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TENSION MEMBER

Tension member are used in various types of structures


and include truss members, bracing for buildings and
bridges, cable in suspended roof system, and cable in
suspension and cable stayed bridges.
The frequently used cross-sectional shape are:

The stress in axially loaded tension member is


given by

P
f
A

Where P is the magnitude of the load


and A is the cross-sectional area.
If the cross-sectional area of a tension
member varies along its length, the stress is
function of the particular section under
consideration.
The presence of holes in a member will
influence the stress at a cross section
through the hole or holes. At this locations,
the cross-sectional area will be reduced by
an amount equal to the area removed by the
holes

If the cross-sectional area of a tension member varies along its


length, the stress is function of the particular section under
consideration.
The presence of holes in a member will influence the stress at a
cross section through the hole or holes. At this locations, the crosssectional area will be reduced by an amount equal to the area
removed by the holes
The reduced area is referred to
as the net area or net section
(LUAS BERSIH) and
unreduced area is the gross
area

Design Strength
A tension member can fail by reaching one of
the two limit :
- excessive deformation initiated by yielding
- fracture
The nominal strength in yielding is

Pn Fy A g
The nominal strength in fracture is

Pn Fu A e

Where:
Ae is the effective net area, which
may be equal to either the net area
or, in some case, a smaller area

Although yielding will first occur on the net cross section, the defomation
within the length of the connection will generally be smaller than the
deformation in the remainder of the tension member.
The resistance factors:

for yielding, t = 0.9


for fracture, t = 0.75
The LRFD equation for tension members then can be written as
or

i Qi t Pn

Where Pu is the governing


combination of factored loads
In detail, for the two limit states, both of the following conditions must
be satisfied

Pu t Pn

Pu 0.90Fy A g

Pu 0.75Fu A e

Use the smaller one

Latihan dulu ya

Effective Area
The manner in which the tension is connected is the most
important that influencing its performance. A connection
almost always weakens the member.
Shear lag occurs when some elements of the cross section
are connected, as when only one leg of an angle is
bolted to a gusset plate.

The effective net area is :


for bolted coonnections: Ae= An U
for welded connections: Ae= Ag U
Where the reduction factorU is given by:
x
U 1 0.9
L

xx is the distance from the centroid of


the connected area of the plane of the
connection, L is the length of the
connection.

The AISC Commentary gives values of the reduction factor


U based on average of x L that may be used in lieu of
1 x L
1.

For W-, M-, and S-shapes that have a width-to-depth ratio of at


least 2/3 (and tee-shapes cut from them) and are connected
through the flanges with at least three fasteners per line on the
direction of applied load

U = 0.90
2.

For all other shapes (including built-up shapes) with at least three
fasteners per line,

U = 0.85
3.

For all members with only two fasteners per line,

U = 0.75

The average values for welded connections are


as follows:
1. For W-, M-, and S-shapes with a width-todepth ratio of at least 2/3 (and tee-shapes cut
from them) and connected at the flanges
U = 0.90
2.

For all other shapes,

U = 0.85

Special cases for welded connections


For tension members such as single plates, the
effective net area is taken as full computer net
area.
There is an exception for plates connected by
longitudinal welds at their ends.
An = Ag U

Where:
U = 1.0 for L 2w
= 0.87 for 1.5w L < 2w
= 0.75 for w L < 1.5w
w = distance between the welds

AISC B3 also gives for any


member connected by tranverse
welds alone,
Ae = A U
A = area of the connected element of
the cross section
U = 1.0

Staggered Fastener
If a tension member connection is made with bolts, the net area will be
maximized if the fasteners are placed in a single line. Sometimes space
limitation necessitate using more than one line. The reduction in crosssectional area is minized if the fasteners are arranged in a staggered
pattern.

If the amount of stagger is small enough,


the influence of an offset hole may be felt
by nearby cross section, and fracture
along an inclined path such as abcd.
In such a case,stresses on the inclined
portion b c are a combination of tensile
and shearing stresses.
Cochrane (1922) proposeda reduced diameter, given by

s2
d' d
4g

Where d is the hole diameter, s is the stagger of the


bolts (spacing in the direction of the load), and g is the
gage (tranverse spacing)

The AISC Specification gives the net width as follows

s2
wn wg d
4g

Where wn is the net width, wg is the gross


width

Block Shear
For certain connection configurations,
a segment or block of material at
the end of the member can tear
out.
The procedure is based on the
assumption as follows:
fracture on the shear surface
accompanied by yielding on the
tension surface,

Rn 0.6 Fu Anv Fy Agt

fracture on the tension surface accompanies yielding on the shear surface

Rn 0.6 Fy Agv Fu Ant

= 0.75

AISC gives the block shear strength as follows


a. When FuAnt 0.6 FuAnv

Rn 0.6 Fy Agv Fu Ant 0.6 Fu Anv Fu Ant


b. When FuAnt < 0.6 FuAnv

Rn 0.6 Fu Anv Fy Agt 0.6 Fu Anv Fu Ant

Design of Tension Member


The design of tension member involves finding a member with
adequate gross and net areas

Q Rn
For tension members, this esxpression takes the form

Pu t Pn

or

t Pn Pu

Where Pu is the sum of the factored loads. To prevent yielding

0.90 Fy Ag Pu or

Ag

To avoid fracture

0.75Fu Ae Pu

or

Ae

Pu
0.90 Fy

Pu
0.75 Fu

The slenderness ratio limitation will be satisfied if r

L
300