SINTERING PLANT

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DEFINITION OF SINTERING

Sintering is a process of agglomeration of fine mineral
particles into a porous and lumpy mass by incipient fusion
caused by heat produced by combustion of solid fuel within
the mass itself.

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TYPES OF SINTER



NON FLUX SINTER
FLUXED SINTER
SELF FLUXED SINTER
SUPER FLUXED SINTER

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SCHEMATIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZONES IN CHARGE DURING SINTERING ON THE SINTER STRAND ZONE OF SINTERING ZON E OF COM BUS TIO ZON N EO F CHA ZON RGE EO F DR ZONE OF YIN G CONDENSATION OF MOISTURE 4 .

Material flow Diagram Sintering Plant Waste Material LD Slag. Mill Scale & Flue Dust Lime Dust Iron Ore Fines Flux -3mm Flux Screen Stock Bin & proportioning section -3mm +3mm Hammer Crusher Sinter PMD Hot screen M/c Hot Sinter return SLC Cold screen Sinter to BF -5mm Cold Sinter return -8mm Cold Sinter return -5mm Coke breeze from C O Coke breeze from external sources Fuel Storage Coke crusher Coke return from B F -25mm Nut Coke ( 15 -25 mm) 5 .

) 5. Mill scale ( From Slabbing Mill.RAW MATERIALS USED FOR SINTERING 1. Flux ( lime stone & dolomite ) 3.P. L. Sinter return ( Own generation ) 6 . Flue dust ( From Blast Furnace but added in RMHP ) b). H.Slag (From S.) d). Lime dust ( From R. Coke breeze 4.D.M. Iron ore fines 2.&CCS) c).M. Waste Materials: a).S.M.S.

MAIN SECTIONS OF SINTERING PLANT 1. SINTER MACHINE SECTION ( For sinter making ) 7 . STOCK BINS AND PROPORTIONING SECTION ( For storing.proportioning & mixing ) 3. ( For crushing of coke and flux ) 2. RAW MATERIAL SECTION.

O. EACH ) MIX COKE FROM C. CAPACITY – 16 T/Hr.15 mm 6 mm 2 mm -3 mm TO STOCK BINS .15mm ) (NUT COKE SCREEN) + 15 mm TO B.F.3 mm 8 .25mm ) . MIXED WITH SINTER -15 mm TO FUEL STORAGE COKE RETURN FROM B.F.COKE CRUSHING BY FOUR ROLL CRUSHERS ( 08 Nos. ( . ( .

EACH ) + 25mm FLUX FROM RMHP ( + 25 mm ) MOTOR + 3m m TO H / Crs HAMMER CRUSHER (36 Hammers in each Crs. in two rows. ) FLUX SCREEN (10 Nos. CAPACITY. ) CAPACITY 150T/Hr.250T/Hr.3mm TO STOCK BINS 9 .FLUX CRUSHING BY HAMMER CRUSHER ( 05 Nos.EACH .

3 mm ) Waste materials Cold sinter return Hot sinter return Lime dust 10 . Materials are stored in the bunkers in following order : BUNKER No. Each series contains 23 bunkers .STOCK BINS AND PROPORTIONING SECTION A. TO STOCK RAW MATERIALS : There are three similar series of over head bunker and conveyors to feed three sinter machines at a time.3 mm ) Crushed coke ( . 1–6 7 – 13 14 – 17 18 19 – 20 21 22 – 23 TOTAL BUNKER 06 07 04 01 02 01 02 MATERIAL Iron ore fines Crushed flux ( .

Waste materials 20 T/hr. FIXING OF FEED RATE : For sending raw mix to sinter machine for sintering. fixation of feed rate of materials is done considering capacity of the sinter machine and quality requirement of blast furnace. ( Feeding of Flux depends on available lime in sinter required in blast furnace.) Coke 20 T/hr. Feed rate fixed is : Iron ore fines 250 T/hr.Available lime means CaO – SiO2 in sinter.B. Flux 75 T/hr. Sinter return 60 T/hr. 11 . Lime dust 02 T/hr.

TO S/M -1 12 . A –5 CONV.PROPORTIONING OF CHARGE O/F FLUX COKE W/M S/R L/D PRIMARY MIXING DRUM ELECTRONIC CONVEYOR SCALES ELECTRONIC FEEDER VIBRO FEEDER P. M. TO S/M -2 A –1 CONV. TO S/M -3 A –3 CONV. D.

) WATER TO EXH. ST L C OO ER C/S D/F D/C DRUM COOLER DISC FEEDER HOT SCREEN ERS W O L ER B L O O C COLD SCREEN -8mm TO STOCK13 BINS -5mm TO STOCK BINS (HOT SINTER RETURN) . SRC H/S -5mm m +5m I NE L .SINTER MACHINE PROCESS FLOW RAW MIX SHAKER GATE RAW MIX RAW MIX BUNKERS ELECTRONIC FEEDERS WATER WATER BALLING DRUMS SHUTTLE DISTRIBUTOR CHARGE HOPPER DRUM FEEDER FURNACE +8mm TO BF SINTER MACHINE 1 TO EXH. 2 SINGLE ROLL CRUSHER 25 26 WIND BOXES MAIN GAS COLLECTOR DUST POCKETS (36Nos.

of pallets .01 No. 14 .02 Nos. Drum Cooler .06 Nos.78 M No. Balling Drum .Sinter Machine Specification for each machine There are three Sintering machines Length . Cooler – Blower. Aspirator 02 Nos. Straight line Cooler 01 No.480mm Exhauster 02 Nos.130 Sintering area – 252M2 Bed height .

50 Sinter Machine Machine Build. Exh Buld. of Telphers are also there. 15 .4& 5 ARS 15 Bay 6 ARS 03 MDP MDP 05 JN 12 S/B Top 15 Other then these 46 nos.CRANES – Location & Capacity Name Location Tons G/Crane Fuel Storage 10 C/Crane C/Crane Building 05 H/Crane H/Crane Building 10 S/B S/B Tops 05 A1/A2 A1/A2 Area 15 B/Drum B/Drum Area 50 Exh. 30 Bay 1.

16 . The process of agglomeration can be classified as follows: i) Briquetting. iv) Sintering v) Pelletizing. ii) Nodulising.WHAT IS AGGLOMERATION • Agglomeration is defined as the process to prepare a suitable Blast furnace feed for smooth. proper and efficient running of the Blast furnace operation. • Iii)Vacuum Extrusion process.

like iron ore fines.ADAVANTAGES OF AGGLOMERATION • Ability to use all kinds of Raw Materials. Steel plant reverts. 17 . reduces the cost of smelting of ore. • It can be produced into any shapes and sizes. increases Furnace permeability there by increasing BF productivity and lowering cost in terms of lower fuel rate. • Excellent blast Furnace charge material in place of lump ore. iron bearing waste products. flue dust. • Process designed to suitable small batch operations and large scale operations. • It can be cured to adequate strength suiting Blast Furnace needs.

18 .WHAT IS SINTER • Sintering is the process of agglomeration of iron ore fines into a porous mass by incipient fusion heat generated within the mass itself.

Those where sufficient flux has been added in the sinter mix to provide a basicity that is desired in the final slag. to take care of coke ash acids. 19 . taking into account the acids content of both ore as well as the coke ash. • (ii) BASIC SINTER OR Self Fluxing SINTER: .In these type of sinters an additional flux is added to the mix to provide for the desired final slag basicity. taking into consideration only the burden acids.TYPES OF SINTER • Depending upon weather bases have been incorporated in the Sinter mix. (iii) SUPER BASIC OR SUPER FLUXED SINTER: .Those where no flux is present or is added in the ore. sinters are divided into three broad classes: (i) Non Fluxed OR ACID SINTERS: . An extra flux is added to the BF burden.

flue dust. • (iii) The need for charging prepared burden in Blast Furnaces to increase productivity and lower fuel rate.THE NEED FOR SINTER • (i) To utilize the fines generated during the mining operation. 20 . hearth slag etc. • (ii) To utilize different additives like mill scale. in an integrated steel plant.

• v) As the calculation of flux takes place in sinter strand. • vii) Lime rich bosh slag hinders reduction of silica. low-S iron. strong and irregular porous lumps which gives better bed permeability. increases the permeability. super-fluxing saves much more coke in the furnace. • • vi) It increases the Blast Furnace productivity.Si. so the productivity also.70 % of sulphur and Arsenic (if present) during sintering.• • ADVANTAGE OF SINTER i) Agglomeration of fines into hard. hence reduction and heating rate or burden increases. hydrated water and other volatiles on the sinter strand with a cheaper fuel. • iv) Increased the softening temperature and narrowing down of the softening range. absorbs vaporized silicon and sulphur to produce low. • iii) Elimination of moisture. ii) Elimination of 60 . • viii) Increase of sinter percentage in Blast Furnace burden. ix) Utilization of solid wastes generate within steel works 21 .

This consists of sub – operations like preparation of ore feed. • Batch SinteringGreenwalt Single Pan Process • Allmanns Ingenoirs Bryans Multi Pan Process • Dwight-Lloyd Continuous Sintering Process • Pelletizing Process. Multiple Shafts handle larger production level. 22 . hardening. Shaft furnaces are used for producing small tonnages.TYPES OF SINTER MAKING PROCESS • Huntington and Heberlein Pot Processfpr non-Ferrous metal Industry. balling.

Huntington & Heberlein Blast roasting Pot

Vacuum Extrusion Process

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Green walt Single Pan Sinter Machine

Pelletizing Process

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PRINCIPLE OF THE SINTER
MAKING PROCESS

Iron one sintering is carried out by putting GREEN MIX after Mixing and Nodulizing drum (a
mixture of Base mode with iron ore fines, mixed with flux, coke breeze as a solid fuel, other
additions, sinter return fines, lime, moisture) over a traveling gate in form of permeable bed
and permeable bed.

The top layer of this sinter bed is heated to the sintering temp. (1200C-1300C) inside a Ignition
Hood furnace. In the ignition hood the air is drawn downwards, through the grate with the
help of exhaust blowers (Waste Gas Fan) connected by means of Waste gas main.

The narrow combustion zone developed initially at the top layer by layer to the sintering level.
The cold blast drawn through the bed cools the already sintered layer the thereby gets itself
heated. The heat contained in the blast is utilized in drying and preheating the lower layers in
the bed. In advance of combustion therefore each layer gets dried and preheated by the heat
transferred from the upper combustion zones. The lower portion of the bed absorbs much of
the heat in the gases.

In the combustion zone, bonding takes place between the grains and a strong and porous
aggregate is formed. The process is over when the combustion zone has reached the lowest
layer of the bed. The sinter cake is thus tipped from the grate in hot condition . It is then
broken, cooled in sinter cooler cold sized and sent to the Blast furnace.
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CaO + Al2O3.Al2O3.SiO2 2Fe2O3 2Fe2O3 2Fe2O3 CaO.SiO2 (SFCA) SILICO FERRITE OF CALCIUM AND ALUMINIUM SLAG BOND 2Fe2O3 26 .MECHANISM OF SINTERING 2Fe2O3 Heating Heating Cooling Single lump 2Fe2O3 + 2Fe2O3CaO CaO at 12000C CALCIUM FERRITE 2Fe2O3.

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GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF A SINTER PLANT • • • • Raw material receiving and proportioning system Mixing and Nodulizingmoisture addition Charging Station-laying of Green mix on the strand Ignition • • • • • • Sintering Process Sinter Discharging and Hot breaking Cooling of sinter in Sinter Cooler Treatment of Sinter in terms of Cold crushing and sizing. Conveying to BF stock-house Dust treatment and Waste Gas system with Waste Gas Fan and De-dusting Fan 28 .

EQUIPMENTS IN SINTER PLANTS • • • • • • • • RAW MATERIAL BINS AND WEIGH FEEDERS MIXING AND NODULIZING DRUM WITH WATER INJECTION SYSTEM SURGE BIN-SECTOR GATES WITH SERVO DRIVES AND FEED DRUM IGNITION HOOD FURNACE WITH BURNERS SINTER MACHINE-PALLETS with GRATE BARS WINDBOXES WITH WASTE GAS MAIN SPIKE CRUSHER-WITH CRASH DECK DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER • • • • • • • • VIBRATORY COLD SCREEN FOR HEARTH LAYER VIBRATORY SCREEN FOR RETURN FINES CONVEYORS. RECEIVING CHUTES AND TRANSFER CHUTES FOR RAW MATERIAL AND SINTER WASTE GAS FAN WITH LCI DRIVE DEDUSTING FAN FOR PLANT DEDUSTING ESPs LT and HT DRIVES PNUEMATIC ACTUATORS & VALVES 29 .

SINTER PLANT FACILITIES AT TATA STEEL F:\Sinter Plant Facilities at Tata Steel.pdf 30 .

DIFFERENT UNITS OF SINTER PLANT • RAW MATERIAL BEDDING AND BLENDING PLANT • SINTER PLANT 1 • SINTER PLANT 2 • RAW MATERIAL BEDDING AND BLENDING ( NEW ) • SINTER PLANT 3 31 .

FUNCTIONS OF RMBB • Stacking of Raw materials • Bedding and Blending of various raw materials and other constituents of Sinter mix through proportioning • Homogenizing the mix components for achieving consistent Sinter chemistry 32 .

M.PLANT LAYOUT TGH T/H WAGON C/S COKE SCREEN P R O P Ret. B U I L D I N G ROD MILLS H/M FLUX SCEEN CRUSHER TBS#2 L S F SP1/SP2 WOB#2 B/R (L&T) B/R (ELECON) I O F TBS#1 D U N P Y R WOB#1 R P D F Ld Slg.Fce.R.B.B. 33 . Sinter fines From G.

Material Flow at Sinter Plant 34 .

BF HIGH LINE Segregati on Chute Mix er Waste Gas Fan Cold screen Hot Return Fines Doubl e Roll Crusher Sinter Screening Cold Return Fines Hearth Layer 35 .SINTER PLANT Raw Materials Return Fines Lime Dust Wate r Proportioning Bins Hot Air Hearth Layer Combustion Air Spike Crusher Cooler Fan Ignition Hood SINTER STORAGE Sinter Cooler Sinter Machine Waste Gas Esp.

OVER VIEW OF SP#3-a typical DWL Sinter Machine 36 .

PROGRESS OF SINTERING WIND BOX SUCTION MAIN WASTE GAS FAN COMBUSTION JONE GREEN MIX SINTER 37 .

FEDDING SYSTEM SHUTTLE CONVEYOR GREEN MIX GREEN-MIX BIN THERMO-VISION CAMERA HEARTH LAYER BIN FLAP GATES LEVEL SENSOR BED HEIGHT HEARTH LAYER FEED ROLL CUT-OFF PROBES PLATE IGNITION HOOD HEAT TREAT MENT HOOD 38 .

TUMBLER INDEX 3. 6. SINTER SIZE ANALYSIS –in terms of Cum+10mm and -5mm 2. QUALITY ASPECT OF SINTERWITH RESPECT TO BLAST FURNACES PERFORMANCE CHEMICAL Fe% in Sinter CaO % in Sinter SiO2 % in Sinter MgO% in Sinter Al2O3 % in Sinter FeO % in Sinter K2O % in Sinter • PHYSICAL 1. SHATTER INDEX 4. Softening and Melting Test (S-M) 39 . 3. RI (Reducibility Index) 6. RDI (Reducibility Degradation Index) 5.• 1. 4. 2. 5. 7.

40 . It maintains proper permeability in the bed during sintering. the combustion zone will not be uniform leading to poor bed permeability. If size is large. A low circulating load however.. the contact area will be less and the strength of the sinter will be low and conversely if size is too small the contact area of particles will be large and the strength will be high.For higher output of the sinter strand the circulating load should be low.2 mm 85% (2) Fuel content: . This increases return fines generation • • (3) Moisture: . An optimum-circulating load is established for maximum output of the acceptable sinter to the Blast Furnaces.3. reduces the permeability of the bed. (4) Re-circulating load or Return fines addition: .Variation in Fuel content in Charge Mix affect the peak Temperature attained during sintering.The presence of moisture in the Charge mix has several advantages. This is beneficial from the point of view of heat transfer during sintering.2 mm 85% Flux .• FACTORS AFFECTING SINTER QUALITY (1) Size of The Charge Mix: The strength of sinter is directly related to the size distribution of the charge mix. Ideal size of ore Fines -10 mm to + 100 mesh Coke breeze -3.

• Pressure drop across the Sinter Bed.Parameters Controlling Sintering Process • Fuel content for heat input • Waste Gas Temperature • Ignition intensity. 41 .to improve bed Permeability.Temperature of Ignition Hood Furnace • Sintering Temperature or Burn through Temperature • Moisture content of mix to control its permeability.Main Suction • Machine speed control to obtain complete Burn through • Bed Height • Return Fines Addition • Calcined Lime addition.

IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE OF SINTER PLANTS BY INTENSIFICATION OF SINTERING PROCESS By Dr M T Raju Deputy General Manager RDCIS SAIL 42 .

 Managing the existing technologies to reach designed/rated performance  Incorporation of innovations to surpass rated capacity 43 .

MINUTES 44 .Reaching rated capacity: 1. MEN (WOMEN) 2. MATERIAL 3. MONEY 4.

FLEXIBILITY 3. DRIVE 45 . AWARENESS 5. Five elements of creativity. 1. FLUENCY 2.Surpassing rated capacity: Creative (Innovative) solutions can only enable to surpass. ORIGINALITY 4.

Creative (Innovative) solutions are possible by LATERAL THINKING 46 .

high softening temperature and low range of softening range 47 .INTENSIFICATION OF SINTERING PROCESS Sinter as a prepared burden material continues to hold its prominent position in world due to its very good metallurgical properties such as tumbling strength. reduction degradation index. reducibility index.

The top layer gets ignited and sintering proceeds down wards till the end . lime stone fines. dolomite fines. Then this mix is mixed and balled in mixing and balling drums with the addition of water and then loaded onto the pallet. The sinter mix undergoes ignition as well as suction is applied under the bed. 48 . metallurgical wastes and coke breeze are proportioned based on charge calculations. The hot sinter is screened and crushed. lime dust.• • • • • • • PRINCIPAL STEPS OF IRON ORE SINTERING TECHNOLOGY The iron ore fines . The hot sinter is then cooled on a cooler The cooled sinter is screened to remove -5mm fraction and then transported to blast furnace.

How? Without sacrificing the quality aspects. 49 .Need of Intensification of sintering process Why? Intensification of sintering process is required to enhance the production capacity of existing sinter machines.

• Production = k*A*B*V*Y k = Constant A = Sintering Area B = Bulk Density of mix V = Vertical sintering speed Y = Yield 50 .What is meant by intensification? • Accelerating sintering process for achieving higher production without deterioration in quality.

51 .Methodology of Intensification of sintering process Factors that influence sintering 1) MEN 2) MATERIALS 3) PROCESS PARAMETERS.

MATERIALS 1) Iron ore fines size 2) Iron ore fines chemistry 3) Coke breeze 4) Calcined Lime 52 .

GRANULOMETRY OF IRON ORE FINES . used in sintering. •Laboratory Experiments were conducted with different granulometry of iron ore fines to assess its influence on sinter quality and productivity. has a great influence on sinter plant performance. •The granulometry of iron ore fines. •The upper size of the iron ore fines was reduced in each of the experiments. 53 .

182 69.489 66.6 1.418 67.7 54 .2 4 0-6 20.3 2 0-8 0.3 1.0 80.0 21.0 76.6 18.0 70.326 67.EFFECT OF IRON ORE FINES SIZE ON SINTERING Sl.6 1.5 19.3 5 0-5 20.No Size Lime %yield VSS Prod.6 20.0 75.3 3 0-8 20.1 1.272 68. T.I (mm) (Kg/t) (+5mm) mm/min t/m2/h % 1 0-15 0.0 81.6 1.3 20.

since microstructures composed entirely of SFCA-1 show higher physical strength and higher reducibility than microstructures composed predominantly of SFCA 55 . •High grade (65-68% Fe) ores will form largely SFCA-1. • The SFCA-1 phase is the most desirable bonding phase in iron ore sinter. • Medium grade (62-65% Fe) ores will form a mixture of SFCA and SFCA-1..Chemical Quality EFFECT OF TOTAL Fe • Results show that lower Fe grade (< 62% Fe) ores and concentrates will typically form SFCA (SiO2-Fe2O3CaO-Al2O3) as part of the final assemblage.

LOSS ON IGNITION The higher LOI of iron ore fines has a detrimental effect on sinter quality and productivity EFFECT OF Al2O3 An increase in Al2O3 % by 1 % increases the RDI value by 10% EFFECT OF SiO2 Higher SiO2 in sinter will induce the formation of glassy phases in sinter and reduce the strength of sinter. 56 .

5 mm < 15 % •Presence of higher % of +5 mm slows down the coke breeze burning rate and thus reducing sintering rate. -3 mm should be screened out before the crusher.3 mm = 85-90 % -0. • For reducing the micro-fines generation during crushing.COKE BREEZE SIZE •The required coke breeze granulometry for efficient sintering is: +5 mm < 5 % . 57 .

CALCINED LIME •Calcined lime is one of the best intensifier of sintering process •Preheats the sinter mix •Enhances balling phenomena •Replaces raw lime stone •Calcined lime addition @ 20kg/t was found to be optimum for SAIL sinter plants. 58 .

PROCESS PARAMETERS •Mixing and Balling •Segregation of mix •Moisture •Ignition •Under-grate Suction •Preheating of sinter mix •Use of hot air in ignition hood •cooling 59 .

the RPM and the space factor play a major role in achieving higher degree of mixing. The diameter of the drum .MIXING AND BALLING REGIMES •Generally most of the sinter plants are provided with separate mixing and balling drums. •The main purpose of mixing drum is to homogenize the sinter mix . But the latest generation of sinter plants are provided with a combined mixing and balling drums. 60 .

Here again the diameter . 61 . thus produce higher size balls. This facilitates in improving the mean size of sinter mix and hence the permeability of mix.•The balling drum (Nodulising drum) ensures that fines are coated on the nuclei particles. •Very little water is added in mixing drum and major quantity of water is added in the balling drum •The amount of water added and the method of water addition in the balling drum also control the degree of balling and hence the permeability of sinter mix. RPM and space factor play a major role in achieving higher degree of balling.

Laboratory model of high speed agitating mixer • A Lab study at RDCIS showed improvement of strength 62 index with reference to conventional mixer .

•The rate of flow of the air through the bed is controlled by the vacuum under the bed and the permeability of the bed. 63 .MOISTURE •As is known. faster the rate of air flow through the bed faster is the rate of sintering.

64 .SUCTION UNDER-GRATE •The rate of flow of the air through the bed is controlled by the vacuum under the bed and the permeability of the bed. •The optimization of the gas dynamics parameters of the sinter machines enables one to achieve higher under grate suction and thus substantial improvements in the techno-economic parameters of the sinter production.

2 1. % 1.4 500 600 700 800 900 1000 110 1200 1300 1400 1500 SUCTION.IMPROVING IN SM PRODUCTVITY PER 10 mmwc AS A FUNCTION OF SUCTION UNDER GRATE IN C R E A SI N G IN P R O D U C TI VI T Y. mmwc 65 .8 0.0 0.6 0.

IGNITION •To provide the required free oxygen potential in the zones for faster burning of the fuel and also early starting of sintering. •Oxygen enrichment in ignition hood •To produce a strong sinter in the upper part of the layer. 66 .

PRE-HEATING OF SINTER MIX •Pre-heating of sinter mix helps in reducing the ill effects of Re-condensation of moisture •Pre-heating of sinter mix can be done by: * Addition of hot water in balling drum * Addition of steam in balling drum or raw mix hopper * Installing gas burners inside the balling drum * Adding hot return fines * Addition of calcined lime 67 .

68 .HOT AIR IN IGNITION HOOD • Hot air recovered from sinter cooler could be used in the ignition hood. but also increases the free oxygen potential. •This will help in not only saving gaseous fuel.

COOLING OF SINTER •Efficient cooling of sinter will help in improving sinter strength •Installation of proper waste heat recovery system of cooler will help in adding hot air in ignition hood 69 .

Rate Coke Size Ignition BTP Temp Sinter Quality Temp Top layer Free O2 Potential Starting of sintering Rate Water Balling Method of Addition Under grate suction Productivity Permeability Re-condensation Under Ignition hood Rest of machine 70 .

RECENT TRENDS OF INTENSIFICATION OF SINTERING • • • • • • • • • • • • • High Fe. low Al2O3 iron ore fines Serpentine replacing dolomite Good quality and quantity of lime addition High Intensity mixer Divided coke addition Polymer addition in balling drum Pre-heating of sinter mix New sinter mix charging system New ignition furnaces Taller bed operation Higher under grate suction Taller bed circular coolers Process control models 71 .

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