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CHAPTER 9 :

DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM
by :
MUHD YAQRIB BIN YAACOB
EUNICE SHANTINI A/L SELVARAJOO
ANNAS MAWADDAH BINTI MAZLEE
SYAHIRAH ATIKAH BINTI MOHD
SOBRI
NOR NAJWA NAJIHAH BINTI MD
NADZRI

Introduction :
What is water pollution
?
WATER POLLUTION
is thecontaminationofwaterbodies (e.g. lakes,
rivers, oceans) . This form of environmental
degradation occurs whenpollutantsare directly or
indirectly discharged intowaterbodies without
adequate treatment to remove harmful
compounds.

CAUSES OF WATER
POLLUTION

TABLE OF
SOURCES ,
POLLUTANTS
AND EFFECTS
OF WATER
POLLUTION

FECT OF WATER POLLUT


Addition of oxygen not sufficient to support
life
Addition of oil destroys life by reducing
oxygen and catching fine , destroying
ecosystem
Reduce reproduction rate of animals
Imbalance created in secondary food chains
Reduce activity of immune system

Introduction :
What is
eutrophication?
Eutrophication
is the process whereby a body of water
become rich in dissolved nutrients
(nitrates or phosphates) either naturally
or due to human activities.
The increase nutrient promote rapid
growth of algae when they are
deposited in lake, rivers .
The excessive growth of algae is often

THE SEQUENCE OF
EUTROPHICATION

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN
DEMAND (BOD)
The amount of oxygen taken up by the
microorganism that decompose organic waste
matter in water .

USES OF BOD
As a measure of certain types of organic
pollutants in water .
Measure the level of water pollutant
Indicates the presence of microorganism
which suggest a level of pollution .

Introduction :
What is thermal
pollution ?
Thermal pollution
is the release of excessive heat into the
environment.

Explanation :
Many factories, electric power stations and
nuclear reactors are built near rivers or lake
to facilitate the supply of water as a cooling
medium for the machines..
The river or lake water is recycled through a
cooling condenser system and channelled
back to the river or lake, thereby raising the
temperature of the aquatic environment.
This causes the average temperature of
water to rise above the normal value.

DIAGRAMMATIC
PRESENTATION OF
THERMAL POLLUTION

EFFECT OF HEAT ON AQUATIC LIFE


Change in composition of the
species living in habitat
Increases the rate of
decomposition of organism
which will in turn, increase
the BOD of water .
May contribute to algae
bloom
Oxygen dissolved in water
decreases.

This 1988 thermal image of


the Hudson River highlights
temperature changes
caused by discharge of 2.5
billion gallons of water each
day from the Indian Point
power plant. The plant sits
in the upper right of the
photo hot water in the
discharge canal is visible in
yellow and red, spreading
and cooling across the
entire width of the river.
Two additional outflows
from the Lovett coal-fired
power plant are also clearly
visible against the natural
temperature of the water, in
green and blue.

CONTROL OF THERMAL
POLLUTION
Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of
water designed for cooling
byevaporation,convection, and
radiation
Cooling towers, which transfer waste
heat to theatmospherethrough
evaporation and/orheat transfer
Cogeneration, a process where
waste heat is recycled for domestic
and/or industrial heating purposes

THE
FUT
URE
IS
NOW

THE
END