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International Date Line

Movin
g
West
1 DAY

Movin
g East
1 DAY
Gain

Standard time
1) Every country selects its standard
meridian.
2) Angular distance between standard
meridian of a nation to Greenwich
meridian time (GMT)

Indian Standard Time

IST 82.5 E
Meridian
IST - 5.5 hours
ahead of GMT, so
GMT+5.5

British launched
Chaibagaan time (1 hr
ahead of IST) 150 years ago
in Assam
After independence
rejected
2007 DST study rejected
admin challenges
Jan 2014 CM of Assam
declare to apply Chaibagaan
time

IST
Chaibag
aan
time
zone

Russian Time Zones

If 12 noon at GMT what


is the time at 75 E?
. Difference = 75
. 15 => 1 hour
. 75 => 5 hours
. East (means add) 12
+5 = 5 pm

Questio
n
Time
zones

If 12 noon at GMT what


is the time at 30 W?
. Difference = 30
. 15 => 1 hour
. 30 => 2 hours
. East (means minus)
12 - 2 = 10 am

Questio
n
Time
zones

Exercise

Q. If it is 10.00 am IST,
then what would be the
local time at Shillong on UPSC
92 deg E Longitude?
Prelims
a) 9.38 am
b) 10.38 am
1999
c) 10.22 am
d) 9.22 am

Exercise

Q. Through which one


of the following groups
UPSC
of countries does
equator pass?
Prelims
a) Brazil, Zambia and
Malaysia
b) Columbia, Kenya and 2006
Indonesia
c) Brazil, Sudan and
Malaysia

Exercise

Q. Which of the
following cities is
nearest to the equator ? UPSC
a) Colombo
Prelims
b) Jakarta
c) Manila
2008
d) Singapore

Exercise

Q. Which one of the


following straits is
UPSC
nearest to the
International Date Line?
Prelims
a) Malacca Strait
2008
b) Bering strait
c) Strait of Florida
d) Strait of Gibraltar

Malacca strait

Strait of Florida

Strait of Gibraltar

Q. Consider the
following countries:
1. Australia
2. Namibia
3. Brazil
4. Chile
Through which of the
above does the Tropic
of Capricorn pass?

Exercise
UPSC
Prelims
2009

a)
b)
c)
d)

1 only
2,3 and 4
1,2 and 3
1,2,3,4

Exercise
UPSC
Prelims
2009

1. Longitude
2. Latitude
3. Reason for
Seasons on
Earth
4. Time zones

NCERT Class6:
Chapter 2Longitudes,
Latitudes and timezones
Map: Greenwich line
passes through
which famous cities
and countries of the
world?

Self Study
NCERT

GEOMORPHOLOGY

Origin of the Earth


Nebula Theory
Theory of Laplace

Geomor
phology
Overvie
w

Origin of earth Nebular theory of


Laplace
Gaseous cloud
of H, He
radiation
coolingContracting
Separation of
outer ring 9
parts => 9
planets

Nebular Theory of Laplace


Heavier
elements
near the core
and lighter at
the surface
Layered
structure of
earths
interior

1. Density study:
2. Temperature study
3. Structural study
-. Direct evidences
-. Indirect evidences

Geomorp
hology

Interior
of the
Earth

Edward Suess
Outer layer
(continents) SIAL
Mantle and oceanic
crust SIMA
Core Ni +Fe

Seismic wave studies


Seismic waves = mechanical waves =
require medium for propagation
Their behaviour changes with changes of
medium
2 imp waves: primary P and secondary S
waves
S waves can travel into only S and G medium
P can travel in all 3 mediums
But speed is highest in S>L>G

S-wave Propagation

P-waves propagation

Observations

Asthenosphere
semi-molten
Beyond
Asthenospheremantle rocks are
dense
Outer core liquid
The inner core is
solid

Class11 Chapter3:
Interior of Earth

Self Study

NCERT

Composition of the interior of the


earth
Earths crust

Earth as a whole

Iron (Fe) - highest


Oxygen (O2)
Silicon (Si)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sulphur (S)
Nickel (Ni)
Calcium (Ca)
Aluminum (Al) - lowest

Oxygen (O2) - highest


Silicon (Si)
Aluminum (Al)
Iron (Fe)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K) - lowest

Igneous rocks
Metamorphous rocks
Sedimentary rocks

Geomor
pho in
Rocks
the
crust

Rock cycle

Rock
formed due to
Types
solidification of magma Igneous
(I) or lava (E)
Rocks
They dont have
strata or layers
Because entire lava is
solidified
They are crystalline
They dont have
fossils

formed due to
lithification of soil
erosion of rocks =>
deposition of granules
=> compaction =>
lithification
Always stratified
They may have fossils

Rock
Types
Sedime
ntary
rocks

Metamorphosed rocks
both igneous and sedimentary rocks
changed under heat or pressure or
both
No fossil
No stratification

Examples of metamorphosed rocks

Consider the following


statements made about
sedimentary rocks:
1. Sedimentary rocks are formed
at earths surface by
hydrological system
2. Formation of sedimentary
rocks involves the weathering
of pre-existing rocks
3. Sedimentary rocks contains
fossils
4. Sedimentary rocks occur in
layers

Questio
n
UPSC
Prelims
2001

Q. Quartzite is
metamorphosed from:
a) Limestone
b) Obsidian
c) Sandstone
d) shale

Questio
n
UPSC
Prelims
2001

Interior of the earth


Different layers
structure and
composition
Rocks
Properties of rocks

Geological time scale of Earth


years Eon

Era

Impor
tance
PreProtero No Life
Cambri zoic
an
Archea 1st life
n
form

4.6
-3.5
billion
3.5
-2.5
billion
2.5 to
545

Hadea 1st fish


n
evelov

Geological
time
scale
of
the
Earth
Years Eon
Era
Period Epoch Import
545 ml Phaner Paleoz
245
ozoic
oic
ml
245
Mesozo
ml-65
ic
ml

65 ml
present

Carbon
iferous

Triassic
,
Jurassi
c,
Cretac
eous
Cenozo tertiary Oiligoc
ic
ene,
Pliocen
e

ance
Coal

Reptile
s =>
Dinosa
urs =>
extinct
Birds
and
mamm
als

Rodinia in Pre-Cambrian

Rodinia break up - Palaeozoic

Mesozoic merger - Pangaea

200 ml years ago break up of


Pangaea

165 ml break up of Gondwana

Movement of India

Continental drift

3 Theories

Alfred Wegener
1st to propound
movement of
continents
His Continental
Drift Theory
His 4 main
observations

1st Observation

Matching Coastlines
zig-saw fit

2nd Observation
Similarity of Age of the rocks

3th
Observation

Fossil
evidences

4th
observation

Palaeoclimatic
evidences
Glacial
evidenced
in Tropical
lands

Continental Drift Theory

Super continent - Pangaea


Ocean Panthalasa
Continent SIAL rocks
Ocean SIMA rocks
Mid- Mesozoic Pangaea broke up and
drifted apart

Limitation of Continental Drift


theory
Driving force?
Gravitational pull of sun and moon
Idea of SIAL and SIMA

Limitation of Continental Drift


theory

Questio
What do you
n
understand by theory of
UPSC
continental drift?
Discuss the prominent
evidences in its
Mains
support. (5)
2013

Q. Which of the
following phenomena
might have influenced
the evolution of
organisms?
1. Continental drift
2. Glacial cycles
Ans. Both

Questio
n
UPSC

Prelims
2014

Arthur Holmes
Arthur Holmes:
Convection current
theory
Convection cells
force behind
drifting of
continents

Continental drift

3 Theories

Sea-floor mapping
During 1940s
and 1950s
Diversity of
ocean-floor
Submarine hills
guoyts MOR
Trench

Ocean floor mapping

Questions:
1) Ocean crust
not older than
mid-Mesozoic
2) Age increase
away from MOR
3) Sea-mounts
deformed at
trenches

Sea floor spreading Theory


1960s Harry Hass and Dietz
answered question regarding ocean
mapping using convection theory
revealed mystery of mid-oceanic
ridge and trenches

Mid- Oceanic Ridge

Mid Oceanic ridge

MOR
Rising limb of current breaks the
Ocean crust
Basaltic eruption
Accumulation of lava ridge => MOR
New Oceanic crust
Divergent limb expansion of ocean
crust

Trenches

MOR - Trench

At trench Ocean
floor destroyed
melted in mantle
Oceanic crust
heavier than
continental crust
Ocean floor act
like conveyor belt
Ocean floor
cyclic process
300 ml yrs

Mariana trench

Q. In which one of the


following oceans the
Diamantina Trench is
located?
a) Pacific Ocean
b) Atlantic Ocean
c) Indian Ocean
d) Arctic Ocean

Questio
n
UPSC
Prelims
2006

Diamantine trench

Palaeo-magentism
Magnetism of
rocks along MOR
Magnetometer
-Magnetic parallel
stripes normal
and reverse
magnetic profile
1st Carlsberg ridge
Indian ocean

Palaeo-magentism
Vine and mattheus
Molten lava get
polarity
geomagnetic field
of that period
-Solidify
Ocean floor
magnetic tape

Palaeo-magnetism
conclusion
1) Periodic reversal of magnetic field of
the earth
2) Rate of sea-floor spreading decided by
age + distance between two equal
magnetic stripes
Atlantic 1.0 cm/ year
Indian 1.5 cm/year
Pacific 6.0 cm/year

Q. Between India and


East Asia, the
navigation time and
distance can be greatly
reduced by which of the
following?
a) Deepening Malacca
strait between
Indonesia and
Malaysia

Questio
n
UPSC
Prelims
2011

Continental drift

3 Theories