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LINEAR

EQUATIONS IN
TWO VARIABLES

Definition of Linear
Equation In
Two
Variables
A linear equation in two variable x and y is
an equation that can be written in the
form
ax + by + c = 0, where a ,b and c
are real numbers and a and b is not equal
to 0.
Example: 2x+3y=20
if we take x=10,y=0 as solution,
We get 2(10)+3(0)=20
=> 20=20
L.H.S=R.H.S.

Types of Solutions
One solution the lines of two equations

intersects at only one point.(one solution)


Also known as consistent lines
No solution the lines of the equations dont
intersect.(no solution)
Also known as inconsistent lines
Infinite solutions the lines are coincident
Also known as consistent/dependent lines

Types of Solutions

Inconsistent
lines
(no solution)

Consistent
lines
(one
solution)

Consistent lines
(infinite

Solving
Linear
A pairEquations
of linear equations in two
variables can be solved by the:
(i) Graphical method
(ii) Algebraic method

Graphical Solutions
of a
Equation
Linear
Let us consider
the following system of
two simultaneous linear equations in
variable.
2x y = -1
3x + 2y = 9
Here we assign any value to one of
two variables and then determine
value of the other variable from
given equation.

two

the
the
the

For the equation


2x y = -1 ---(1)
2x +1 = y
Y = 2x + 1

3x + 2y = 9 --- (2)
2y = 9 3x
2Y = 9- 3x

0
1

2
5

3
0

-1
6

To solve a pair of linear


equations in two variables
algebraically,
we
have
following methods:(i) Substitution method
(ii) Elimination method
(iii) Cross-multiplication
method

Substitution
Method
STEPS
1. Obtain the two equations. Let the
equations be
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ----------- (i)
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 ----------- (ii)
2. Choose either of the two equations,
say (i) and find the value of one variable
, say y in terms of x
3. Substitute the value of y, obtained in

Ste
equation
ps

4. Solve the
obtained
in the previous step to get the
value of x.
5. Substitute the value of x and
get the value of y.
Let us take an example
x + 2y = -1 ------------------ (i)
2x 3y = 12 -----------------(ii)

x + 2y = -1
x = -2y -1 ------- (iii)
Substituting the value of
equation (ii), we get
2x 3y = 12
2 ( -2y 1) 3y = 12
- 4y 2 3y = 12
- 7y = 14
=> y = -2

in

Putting the value of y in eq. (iii), we get


x = - 2y -1
x = - 2 x (-2) 1
=41
=3
Hence the solution of the equation is
( 3, - 2 )

Elimination Method
In this method, we eliminate one

of the two variables to obtain an


equation in one variable which can
easily be solved. Putting the value
of this variable in any of the given
equations, the value of the other
variable can be obtained.

For example: we want to solve,


3x + 2y = 11
2x + 3y = 4
Let 3x + 2y = 11 --------- (i)
2x + 3y = 4 ---------(ii)
Multiply 3 in equation (i) and 2 in equation (ii) and
subtracting eq iv from iii, we get
9x + 6y = 33 ------ (iii)
4x + 6y = 8 ------- (iv)
5x = 25
x = 5

putting the value of X in equation (ii)

we get,
2x + 3y = 4
2 x 5 + 3y = 4
10 + 3y = 4
3y = 4 10
3y = - 6
y=-2
Hence, x = 5 and y = -2

Cross Multiplication Method


To solve this pair of equations for x
and y using CROSS
MULTIPLICATION METHOD , well
arrange the variables and their
coefficients a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 and
constant terms c1 , c2

Cross Multiplication
Method

Ste
ps

pplications of Linear
quations
In the Kitchen

If you've ever doubled a favorite recipe, you've


applied a linear equation. If one cake equals 1/2 cup
of butter, 2 cups of flour, 3/4 tsp. of baking
powder, three eggs and 1 cup of sugar and milk, then
two cakes equal 1 cup of butter, 4 cups of flour, 1
1/2 tsp. of baking powder, six eggs and 2 cups of
sugar and milk. To get twice the output, you put in
twice the input. You might not have known you were
using a linear equation, but that's exactly what you
did.

Applications of Linear
Equations
Melting Snow

Suppose a water district wants to know how much


snowmelt runoff it can expect this year. The melt
comes from a big valley, and every year the
district measures the snowpack and the water
supply. It gets 60 acre-feet from every 6 inches
of snowpack. This year surveyors measure 6 feet
and 4 inches of snow. The district put that in the
linear expression (60 acre-feet/6 inches) * 76
inches. Water officials can expect 760 acre-feet
of snowmelt from the water.

Applications of Linear
Equations
Looking Good
Ralph has also noticed that it's springtime. The
grass has been growing. It grew 2 inches in two
weeks. He doesn't like the grass to be taller than
2 1/2 inches, but he doesn't like to cut it shorter
than 1 3/4 inches. How often does he need to cut
the lawn? He just puts that calculation in his linear
expression, where (14 days/2 inches) * 3/4 inch
tells him he needs to cut his lawn every 5 1/4 days.
He just ignores the 1/4 and figures he'll cut the
lawn every five days.

pplications of Linear
quations

Just for Fun

It's springtime and Irene wants to fill her swimming


pool. She doesn't want to stand there all day, but
she doesn't want to waste water over the edge of
the pool, either. She sees that it takes 25 minutes
to raise the pool level by 4 inches. She needs to fill
the pool to a depth of 4 feet; she has 44 more
inches to go. She figures out her linear equation: 44
inches * (25 minutes/4 inches) is 275 minutes, so
she knows she has four hours and 35 minutes more
to wait.

Applications of Linear
Equations
Everywhere

It's not hard to see other similar situations. If you


want to buy beer for the big party and you've got
$60 in your pocket, a linear equation tells you how
much you can afford. Whether you need to bring in
enough wood for the fire to burn overnight,
calculate your paycheck, figure out how much paint
you need to redo the upstairs bedrooms or buy
enough gas to make it to and from your Aunt
Sylvia's, linear equations provide the answers.
Linear systems are, literally, everywhere.

Submitted by:
Name

S.Saipreeti
Ishaan Talwar
Hitanshi Sharma
Aradhita Mishra
Manuela Angel
Vatsa Agarwal

Roll number

34
2
21
43
35
5

THAN
K YOU