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EQUATIONS IN

TWO VARIABLES

Definition of Linear

Equation In

Two

Variables

A linear equation in two variable x and y is

an equation that can be written in the

form

ax + by + c = 0, where a ,b and c

are real numbers and a and b is not equal

to 0.

Example: 2x+3y=20

if we take x=10,y=0 as solution,

We get 2(10)+3(0)=20

=> 20=20

L.H.S=R.H.S.

Types of Solutions

One solution the lines of two equations

Also known as consistent lines

No solution the lines of the equations dont

intersect.(no solution)

Also known as inconsistent lines

Infinite solutions the lines are coincident

Also known as consistent/dependent lines

Types of Solutions

Inconsistent

lines

(no solution)

Consistent

lines

(one

solution)

Consistent lines

(infinite

Solving

Linear

A pairEquations

of linear equations in two

variables can be solved by the:

(i) Graphical method

(ii) Algebraic method

Graphical Solutions

of a

Equation

Linear

Let us consider

the following system of

two simultaneous linear equations in

variable.

2x y = -1

3x + 2y = 9

Here we assign any value to one of

two variables and then determine

value of the other variable from

given equation.

two

the

the

the

2x y = -1 ---(1)

2x +1 = y

Y = 2x + 1

3x + 2y = 9 --- (2)

2y = 9 3x

2Y = 9- 3x

0

1

2

5

3

0

-1

6

equations in two variables

algebraically,

we

have

following methods:(i) Substitution method

(ii) Elimination method

(iii) Cross-multiplication

method

Substitution

Method

STEPS

1. Obtain the two equations. Let the

equations be

a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ----------- (i)

a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 ----------- (ii)

2. Choose either of the two equations,

say (i) and find the value of one variable

, say y in terms of x

3. Substitute the value of y, obtained in

Ste

equation

ps

4. Solve the

obtained

in the previous step to get the

value of x.

5. Substitute the value of x and

get the value of y.

Let us take an example

x + 2y = -1 ------------------ (i)

2x 3y = 12 -----------------(ii)

x + 2y = -1

x = -2y -1 ------- (iii)

Substituting the value of

equation (ii), we get

2x 3y = 12

2 ( -2y 1) 3y = 12

- 4y 2 3y = 12

- 7y = 14

=> y = -2

in

x = - 2y -1

x = - 2 x (-2) 1

=41

=3

Hence the solution of the equation is

( 3, - 2 )

Elimination Method

In this method, we eliminate one

equation in one variable which can

easily be solved. Putting the value

of this variable in any of the given

equations, the value of the other

variable can be obtained.

3x + 2y = 11

2x + 3y = 4

Let 3x + 2y = 11 --------- (i)

2x + 3y = 4 ---------(ii)

Multiply 3 in equation (i) and 2 in equation (ii) and

subtracting eq iv from iii, we get

9x + 6y = 33 ------ (iii)

4x + 6y = 8 ------- (iv)

5x = 25

x = 5

we get,

2x + 3y = 4

2 x 5 + 3y = 4

10 + 3y = 4

3y = 4 10

3y = - 6

y=-2

Hence, x = 5 and y = -2

To solve this pair of equations for x

and y using CROSS

MULTIPLICATION METHOD , well

arrange the variables and their

coefficients a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 and

constant terms c1 , c2

Cross Multiplication

Method

Ste

ps

pplications of Linear

quations

In the Kitchen

applied a linear equation. If one cake equals 1/2 cup

of butter, 2 cups of flour, 3/4 tsp. of baking

powder, three eggs and 1 cup of sugar and milk, then

two cakes equal 1 cup of butter, 4 cups of flour, 1

1/2 tsp. of baking powder, six eggs and 2 cups of

sugar and milk. To get twice the output, you put in

twice the input. You might not have known you were

using a linear equation, but that's exactly what you

did.

Applications of Linear

Equations

Melting Snow

snowmelt runoff it can expect this year. The melt

comes from a big valley, and every year the

district measures the snowpack and the water

supply. It gets 60 acre-feet from every 6 inches

of snowpack. This year surveyors measure 6 feet

and 4 inches of snow. The district put that in the

linear expression (60 acre-feet/6 inches) * 76

inches. Water officials can expect 760 acre-feet

of snowmelt from the water.

Applications of Linear

Equations

Looking Good

Ralph has also noticed that it's springtime. The

grass has been growing. It grew 2 inches in two

weeks. He doesn't like the grass to be taller than

2 1/2 inches, but he doesn't like to cut it shorter

than 1 3/4 inches. How often does he need to cut

the lawn? He just puts that calculation in his linear

expression, where (14 days/2 inches) * 3/4 inch

tells him he needs to cut his lawn every 5 1/4 days.

He just ignores the 1/4 and figures he'll cut the

lawn every five days.

pplications of Linear

quations

pool. She doesn't want to stand there all day, but

she doesn't want to waste water over the edge of

the pool, either. She sees that it takes 25 minutes

to raise the pool level by 4 inches. She needs to fill

the pool to a depth of 4 feet; she has 44 more

inches to go. She figures out her linear equation: 44

inches * (25 minutes/4 inches) is 275 minutes, so

she knows she has four hours and 35 minutes more

to wait.

Applications of Linear

Equations

Everywhere

want to buy beer for the big party and you've got

$60 in your pocket, a linear equation tells you how

much you can afford. Whether you need to bring in

enough wood for the fire to burn overnight,

calculate your paycheck, figure out how much paint

you need to redo the upstairs bedrooms or buy

enough gas to make it to and from your Aunt

Sylvia's, linear equations provide the answers.

Linear systems are, literally, everywhere.

Submitted by:

Name

S.Saipreeti

Ishaan Talwar

Hitanshi Sharma

Aradhita Mishra

Manuela Angel

Vatsa Agarwal

Roll number

34

2

21

43

35

5

THAN

K YOU

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