Social Justice: Racism 種族主義

T. Kathy  
Center for International Studies at Huey Deng High School(
慧燈中學國際交流中心)

Guiding Questions: What is racism and how does it affect
me and others? Does Taiwan have a race problem? What
can I do to promote racial equality?

Contents
What is Racism? Categories, Types
Racism in America
Institutional Racism
Racism in Taiwan?

Definitions of Racism 1. 種族主義;種族歧視

2. The belief that human races have
special characteristics 特徵 the idea that
one’s own race is superior 好於平均的
and has the right to rule or dominate
others. (Germany)
3. Offensive 冒犯的 or aggressive 好鬥的
behavior to members of another race. (
Trump, Child’s Def.)

What does the law say about Racial Discrimination?

Australia: The Racial
Discrimination Act 1975 was
Australia’s first anti-discrimination
law. This law protects everyone in
Australia from discrimination on
the basis of race.

American Law 法 and Racism 種族主義

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness. “- US Declaration of Independence

The past almost 250 year history of the United States can
be understood in part in terms of its peoples’ effort to unify
the Constitution to be in line with the Declaration of
Independence.  
The first law against  racism was the 13th and 14th
Amendment against slavery.  (Vid1)

Taiwanese Law and Racism

The closest Taiwan has is the
Anti- Discrimination Employment
Act

Is this enough?

Categories of racist behavior
1. Physical assault 毆打 and harassment 騷擾行爲
2.Verbal abuse 虐待 , threats 威脅 , derogatory 詆
毀的 language, ridicule, stereotyped comments
(1)

3.Racist propaganda 宣傳 e.g. symbols, signs,
graffiti

Categories 類別 of racist behavior
4.Incitement 鼓動 of others to behave in a racist
way (Liverpool)
5.Refusal 拒絕 to cooperate 合作 with other
people because of their color, ethnicity, religion
or language
6.Institutional 制度性的 racism e.g. biased policies
政策 , rules or curriculum 課程 (Apartheid)

Categories of racist behavior
Cyber racism 電腦的) (Video, 2)
 Bystander 旁觀者 racism (Video,

2)

Have you ever seen any of the above in Taiwan? Explain.

(review game with Chinese definitions, English definitions)

Extra: The Good Samaritan story ( 樂善好施者,樂於助人者 )

Types of Racism
Internalized 使內化 racism: absorbing racism
against your own people of color, self hatred (

Malcolm X, Michael Jackson)

Ex: Black identifying as white, Asian woman , 3)

subtle 不明顯的 racism (or everyday
racism): commonplace forms of
discrimination, that seem innocent and small,
but add up to have a powerful impact.

EX: being ignored, ridiculed or treated differently (Video, 1, 2 , 3)

Racism in America: reading Vocabulary
Racial Stereotypes   種族刻版印象 (Family Guy, Top 10 )
 Race 人種,種族
 Racism 種族主義
 Malcolm X 麥爾坎 ·X (mini Bio, House and Field Negros)
 Racialism 種族決定論 -a theory that race determines human
traits and capacities
 Identity 身份
 Consensual 一致同意的
 Discrimination 歧視;區別對待
racial : 種族
 Racial prejudice 種族偏見

Reading 1: : RACE CARDS, WHITE MYTHS, AND POSTRACIAL
AMERICA

Pre-Reading Questions:

1. Do you think race is real?

2. What are some misunderstanding
about race?

3. What is the race problem in America?

Stereotypes 陳舊的種族偏見 of Blacks 黑人

There are stereotypes of blacks that go back at
least two hundred years: the sexual 性的 ,
animalistic African, exotic 奇異的 seducer 誘姦者 of
white women. The philosopher Frantz Fanon (1925–
1961) calls this the “sexual myth 神話” surrounding
black men. As Fanon puts it, “The white man is
convinced 確信的 that the Negro 黑人 is an animal; if
it is not the length of the penis 陰莖 , then it is the
sexual potency 力量 that impresses him.” ( 1, 2, 3)

Stereotypes 陳舊的種族偏見 of Blacks 黑人

Summary: Black men are
sexually more powerful than
white men

The Example of Malcolm X 麥爾坎 ·X
Malcolm X claimed, that he was
really sentenced 宣判 to a lengthy 漫
長的 prison 監獄 sentence for sleeping
with 和(某人)上床 a white woman
(not for burglary 入室盜竊 ). The judge
法官 couldn’t bear 忍受 the “sexualized
Negro” “having” a white woman…

The Example of Malcolm X

Summary: Black power leader
who said his arrest was for
sleeping with a white woman,
not burglary

Racialism 種族決定論
“Racialism”, is at the center of this
misunderstanding of the problem of race.
Racialism is the belief that races exist
equally, but not necessarily that any hierarchy
between the races exists. Racialists typically
reject claims of racial superiority.- modern philosopher
Kwame Anthony Appiah
(Video 1, Social Exp, Conan)

Compare 對比 : Both are dangerous, why?

RACISM 種族主義

RACIALISM 種族決定論

Unacceptable 不能接受 in good
society
A belief in the existence
and significance of racial
differences

Acceptable 贊同的 in society

hierarchy 等級制度 between
the races exists

Reject 拒收 racial superiority
優越性
Ex: may simply prefer to date
people within his/her own race

Ex: interracial 不同種族間的
relationships are wrong

A belief in the existence
and significance of racial
differences

Race a myth 神話 ?
Appiah argued 論證 that no such groups exist, that
the idea of race is a myth. Grouping races “for
biological 親生的 purposes 意圖 , your classification 類
別 will have so much human genetic 基因的 variation
變種 as there is in the whole species.” The most we
can classify as a “race” is a group of reproductively 生
殖 isolated 偏遠的 people. This means that “no large
social group in America is a race.”

Race a myth 神話 ?

Summary: races can’t
biologically exist, as there’s
too much genetic 基因的
variation (Appiah)

(Videos 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

The Problem?

The problem is that we seem to be stuck thinking
that races are real. This can lead people to adopt,
or even to be forced into, particular kinds of
identities 身份認同 . (Videos: Biracial, Reframing, Appiah, Latinos,)
Once the racial label 標籤 is given to people, ideas
about what that means, may be much less
consensual 一致同意的 and has negative social and
psychological effects. (Video: Transracial?, Racial Identity Disorder, Other)

The Problem:

There’s still a lot of discrimination based on the
false idea that races are essential 必要的、本質性的
to who one is. How does racial prejudice go
away?

The fact that race is socially real but
biologically untrue, makes issues of racial
equality all the more difficult. We want to have
race and do away with it too. (Videos: Bill Nye, Animation,

The problem?

Summary: Believing in races
forces people into negative
identities that hurt society

(Videos: Race as Label, )

Conclusion:
When we see that races aren’t biologically real,
and that thinking of them as real leads to
inequality, we put ourselves in a position to
give up both racism and racialism. We’ll be
better able to see the consequences 後果 of
our assumptions 假定 about race when they
bubble up—and this will give us time to act to
fix whatever injustices 不公正 we find.

Conclusion

Summary: If we give up
racialism, we have a better
chance to see our own
prejudices 偏見 and help others.

(Review Game)

Racism in America: Institutional Racism

Q: How is Institutional racism different from racism?
Institutional 制度性的 Racism: process by which a
government supports or engages in clearly racist acts

Who did/does it effect?

EXAMPLES:
1. Native Americans: Forced relocation (Indian Removal
Act) and “The trail of tears” to reservations (1, 2, 3, 4)

Jackson-Tubman

2. Slavery, Jim Crow, Stop and Search

3. Japanese Internment Camps

(1, 2, 3, 4)

(1, 2, 3, 4)Brown Vs Board

Black Lives Matter (BLM)

is an international activist movement 運動 , that began in 2013
An African-American community movement 運動 . They
campaign against violence toward black people, organizes
protests 抗議 around the deaths of black people in killings by
police, as well as racial profiling, police brutality, and racial
inequality in the American criminal justice system.
use of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter on social media, after
the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of AfricanAmerican teen Trayvon Martin. Black Lives Matter became
nationally recognized for its street demonstrations ( 遊行示威 )
following the 2014 deaths of two African Americans: Michael Brown
, resulting in protests and unrest in Ferguson, and Eric Garner in
New York City.

Black Lives Matter and Eric Garner (September 15, 1970 – July 17, 2014)

was a Black man from New York City who died when
a police officer put him in a chokehold for 15 seconds.
New York City Police Department officers talked to Garner
because they thought he was selling cigarettes illegally.

On December 3, 2014, a grand jury decided not to
indict officer. This led to protests and rallies with charges
of police brutality.[As of December 28, 2014, more than
fifty demonstrations had been held across the United
States.

Black Lives Matter Movement
Eric Garner rally: His death was one of the
defining moments of the Black Lives Matter
movement. (1,2,3,4)
Interrupting Presidential Campaigns (1/2, 3)
The Confederate flag came down in Charleston

(1,2,3)

“Black communities do not need more community
policing, he said. They need jobs, better education
and better housing.”

Charleston church shooting

On the evening of June 17, 2015, a mass shooting took
place at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church,
that was the first church for black people ever in America,
in Charleston, South Carolina, United States. Nine people
at the church were killed and another was injured. Among
the dead was a female minister and state senator.

Public protest about the use of the Confederate
Flag in, SC became a hot button issue at the same
time of high profile police brutality of Blacks. (Videos 1
, 2, 3)

Confederate 聯盟國 Flag
a widely recognized symbol of the 
Southern United States associated with racism,
slavery and “Southern Pride” . Its became a hot
topic after the Charleston Church hate crime
massacre, especially the BLM movement.

It is also known as the "rebel flag", "Dixie flag", and "Southern
cross“. It is protected in 5 States the same as the US national flag.
(Videos 1, 2, 3)

Institutional Racism Reading 2: US Racism
and Unemployment
Vocabulary

unemployment rate 失業人數;失業率
“wallpaper effect”
Status quo 現狀
Ethnicity 民族的;種族的
explicit 清楚明白的;明確的;不含糊的
implicit 不明言的,含蓄的 Implicit Ass Test
disparity 不平等;不等同;差異

US Racism and Unemployment 失業人數;失業率
INTRO: The US unemployment rate is expected to hold
steady at 5.3% the lowest unemployment rate in seven
years. Yet there is one group whose unemployment rate is
still close to 10%: African Americans.
 The unemployment rate for black Americans has
remained almost twice that of the general population for
so long that experts believe it’s suffering from the
“wallpaper effect” – no one notices anymore. That may
be about to change.

Wallpaper 牆紙 Effect 效果

The “wallpaper effect” is to blame for the lack of attention
to African American unemployment, “ (Valerie Rawlston Wilson, director
of the race, ethnicity and economy program at the Economic Policy Institute.)

“I think that until we own up to the fact that racism and
racial bias – explicit or implicit, directly or indirectly –
are a major part of this ongoing disparity and do
something to directly address these issues that little or
nothing will change.”

Wallpaper 牆紙 Effect 效果

SUMMARY: No one notices Black
unemployment because its invisible
and normalized.

Black Unemployment

Black unemployment has been about twice as
high as that of white Americans since 1954,
the earliest that the Department of Labor has
unemployment rate by race. In June, the
unemployment rate for black Americans was
9.5%. That’s more than twice the
unemployment rate of white Americans, which
was 4.6%.

Black Unemployment

SUMMARY: Black
unemployment has been
twice (2x) the average
since 1954.

2016 Presidential Election

Until recently, politicians have felt content to
nod and say it’s always been this way. But as
2016 presidential campaigns get under way,
Americans and specifically black Americans
are letting their elected officials know
that this answer is no longer good
enough. Black lives matter and so should the
black unemployment rate.

Racial Inequality in the Workforce
One of the main reasons why racial
inequality persists in the workforce,
according to experts, is because of the way
employees recommend others for jobs in
their workplace.
 “There is almost no attention to the bias for
people, specifically that whites are biased in
preference for other whites and provide
information, opportunity and influence on
behalf of people that they think of as like

Segregation still exists

Americans still live a very segregated life
with whites “disproportionately in the
positions with higher income, more
influence, more skills and training”.

As such companies need to pay attention to
their entire hiring process as well as what
kind of candidates are coming down the
pipeline thanks to current employees’
references. For example, the lack of
diversity in the middle management was
because they were hiring the friends of their

Segregation still exists
SUMMARY: Business practices of
hiring friends, keeps Blacks from
entering managerial positions. So
Blacks stay separated in unskilled,
low paying job and Whites keep
their advantaged positions.

Racism in the Justice System
After analyzing records of 7,335 randomly selected people
in their 20s, researchers at the University of South Carolina
found that 49% of black people had been arrested by the
age of 23, compared to 38% of white people.

Oftentimes minor infractions like being arrested at a
protest can become part a permanent criminal record and
adversely affect future job prospects.

Racism in the Justice System
SUMMARY:

Solutions
1. Put employment programs in areas with high
unemployment and poverty. Many of these areas have
huge black populations.
 2. Local, state and federal governments could invest in
infrastructure in ways that will create jobs while providing
job training, job placements and childcare services.
 3. Re-entry services for ex-offenders and removal of
criminal record questions from job applications
 4. Enforce anti-discrimination laws, transparency
around hiring

Roadblock: ‘Those other people, not me

We focus so much on racism and discrimination as the
source of the problem that that allows most whites to
believe that race has nothing to do with them, that it’s
somehow about those racists – ‘Those other people, not
me’. That legitimates the ongoing racial inequality, because
whites don’t believe that they are part of the problem. They
think they are part of the solution because they all say: ‘I
believe in civil rights, I believe in equal opportunity and that
nobody should discriminate’. And yet, they don’t recognize
in their own lives the way they reproduce racial inequality.

Roadblock: ‘Those other people, not me
White people are in denial (某人)否認
(做過某事) about their own racism.
Could blacks be in denial too?
(Asian Backlash of Oscars)

Am I in denial about my own
unconscious 無意識的 biases 偏見 ?

US Racism and Unemployment

How does employment affect Black Americans? Why is that so?
 
 What current events recently happened that ignited attention to America’s race problem?
 
 What organizations, political parties and politicians are supportive of racial justice in the U.S.?
 
 Why does racial inequality persist in the workplace? 
 
 What is unconscious bias and how does it work?
 
 How does the higher incarceration rate of Blacks affect their employment? 
 
 Why are there more blacks incarcerated than white?
 
 Could you have unconscious bias? Explain.

Racism in Taiwan?

Survey: write a number between 1-5 (1- strongly
disagree, 3 neutral, 5 – strongly agree)

1. It is a good thing for a society to be made
up of people from different cultures.
2. You feel secure when you are with people of
different ethnic backgrounds.
3. It is NOT a good idea for people of different
races to marry one another.
4. Taiwan is weakened by people of different
ethnic living here.

Star War Awakens Poster

Choose an Article and Present to Class
1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
 6.

Local community petitions foreign workers
The Health Hazards of Whiteness
Aboriginals Decry Mass Marketing of Festivals
Taiwan is Reinventing Its Relationship with Indigenous
Reactions to the Debate on Taiwan’s Hidden Racism
Are Migrant Workers in Taiwan Treated Fairly?