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Tension Member

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and include truss members, bracing for buildings and

bridges, cable in suspended roof system, and cable in

suspension and cable stayed bridges.

The frequently used cross-sectional shape are:

given by

P

f

A

and A is the cross-sectional area.

If the cross-sectional area of a tension

member varies along its length, the stress is

function of the particular section under

consideration.

The presence of holes in a member will

influence the stress at a cross section

through the hole or holes. At this locations,

the cross-sectional area will be reduced by

an amount equal to the area removed by the

holes

length, the stress is function of the particular section under

consideration.

The presence of holes in a member will influence the stress at a

cross section through the hole or holes. At this locations, the crosssectional area will be reduced by an amount equal to the area

removed by the holes

The reduced area is referred to

as the net area or net section

(LUAS BERSIH) and

unreduced area is the gross

area

Design Strength

A tension member can fail by reaching one of

the two limit :

- excessive deformation initiated by yielding

- fracture

The nominal strength in yielding is

Pn Fy A g

The nominal strength in fracture is

Pn Fu A e

Where:

Ae is the effective net area, which

may be equal to either the net area

or, in some case, a smaller area

Although yielding will first occur on the net cross section, the defomation

within the length of the connection will generally be smaller than the

deformation in the remainder of the tension member.

The resistance factors:

for fracture, t = 0.75

The LRFD equation for tension members then can be written as

or

i Qi t Pn

combination of factored loads

In detail, for the two limit states, both of the following conditions must

be satisfied

Pu t Pn

Pu 0.90Fy A g

Pu 0.75Fu A e

Latihan dulu ya

Effective Area

The manner in which the tension is connected is the most

important that influencing its performance. A connection

almost always weakens the member.

Shear lag occurs when some elements of the cross section

are connected, as when only one leg of an angle is

bolted to a gusset plate.

for bolted coonnections: Ae= An U

for welded connections: Ae= Ag U

Where the reduction factorU is given by:

x

U 1 0.9

L

the connected area of the plane of the

connection, L is the length of the

connection.

U based on average of x L that may be used in lieu of

1 x L

1.

least 2/3 (and tee-shapes cut from them) and are connected

through the flanges with at least three fasteners per line on the

direction of applied load

U = 0.90

2.

For all other shapes (including built-up shapes) with at least three

fasteners per line,

U = 0.85

3.

U = 0.75

as follows:

1. For W-, M-, and S-shapes with a width-todepth ratio of at least 2/3 (and tee-shapes cut

from them) and connected at the flanges

U = 0.90

2.

U = 0.85

For tension members such as single plates, the

effective net area is taken as full computer net

area.

There is an exception for plates connected by

longitudinal welds at their ends.

An = Ag U

Where:

U = 1.0 for L 2w

= 0.87 for 1.5w L < 2w

= 0.75 for w L < 1.5w

w = distance between the welds

member connected by tranverse

welds alone,

Ae = A U

A = area of the connected element of

the cross section

U = 1.0

Staggered Fastener

If a tension member connection is made with bolts, the net area will be

maximized if the fasteners are placed in a single line. Sometimes space

limitation necessitate using more than one line. The reduction in crosssectional area is minized if the fasteners are arranged in a staggered

pattern.

the influence of an offset hole may be felt

by nearby cross section, and fracture

along an inclined path such as abcd.

In such a case,stresses on the inclined

portion b c are a combination of tensile

and shearing stresses.

Cochrane (1922) proposeda reduced diameter, given by

s2

d' d

4g

bolts (spacing in the direction of the load), and g is the

gage (tranverse spacing)

s2

wn wg d

4g

width

Block Shear

For certain connection configurations,

a segment or block of material at

the end of the member can tear

out.

The procedure is based on the

assumption as follows:

fracture on the shear surface

accompanied by yielding on the

tension surface,

= 0.75

a. When FuAnt 0.6 FuAnv

b. When FuAnt < 0.6 FuAnv

The design of tension member involves finding a member with

adequate gross and net areas

Q Rn

For tension members, this esxpression takes the form

Pu t Pn

or

t Pn Pu

0.90 Fy Ag Pu or

Ag

To avoid fracture

0.75Fu Ae Pu

or

Ae

Pu

0.90 Fy

Pu

0.75 Fu

L

300

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