Drugs are substances, excluding food that alter the function of the body, while medicines are drugs that are used to treat, prevent, and diagnose illness.

• What is the difference between drugs and medicines?

• What are drug use, drug misuse and drug abuse?
Drug misuse is the inappropriate use of drugs
Examples of drug misuse include:
• • • •

Drug use is the use of drugs (including alcohol) in

any form, legal or illegal, whether by prescription or “recreational purposes”. including prescribed or non- prescribed medicines.
taking medicine left- over from a previous illness. Driving after taking certain medications. Drinking alcohol while taking certain medications. Mixing medications without consulting a physician.

Drug abuse is the use of drugs that results
in impairment of a user’s ability to function normally or that is harmful to the user or others. Poly drug abuse is the simultaneous abuse of more than one drug.

• Drug

Dependence/ Drug Addiction
> It is a compulsive use of drugs despite adverse psychological, physiological, or social consequences.
Its characteristics therefore includes: a.) an overpowering desire or need to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means. b.) a tendency to increase the dose. c.) a psychological and physical dependence on the effects of the drugs. d.) detrimental effects on the individual and on a society. * Physical dependence is a physiological process in which repeated doses of a drug cause the body to adopt to the presence of the drug.

The commonly abused drugs

1.) Cocaine
- a strong stimulant that is derived from the leaves of the cocoa bush. - cocaine hydrochloride is a colorless white, odorless crystalline powder made from the combination of coca leaves, sulfuric acid, kerosene and hydrochloric acid. - may be inhaled through the nose or “snort” it; the effects peak in 15 to 20 minutes and disappear in 60 to 90 minutes. - a cocaine solution maybe injected under the skin, into a muscle or into a vein; the result is an intense high that crest in 3 to 5 minutes and wanes over 30 to 40 minutes.

Powder Cocaine

Crack Cocaine

2.) Caffeine

- found in a wide variety of sources: tea, coffee, soda pop, chocolate- flavored products, prescription drugs and over the counter drugs. - caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant.

* Caffeinism

is a condition of chronic caffeine toxicity or poisoning associated with very heavy use and preoccupation with caffeine. Signs and symptoms include:

-disruption of sleep -wakefulness -mood changes -anxiety -Restlessness -Irritability -Muscle twitching -headache -tingling in ears and drying of mouth

-lethargy and depression -palpitations and irregularities in heartbeat -changes in blood pressure -nausea and vomiting -stomach pain -diarrhea -various body complaints

3.) Marijuana
- a wild plant whose scientific name is Cannabis Sativa. - the leafy material and small stems are dried and crushed for the users to smoke the mixture in rolled cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. - the reins collected from scraping the flowering tops of the plant yield a marijuana product called the “hashis” or ‘hash”, commonly smoked in pipe. - forms of hashish: balls, cakes, or cookie-like sheets. It is frequently smoked, either alone or mixed in with tobacco, as well as baked in cookies or candies (McKin,1991)

Research findings regarding marijuana use among young people:

• The lower the age of initial use of alcohol and cigarettes, the more likely the individual is to use marijuana; • Age of first use of marijuana has steadily decreased; • High school seniors who spend little time at home are more likely to be daily users than are those less socially active; • High school seniors who are daily users of marijuana are much more likely to use other drugs than are less frequent users.

Hemp Plant Cannabis Sativa

Cannabis In a Dried Form

4.) Narcotics
- refer to a second type of depressants that has an inhibiting effect on the awareness or perception of pain

Opiates – natural narcotic drugs

- it’s main source is the poppy Papaver somniferum Morphine – one of the most effective drugs known for the relief of pain Forms: white crystals, hypodermic tablets, and injectable preparations. May be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously Codeine – produces less analgesia and sedation compared with morphine Heroin – most commonly used street narcotic very much desired by narcotic-dependent persons administered by inhalation or smoking

Opium Poppy Papover somniferum

Red Rock Opium

Samples of Heroin

Heroin (powdered form)


1.) Psychological Dependence > also known as addiction, is a pattern of continual cravings fro drug when not experiencing pain. The pattern of drug seeking is compulsive and without control. There is continued use despite physical, financial or social harm. The client also seeks for the consequences of continued use. 2.) Physical Dependence > is seen when a client abruptly stops taking abuse drugs. iety, chills alternating with hot flashes, irritability, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and insomnia. 3.) Accident and Suicide leading to death > If you take too much abusive drugs, you might be involved in a trouble because you’re not in normal state of thinking which can result to any injury. 4.) Slow Mental Response > taking excessive drugs may alter the brain that may lead to slow stimulus effect.,

SCHOOL- BASED PREVENTION APPROACHES • The following discussion will include school standards, assessing druguse problems in schools, school policies, a comprehensive drugprevention curriculum, positive peer programs, resistance training, drugfree activities, student assistance program, early- childhood programs, working with high- risk students, and in- service training.

- The best way that a school can prevent students from using drugs is simply to be a good school. This means having a challenging curriculum; high expectations for all students; knowledgeable teachers; an energetic principal; involved parents; and an orderly, disciplines learning environment. - Effective prevention curricula emphasize a message of “ no use” of alcohol and other drugs, encourage civic responsibility and respect for the law , and teach children the importance of being healthy and drug- free. - Schools should supplement and reinforce their antidrug curricula by establishing and enforcing drug- free school policies. Schools should offer a student assistance program and plan drug- free activities for the students.

- School personnel should be informed about the extent of drug use in their school. School boards, superintendents and other public officials should support school administrators in their efforts to assess the extent of drug problems and to contact them. - To guide and evaluate effective drug prevention efforts, schools can take the following actions: • Conduct anonymous surveys of students and consult with local law enforcement officials to identify the extent of drug problems. • Bring together school personnel to identify areas where drugs are being used and sold. • Meet with parents to help determine the nature and extent of drug use. •Maintain record on drug use and sales in the school over a period of time, for use in improving and evaluating prevention efforts. • Inform the community of the results of the school’s assessment of alcohol and other drug problems.

- School policies should clearly establish that drug use, possessions and sale on the school grounds and at school functions will not be tolerated. - School policies should have the following characteristics: 1.) Specify what constitutes a drug offense by defining: • illegal substance and paraphernalia • the area of the school’s jurisdiction • the types of violation 2.) State the consequences for violating school policy. • a required meeting of the student and his/ her parents with school officials, concluding with a contract signed by the student and parents. • Suspensions, assignments to an alternative school, in school suspension, after school or Saturday detention with the close supervision and demanding academic assignments - it is important that established policies are enforced fairly and consistently. - ensure that everyone understands the policy and the procedures that will be followed in case of infractions - make copies of the school policy available to all parents, teachers, and students and publicize the policy throughout the school and the community. - drug testing in schools. Proposals to employ during testing in schools often create great controversy.

- a model program should have three main objectives: • to maintain and value sound personal health. • to offer healthy avenues for student interests. • determine curriculum content appropriate for the school’s grade level and assessed drug problems. • review existing materials for possible adaptation. • include students in all grades. • teach about drugs in health education classes. • develop expertise in drug prevention.

utilize student peers as role models, facilitators, helpers, and leaders for other school- aged children. provide help to young people who are having problems, who are undergoing normal adolescent stresses, want to confide in someone, and who want to participate in school and community service activities.

- school administrators must be prepared to provide extensive support and guidance in order to ensure successful implementation in peer programs.

- often called refusal skills training, the strategy of resistance training grew out of successful efforts to teach adolescent how to say NO to smoking. - gives children a practical social skills they need to handle such pressure. - Lately, this training has been further expanded to help youth resist peer to participate in criminal activities.

DRUGFREE ACTIVITIE S boys and girls clubs - activities ranging from
to midnight basketball leagues can help relieve the boredom that tempts many young people to become involve with drugs, as well as provide them with responsible adult supervision. - provides young people with a sense of camaraderie and community that can compete with the appeal of youth camps and drug trafficking network.

- teaches and other personnel are trained to recognize alcohol and other drug involvement or related problems that may interfere with the student ability to function at school and then to use a referral process for getting appropriate help for the students. * Student Assistance programs strive to: 1.) identify early, drug involvement or other problems; 2.) refer students to designated “helpers” within the school; 3.) provide in- school support and/ or counseling services and groups. 4.) refer students to outside mental- health; drug – treatment, and family services organization and professionals. - the key component in successful student assistance programs is the endorsement, support and involvement of school officials and administrators, community leaders and organizations, parents and students.


- drug- prevention programs once targeted only high school and junior high school students. - prevention is most effective when young people are reached at a much earlier age, even as early as preschool; before they are faced with the opportunity to try drugs. - effective preschool programs can enhance positive child development as well as work with parents to improve their preventing skills. - research findings suggest that programs can partly counteract the effects of dysfunctional families and exposure to violent surroundings. - shown to reduce the long- term incidence of academic failure , criminal behaviors and other behavioral problems associated with drug use.

- schools must become advocates for students which lack adequate support from their families or the service community service system.

- in- service training for teachers and counselors should include information on the following: `• the laws on all drugs including alcohol and tobacco. • the school’s alcohol and drug policy and implementation. • the school’s drug education and prevention curriculum and programs, and the responsibilities of each teacher and counselor. • drug use, misuse and dependency especially the harmful effects of binge and heavy alcohol drinking and smoking. • high risk and protective factors important at different developmental periods. • influence of family, ethnic, and cultural background including social drinking by adults. • ways to identify students with drug problems and the appropriate time and method to intervene. • available resources and procedures for referring students with problems. • ways to communicate with parents.


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