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The Minerals

EtikaRatnaN

definisi
Mineralmakro:mineralyangdibutuhkan
tubuh>100g/hr
Mineralmikro:mineralyangdibutuhkan
tubuh<100g/hr
Ada24mineralessensialyangdibutuhkan
Mineralmakro:Na,Cl,K,Ca,P,MgdanS
2

KLASIFIKASIMINERAL
MINERALMAKRO
Diperlukandlmjml>100mg/hari(dewasa)
KALSIUM
FOSFOR
MAGNESIUM
SODIUM(Natrium)
POTASSIUM(Kalium)
KLORIDA
SULFUR
3

MINERALMIKRO
Diperlukandlmjml<100mg/hari
Iron
Zinc
Manganese
Copper
Fluorine
Selenium
Molybdenum
Iodine.
Chromium
Boron
Cobalt
4

NATRIUM/SODIUM(Na)
Mrpkkationutamadlmcairanekstraselular.
3540%adadidalamkerangkatubuh.
Pengontrolanosmolaritasdanvolumecairan
tubuhsangattergantungpadaionNadanrasio
Nathdionlainnya.

Absorbsi&Metabolisme
Diabsorbsisecaraaktifterutamadiusushalus.
Naygdiabsorbsidibawaolehalirandarahkeginjal,
kmddisaringdandikembalikankealirandarahdlm
jumlahygcukupuntukmempertahankankadarNadlm
darah.
KelebihanNa(9099%)dikeluarkanmelaluiurin
diaturolehhormonaldosteron(dikeluarkanoleh
kelenjaradrenal).Aldosteronmerangsangginjaluntuk
mereabsorbsikembaliNa.
Normal:NaurinNaygdikonsumsi

FUNGSINa

Menjagakeseimbangancairanekstrasel.
Menjagakeseimbanganasambasa
Berperandalamtransmisisarafdankontraksiotot.
Mengaturtekanandarah
Berperandlmabsorbsiglukosa&sbgalatangkut
zat2gizilainmelaluimembran,terutamamelalui
dindingususpompaNa

KebutuhanNa
TaksirankebutuhanNasehariuntukorang
dewasaadalah500mg.
KebutuhanNadidasarkanpadakebutuhan
pertumbuhan,kehilanganNamellkeringat
&sekresilain.
AnjuranWHOpembatasankonsumsigaram
dapurhingga6gramsehari2400mEqNa.

SumberNa

Garamdapur(NaCl)
MSG
Kecap
Makananygdiawetkandgngaramdapur.
Sodakue&bakingpowder
Natriumbenzoat

KEKURANGANvsKELEBIHAN
Na
KEKURANGAN
Kejang,apatis,dan
kehilangannafsu
makan.
Dptterjadipada
muntah,diare,
keringatberlebih,dan
dietrendahNa.

KELEBIHAN
Keracunanygdalam
keadaanakut
menyebabkanedema
danhipertensi.

KALIUM/POTTASIUM(K)
Ionbermuatanpositif, AbsorbsidanEkskresi
terutamaterdapatdlm Diabsorbsidiusus
didalamsel(95%).
halus.
PerbandinganNadan 8090%Kyang
dikonsumsidiekskresi
Kdidalamcairan
mllurin.,selebihnya
intraseluleradalah1:
diekskresikanmllfeses,
10,sdgkandidlm
dansedikitmllkeringat
cairanekstraseluler
dancairanlambung.
adalah28:1.

KadarKaliumnormaldarahdipeliharaoleh
ginjaldibwhpengaruhaldosteron.
Kdikeluarkandalambentukiondengan
menggantikanionNamllmekanisme
pertukarandidalamtubulaginjal.

FUNGSIKalium
BersamaNa,K
berperandlm
pemeliharaan
keseimbangancairan&
elektrolitserta
keseimbanganasam
basa.
BersamaCa,berperan
dlmtransmisisarafdan
relaksasiotot.

Sbgkatalisatordlm
banyakreaksibiologik,
terutamadalam
metabolismeenergi&
sintesisglikogendan
protein.
Berperandlm
pertumbuhansel.
Mengaturtekanan
darah

Kebutuhan&SumberK
Kebutuhanminimum
diperkirakan2000mg
sehar.
SumberutamaK
adalahmknsegar,
terutamabuah,sayur,
dankacang2an.hari.

AKIBATKEKURANGAN&
KELEBIHAN
KekuranganKjarang
terjadi.
Dptterjadikrnkehilangan
Kmellsalurancernaatau
ginjalakibatmuntah,diare
kronis,ataukonsumsi>>
laksan
Menyebabkanlemah,lesu,
kehilangannafsumakan,
kelumpuhan,mengigau,
konstipasi

KelebihanK(akut)dpt
menyebabkangagal
jantung.
Terjadibilakonsumsimll
sal.cerna/tidakmllsal.
Cernamelebihi12.0g/m2
tanpadiimbangioleh
kenaikanekskresi.
KelebihanKjugadapat
terjadibilaadagangguan
fungsiginjal.

Klorida(Chloride)/Cl
Mrpkanionutamacairan
ekstraseluler.
Mrpkn0,15%BB
BilabereaksidgnNa
atauH,klorakan
membentukionklor
yangbermuatanCl

AbsorbsidanEkskresi
Diabsorbsididalamusus
halus
Diekskresimllurindan
keringat.
KehilanganClmengikuti
kehilanganNa.

FUNGSICl
Memeliharakeseimbanganasambasa
BersamaNadanKmembantumempertahankan
keseimbangancairandanelektrolit.
Sbgunsurgetahlambung

Kebutuhan&SumberKlorida
Tdkditetapkansecara
khusus.
Kebutuhanminimum
diperkirakan750mg
sehari.

Garamdapur
(terdapatbersamaan
dgnNa).
Makananolahanyang
ditambahkangaram
dapur.
Sayurandanbuah2an.

KALSIUM(Ca)
Mineralyangpaling
FUNGSI
Pembentukantulang
banyakterdapatdi
dangigi.
dalamtubuh:1.52%
perBBorangdewasa Kontraksiotot
Mengaturkepekaan
saraf
99%:jaringankeras
Pentinguntukirama
(tulangdangigi)
jantungyangnormal
Sebagaikatalisator
reaksi2biologis.
Mengaturpembekuan
darah

ABSORBSIDANEKSKRESI
3050%Cayangdiabsorbsitubuh.
Kemampuanabsorbsipadamasa
pertumbuhan,&padaprosesmenua.
Absorbsiterutamatjddibagianatasusushalus
yaituduodenum.
ButuhpH6agardptberadadalamkeadaan
larut.
Absorbsiterutamascraktifdngbantuanalat
angkutproteinpengikatkalsium.
Absorbsipasiftjdpadapermukaansaluran
cerna.

Pengendaliankalsiumdalamdarah
.

VitDdanPTH:
ReabsorbsiCa
diginjal

Kalsitionin:
PengendapanCa
ditulang

Kalsiumdarah
910.4mg/dl

VitD:
AbsorbsiCa
salurancerna

VitD&PTH:
PelepasanCadalam
darah

21

Absorption of Ca from human intestinal tract is enhanced


by :
Acidic pH
Vitamin D
Lactose
Citric acid
And certain amino acids (lysine and glycine).
Physical activity
Absorption is inhibited by :
- oxalate, phosphate, phytic acid
- lack of stomach acid
- vitamin D deficiency
- high phosphorus intake
- high fiber diet
Ca is present in feces, urine and sweat.
Fecal Ca is primarily unabsorbed dietary Ca.
Urinary Ca reflects Ca absorbed but not retained by the
tissues.

PerananCadalamPembekuanDarah
Luka pada Sel

Protombin
Tromboplas

Platelet Darah

Trombin

Fibrinogen
Trombin

Fibrin (gumpalan
darah)

Kalsium Darah

Tromboplastin

23

SUMBERCa
Susudanhasilolah
Ikandimakandengantulang
Serealia,kacang2andanhasilolah,dan
sayuranhijau:jugamengandungserat,fitat
danoksalat

AKIBATKEKURANGAN&
KELEBIHANCa

KEKURANGAN
Padamasapertumbuhan
dapatmenyebabkan
gangguanpertumbuhan.
Ricketsiapadaanak2,
osteomalasiapadaorang
dewasa.
Osteoporosis:tulangkurang
kuat,mudahbengkok,dan
rapuh.
Tetani

KELEBIHAN
Konstipasi
Terganggunya
absorbsiFe,Zn,Cu.
Gangguanginjal:
batuginjal

FOSFOR
Mineralke2terbanyakdalamtubuh
=1%BB
85%sbggaramKalsiumFosfatdlmtulangdan
gigi
DitulangCa:P=2:1
Pterdapatdiotot,cairanekstraseluler,DNA,RNA
Pdalambentukfosfolipid(dindingsel)danfosfat
organik(ATP)

FUNGSI
1.Kalsifikasitulangdangigi
2.MengaturpengalihanEnergi
3.Absorbsidantransportzatgizi
4.Bagianikatantubuhessensial
5.Pengaturankeseimbanganasambasa

ABSORBSI&METABOLISME
diabsorbsisecaraefisiensebagaifosforbebasdidalam
usussetelahdihidrolisisdandilepasdarimakanan.
Absorbsipasif&aktif(dibantuvitaminD).
Didalamdarah:anorganik,fosfolipid
KadarPdidarahdikontrol
1.HormonPTHMenurunkanreabsorbsiPolehginjal
2.KalsitioninMeningkatkanekskresiPolehginjal

FaktorPenghambatAbsorbsiP
1.Asamfitat(serealia)
2.Fe,Mg
3.Asamlemaktakjenuh
4.AntasidygmengandungAl
(membentukgaramygtdklarutair)

29

Kekurangan(jarang
terjadi)kecuali
mengkonsumsiantasid
dalamjumlahbanyak
Kelebihan(jarangterjadi
krndikeluarkanmelalui
urinsecaraefisien)

SUMBERFOSFOR
Terdapatdidalam
semuamakanan,
terutamamakanan
kayaprotein

30

MAGNESIUM(Mg)
Kationdalamcairanintraseluler
60%Mgterdapatdalamtulang(cadangan)dan
gigi,
26%diotot,selebihnyadlm.Jaringanlunak
&cairantubuh
JumlahMgdalamtubuh:2028mg

31

FungsiMg
SistemEnzim
Katalisatorreaksibiologis
Transmisisyaraf,konstraksiototdan
pembekuandarah
MenahanCadalamemailgigi
Krnkelarutanygrendahdapatdigunakan
sbglaxative
32

Kekurangan*Kelebihan
Kekurangan
1.DepositCatidaknormaldibbgjaringan
2.Batuginjal
3.Denyutjantungtidakteratur,
gemetar,kram
Kelebihan(jarangterjadi)
gangguansistemsyarafpusat
33

FaktoryangMempengaruhi
Kebutuhan

Pertambahanjaringan
Konsumsiserattinggi
Konsumsifitattinggi
KonsumsiCaberlebihan

SUMBERMg
Sayuranhijau
34

ABSORBSI
Diabsorbsididlm
AbsorbsiMg
usushalus.
dipengaruhioleh
faktor2yg
Padakonsumsiyang
mempengaruhi
tinggihanya30%
absorbsiCa(kcl
yangdiabsorbsi.
vitaminD).
Padakonsumsirendah
sebanyak60%yang
diabsorbsi.

SULFUR(S)
Merupakanbagianzatzatgiziessensial
co:Vit(Tiamin,Niasin)
:Asamamino(Metionin,sistein,sistin)
Sulfurterutamaterdapatpadatulangrawan,
kulit,rambut,kuku(jar.Ikatkaku)

36

ABSORBSI
DiabsorbsisebagaiAA/sulfurorganik
Diekskresikanmelaluiurin(perbandinganN/S
=1:2)

KECUKUPAN
Cukupbilakonsumsiproteincukup

KELAINAN
Cystinuria

37

The Trace Minerals

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

The Trace Minerals


Food sources
Deficiencies
Toxicities
Interactions
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Iron
Ferrous (Fe++)
Reduced
Ferric (Fe+++)
Oxidized

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Iron Absorption

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Iron: Heme vs. Nonheme

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Iron
Factors enhance nonheme iron
absorption
MFP factor
Vitamin C
Citric acid from
foods

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Iron
Factors enhance nonheme iron
absorption
Lactic acid from foods
HCl from stomach
Sugars

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Iron
Factors inhibit nonheme iron
absorption
Phytates
Fibers
Oxalates

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Iron
Factors inhibit nonheme iron
absorption
Calcium
Phosphorus
EDTA
Tannic acid

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Iron Recycling

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Iron
High risk for iron deficiency
Women in their reproductive
years
pregnant women
Infants and young children
Teenagers

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Iron
Stages of iron deficiency
Iron stores diminish
Transport iron decreases
Hemoglobin production declines

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Both size and


color are normal
in these blood
cells

Blood cells in
iron-deficiency
anemia are
small and pale
because they
contain less
hemoglobin

Iron
Contamination
iron
Iron
supplements

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Iron: In Summary
2001 RDA
Men: 8 mg/day
Women (19-50 years): 18 mg/day
Women (51+ years): 8 mg/day

Upper level for adults: 45 mg/day

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Iron: In Summary
Chief functions in the body
Part of the protein hemoglobin, which
carries oxygen in the blood
Part of the protein myoglobin in
muscles, which makes oxygen
available for muscle contraction
Necessary for the utilization of energy
as part of the cells metabolic
machinery
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Iron: In Summary
Significant sources
Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish,
eggs
Legumes, dried fruits

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Iron: In Summary
Deficiency symptoms
Anemia: weakness, fatigue,
headaches
Impaired work performance and
cognitive function
Impaired immunity
Pale skin, nailbeds, mucous
membranes, and palm creases
Concave nails
Inability to regulate body
temperature
Pica
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Iron: In Summary
Toxicity symptoms
GI distress
Iron overload: infections, fatigue,
joint pain, skin pigmentation, organ
damage

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Zinc
Roles
Metalloenzymes
Absorption
Metallothionein

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Zinc
Enteropancreatic circulation

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Zinc
Zinc supplementation

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Zinc: In Summary
2001 RDA
Men: 11 mg/day
Women: 8 mg/day

Upper level for adults: 40 mg/day

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Zinc: In Summary
Chief functions in the body
Part of many enzymes
Associated with the hormone insulin
Involved in making genetic material
and proteins, immune reactions,
transport of vitamin A, taste
perception, wound healing, the
making of sperm, and the normal
development of the fetus

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Zinc
Significant
sources
Proteincontaining
foods
Red meats,
shellfish
Whole grains

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Zinc
Deficiency
symptoms
Growth
retardation,
delayed sexual
maturation,
impaired immune
function, hair loss,
eye and skin
lesions, loss of
appetite
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Zinc: In Summary
Toxicity symptoms
Loss of appetite, impaired immunity,
low HDL, copper and iron deficiencies

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Iodine
Iodine vs. iodide
Deficiency
Goitrogens

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Iodine: In Summary
2001 RDA for adults: 150 g/day
Upper level: 1100 g/day
Chief functions in the body
A component of two thyroid
hormones that help to regulate
growth, development, and metabolic
rate

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Iodine: In Summary
Significant sources
Iodized salt, seafood, bread,
dairy products, plants grown in
iodine-rich soil and animals fed
those plants

Deficiency disease
Simple goiter
Cretinism

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Iodine: In Summary
Deficiency symptoms
Underactive thyroid gland, goiter
Mental and physical retardation in
infants (cretinism)

Toxicity symptoms
Underactive thyroid gland, elevated
TSH, goiter

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Selenium
2000 RDA for adults: 55 g/day
Upper level for adults: 400 g/day
Chief functions in the body
Defends against oxidation
Regulates thyroid hormone

Significant sources
Seafood, meat
Whole grains, vegetables (depending
on soil content)
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Selenium
Deficiency symptoms
Predisposition to heart disease
characterized by cardiac tissue
becoming fibrous (Keshan disease)

Toxicity symptoms
Loss and brittleness of hair and nails
Skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and
nervous system disorders
Garlic breath odor

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Copper
2001 RDA for adults: 900 g/day
Upper level for adults:
10,000 g/day (10 mg/day)
Chief functions in the body
Necessary for absorption and use of
iron in the formation of hemoglobin
Part of several enzymes

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Copper
Significant sources
Seafood
Nuts, whole grains, seeds, legumes

Deficiency symptoms
Anemia, bone abnormalities

Toxicity symptoms
Liver damage

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Manganese
2001 AI
Men: 2.3 mg/day
Women: 1.8 mg/day

Upper level for adults: 11 mg/day


Chief functions in the body
Cofactor for several enzymes

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Manganese
Significant sources
Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables,
tea

Deficiency symptoms
Rare

Toxicity symptoms
Nervous system disorders

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Fluoride
1997 AI
Men: 3.8 mg/day
Women: 3.1 mg/day

Upper level for adults: 10 mg/day


Chief functions in the body
Involved in the formation of bones
and teeth
Helps to make teeth resistant to
decay
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U.S.
Population
With
Fluoridated
Water

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Fluoride
Significant sources
Drinking water (if fluoride containing
or fluoridated)
Tea, seafood

Deficiency symptoms
Susceptibility to tooth decay

Toxicity symptoms
Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of
teeth)
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Chromium
2001 AI
Men: 35 g/day
Women: 25 g/day

Chief functions in the body


Enhances insulin action

Significant sources
Meats (especially liver)
Whole grains, brewers yeast

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Chromium
Deficiency symptoms
Diabetes-like condition

Toxicity symptoms
None reported

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Molybdenum
2001 AI for adults: 45 g/day
Upper level for adults: 2 mg/day
Chief functions in the body
Cofactor for several enzymes

Significant sources
Legumes, cereals
Organ meats

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Molybdenum
Deficiency symptoms
Unknown

Toxicity symptoms
None reported
Reproductive effects in animals

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Other Trace Minerals


Nickel
Silicon
Vanadium

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Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning


Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Other Trace
Minerals
Cobalt
Boron
Arsenic

Contaminant Minerals
Heavy metals
Lead

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning