 0.5 L 0.2 S

6 0.9 D (1.6 Wor 1.0 E )

0.75 1.00

i Rn

e.g. for yield is 0.9 and for bolt shear is 0.75

Dead loads (D)

Live loads (LL)
Occupancy load
Roof load (Lr)
Snow load (S)
Rain loads (R)
Trucks and
Wind Loads (W)
Earthquakes (E)