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Scalars

Scalar quantities

Specified by a single value with an appropriate unit and

has no direction.

Invariant under coordinate transformations

Ex: Mass

coordinate axes.

Vectors

has both magnitude and direction

Ex: Torque

Graphical Method in

Vectors

A vector is a quantity that can be represented

by directed(arrow-tipped) line segment.

represents the magnitude

The direction of the arrow indicates the

direction of the quantity.

Dimension

Just as we can represent vectors graphically, we

can add vectors graphically

The vectors are added by placing the tail of one

vector at the head of the other vector.

The sum is the Resultant Vector

The vector that connects the tail of the first vector to the

head of the second vector.

Example

A person walks 200 m east, pauses, and then continues

400m east

Dimension

The order of addition does not matter

They commute

Dimensions

Polygon Method

-head to tail

Parallelogram Method

-tail to tail

Example:

a person walk 4 m east and then 2 m north.

Recall:

The concepts of trigonometry

Pythagorean theorem

Example

A hiker walks 13km due east, then 18kmnorth, and

finally 3km west.

What is the total distance walked by the hiker?

Determine the total displacement from the starting

point.

Drills

An airplane flying toward 0 at 90km/h is being

blown toward 90 at 50km/h. What is the

resultant velocity of the plane?

Drills

A motorboat travels at 8.5m/s. It heads straight

across a river 110m wide.

If the water flows downstream at a rate of 3.8

m/s, what is the boats resultant velocity?

How long does it take the boat to reach the

opposite shore?

How far downstream is the boat when it

reaches the other side?

Component of Vectors

just as two vectors can be represented by a

single vector(resultant), a single vector can be

resolve into its component.

Vector Resolution-The process of finding the

magnitude of a component in a given direction

y

componen

t

x

component

...Component of Vectors

A person walks 5m in the direction 37 N of E.

How far north and how far east had he walked?

37

Mechanics

The study of the relationship among forces, matter,

and _____.

Kinematics

Deals with the description

of motion without regard to

its _____

Dynamics

Studies the relationship

of motion to its cause

Mechanics

The science that seeks to provide a precise and

and systems of particles, that is, a set of physical

laws mathematically describing the motions of

bodies and aggregates of bodies

When can we say that an object is in motion?

...

What is its position?

How do we locate it?

A point used to describe the location of a body

A bodys position is described relative to this point.

Position

The separation between the body and the reference point

Distance VS Displacement

Displacement

Change of position of an object.

Recall:

Position is described in terms of a reference point.

It is a vector quantity

Distance

A separation of two points without any specified

reference point.

It is a scalar quantity

to the center of a large, flat field. Each is given

a meter stick, a compass, a calculator, a

shovel, and (in a different order for each

contestant) the following three displacements:

B: 57.3m, 36.0 south of west

C: 17.8m due south

The three displacements lead to the point in

the field where the keys to a new Porsche are

buried. Two players start measuring

immediately, but the winner first calculates

where to go. What does she calculate?

Average Velocity-defined as the particles displacement divided

by the time interval during which that displacement occurred:

divided by the total time it takes to travel that distance

Average Speed is a SCALAR quantity

specific instant of

time or specific point

along the path.

-It equals the instantaneous rate of change

of position with time

-in Physics an instant has no duration at all;

it refers to a single value of time

-defined in higher physics as the limit of the

average velocity as the time interval

approaches zero

Drills

A motorboat travels at 8.5m/s. It heads straight

across a river 110m wide.

If the water flows downstream at a rate of 3.8

m/s, what is the boats resultant velocity?

How long does it take the boat to reach the

opposite shore?

How far downstream is the boat when it

reaches the other side?

while a plane heads toward 125 at

152km/h. What is the resultant

velocity of the plane?

3. Two cars 100m apart are approaching each other. One car

is travelling at 3m/s and the other is at 5m/s. How far from

their initial position must each car travel before they will

meet? What is the time elapsed?

5m/s

3m/s

Seatwork

1. A student went to the canteen at a walking speed of 0.3m/s.

He had gone 10m already when his friend decided to follow

him by walking at a speed of 1.1m/s. How much distance must

his classmate have to travel before he could overtake him?

10

m

Acceleration

Acceleration- describes the rate of change of velocity with

time

Note: velocity can change in three ways

a. Change in speed, either increase or

decrease

b. Change in direction

c. Change in speed as well as direction

Recall: Velocity describes the rate of change of position with

time

- Like velocity, acceleration is a vector

quantity

divided by the time interval to which that change occurred:

time in seconds, then average acceleration is in meters

per second per second, or (m/s)/s.

Constant Acceleration

Acceleration that does not change in time

Acceleration is uniform

Motions of this kind is termed as uniformly accelerated motions

The velocity-time graph of constant acceleration is a straight line

Velocity of an object with constant

acceleration

Example:

1. If a car with a velocity of 2.0 m/s at t=0 accelerates at a rate of

+4.0m/s/s for 2.5s, what is its velocity at time t=2.5s?

v=?

4m/s/s

2.5s

t=0

2m/s

Displacement When Velocity and Time Are

Known

Recall: d=vt -displacement when an object is

moving with constant velocity

Note: If an object is uniformly accelerating, the velocity

is replaced by the average velocity

Sample Problem

1. What is the displacement of a train as it is accelerated

uniformly from +11m/s to +33m/s in a 20.0-s interval

11m/s

d=?

33m/s

20s

7.5m/s during 4.5s. The bikes displacement is +19m.

What was the initial velocity of the bike?

v=?

7.5m/s

d=9m

4.4s

- If the initial velocity, acceleration, and time interval are

known, the displacement of an object can be found by

combining equations already used.

Recall:

equation into the second equation

an object that starts with an initial velocity and

accelerates uniformly

reduces to

Sample Problems

1. A car starting from rest accelerates uniformly at

+6.1m/s/s for 7s. How far does the car move?

t=7s

d=?

2. Starting from rest, the race car moves 110m in the first 5.0s

of uniform acceleration. What is the cars acceleration?

t=5s

d=110m

Known

_ combine the equations for final velocity and

displacement to form equation relating initial and final

velocities, acceleration, and displacement in which time

does not appear

Recall:

The second equation is now

solved for t and substituted

in the first

Solving for

Sample Problem

1. An airplane must reach a velocity of 71m/s for takeoff. If the

runway is 1.0km long, what must the constant acceleration be

71m/s

1km

a=?

constant rate of 3.0m/s/s over +535m. What is its final

velocity?

21m/s

535m

3m/s/s

seatwork

A motorist traveling with constant

velocity of 15m/s passes a schoolcrossing corner, where the speed

limit is 10m/s. Just as the motorist

passes, a police officer on a

motorcycle stopped at the corner

starts off in pursuit with constant

acceleration of 3m/s/s. How much

time elapses before the officer

catches up with the motorist?

acceleration

Background:

Aristotle vs. Galileo

Aristotles

view

Aristotle divided motion into two main classes: natural and

violent motion

Natural motion was thought to proceed from the nature of

objects-every object in the universe has a proper place

-heavier objects were expected to strive harder

-objects were thought to fall at speeds proportional to

their weights.

-the heavier the object, the faster it was thought to fall.

Aristotles view

violent motion-resulted from pushing or pulling forces.

violent motion was imposed motion.

Galileos view

-Galileo was concerned with how things move rather than why

things move.

-he showed that experiment rather than logic is the best

test of knowledge.

-he developed the concept of acceleration in his

experiments on inclined planes.

Galileo found

greater

acceleration for

steeper inclines.

The ball attains

its maximum

acceleration

when the incline

is tipped

vertically

acceleration that is constant and independent of its size or

weight.

Note:

Galileo is right if we neglect the effects of

1. the air

2.the earths rotation

3. the decrease of acceleration with increasing

altitude

We call this idealized motion-where an object is falling free of

all restraints except for the influence of gravity as free fall

-The constant acceleration of a freely falling body is called

the acceleration due to gravity.

- We denote its magnitude with the letter g

-at or near the earths surface the value of g is approximately

9.8m/s/s

-The exact value varies with location

Note:

all problems involving motion of falling objects can be

solve by using constant-acceleration equations.

Recall:

Acceleration a is

replaced by

acceleration due to

gravity g

Sample problem

1. An apple falls freely from a tree.

a. What is its velocity after 0.5seconds

b. How far does the apple fall during this time-0.5s

Sample problem

2. A tennis ball is thrown straight up in the air with an

initial velocity of 22.5m/s. How high does the ball rise.

from which it was thrown. How long does the ball remain

in the air?

Seatwork

1. Ten seconds after starting from rest, a

freely-falling object will have a speed of

about _____.

2. An object is in free-fall. At one instant, it

travels at a speed of 50m/s. Exactly one

second later, its speed is about ______

3. Starting from rest, the distance a freelyfalling object will fall in 10seconds is about

______

4. A man falls 1.0m to the floor.

a. how long does the fall take

b. how fast is he going when he hits the

floor

5. A pitcher throws a ball straight up with an

initial speed of 27m/s

a. How long does it take the ball to reach

its highest point?

b. How high does the ball rise above its

Sample Problem:

1. You are on the roof of a Physics building, 46m

above the ground. Your Physics teacher, who is 1.8m

tall, is walking alongside the building at a constant

speed 1.20m/s . If you wish to drop an egg on your

teachers head, where should your teacher be when

you release the egg? Assume that the egg is in free

fall.

a water melon from the roof of a building. He

hears the sound of the watermelon going splat

3.00s later. How high is the building? The speed

of sound is 340m/s. Ignore air resistance?

340m/s

Motion-Motion

Dimensions

Projectile

Projectile- any

body that is givenin

an Two

initial velocity

and then

follows a path determined entirely by the effects of

gravitational acceleration and air resistance

2. a package dropped from an airplane

3. a bullet shot from a rifle

Trajectory- the path followed by a projectile

Note: we neglect the effect of air resistance and the curvature

and rotation of the earth.

-The key to analysis of projectile motion is that we can treat the

x- and y- coordinate separately

-The x- component of acceleration is zero, and the ycomponent is constant

-we can analyze projectile motion as a combination of

horizontal motion with constant velocity and vertical

motion with constant acceleration

Vertical

component

Horizontal

component

gravity

Combined horizontal

and vertical motion

Vertical motion only

with gravity

equal horizontal

distances in equal

time interval. The

vertical component

changes

projectile would follow a

straight path

it falls beneath this line

the same vertical

distance it would fall if

released from rest

60

75

45

30

15

10m/s

20m/s

30m/s

40m/s

10m/s

20m/s

30m/s

40m/s

Sample problem

1. A stone is thrown horizontally at 15m/s from the top

of a cliff 44m high. How long does the stone take to

reach the bottom of the cliff? How far from the base

of the cliff does the stone strike the ground.

2. The initial velocity of the ball was 4.47m/s at an

angle of 66degrees above the horizontal. How long

did it took the ball to land? How high did the ball

flew. What was its range?

Seatwork

1. A motorcycle stunt rider rides off the edge of a cliff.

Just at the edge his velocity is horizontal, with

magnitude 9.0m/s. Find the motorcycles position,

distance from the edge of the cliff, and velocity

after 0.50s.

2. The Germans used a long-range gun named Big

Bertha in World War I to bombard Paris. Its muzzle

velocity was 1450m/s. Find its predicted range,

maximum height, and projectile time of flight if

angle is 55

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