# Block Diagram Reduction

Abhishek Vaghela
Electronics & Communication Engg Dept.

Block Diagram
• Pictorial Representation of functions performed by each

component of a system and that of flow of signals.

Single block diagram representation

Components of a system Signals Take off Point .

Terminology .

• Feedback Element: H(S) is the component required to establish the functional relationship between the primary feedback signal B (s ) and the controlled output C(s).Terminology • Plant: Physical object to be controlled. also called the controller required to generate the appropriate control signal applied to the plant. • Reference Input: R (s) is an external signal applied to a feedback control system in order to command a specified action of the plant. • The Controlled Output C(s) is that quantity or condition of the plant which is controlled. G2(S) • Control Element: G1(s) . .

. • Disturbance U (s) is an undesired input signal which affects the value of the controlled output C(s). • Manipulated Variable M(s) (control signal) is that quantity or condition which the control elements G 1(s) apply to the plant G2(s) .Terminology • Actuating Signal E(s) . It may enter the plant by summation with M (s ) . as shown in the block diagram. or via an intermediate point. also called the error or control action. is the algebraic sum consisting of the reference input R (s ) plus or minus (usually minus) the primary feedback B (s ) .

. • Feedback Path is the transmission path from the output C(s) to the feedback signal B (s ). The (+) or (−) sign at each arrowhead indicates whether that signal is to be added or subtracted.Terminology • Forward Path is the transmission path from the actuating signal E(s) to the output C(s). • Summing Point: A circle with a cross is the symbol that indicates a summing point.

• C(s) / R(s) = Closed‐loop transfer function = Control ratio . • H (s ) = Feedback transfer function.Definitions • G(s) = Direct transfer function = Forward transfer function.

Closed loop transfer function • the output C(s) and input R(s) are related as follows C(s) =G(s)E(s) where E (s)=R(s)−B(s)=R(s)−H(s)C(s) Eliminating E(s) from these equations gives C(s)=G(s) [R(s)−H(s)C(s)] This can be written in the form [1+G(s)H (s)]C(s)=G(s)R(s) .

Block diagram and Simplifications • Cascade Connections .

Parallel Connections .

Moving a summing point after a block .

Moving a summing point ahead of block .

Moving a take of point after a block .

Moving a take of point before a block .

C (G1G 4G 2  G1G 4G 3)  R 1  G1G 4 H 1  G1G 4G 2 H 2  G1G 4G 3H 2 .Example .1 To reduce the block diagram to simple form.

Example .2 H2 C _ R +_ + + G1 + H1 G2 G3 .

Answer R G1G2G3 1  G1G2 H1  G2G3 H 2  G1G2G3 C .

3 Find the transfer function of the following block diagram G4 R(s) G1 G2 G3 H2 H1 Y (s ) .Example .

Eliminate loop I & simplify B G4  G2G3 Y (s ) . Moving pickoff point A ahead of block G2 2.I G4 R (s ) B G1 G2 A G3 H2 H1 G2 Solution: 1.

Moving pickoff point B behind block II R (s ) G1 B G4  G2G3 H2 H1G2 1 /(G4  G2G3 ) C Y (s) .R (s ) G4 G1 A G2 G3 GG4  G B 2 Y (s ) 3 H2 H1G2 G4  G2G3 3.

4. Eliminate loop III R (s ) G1 GG4 4GG2G2G 3 3 1  H 2 (GH4 2 G2G3 ) C C Y (s ) G2 H1 G4  G2G3 Using rule 6 R (s ) G1 (G4  G2G3 ) 1  G1G 2 H1  H 2 (G4  G2G3 ) Y (s) G1 (G4  G2G3 ) Y (s) T (s)   R ( s ) 1  G1G 2 H1  H 2 (G4  G2G3 )  G1 (G4  G2G3 ) .

Find the transfer function of the following block diagram .

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Example .4 Find the transfer function of the following block diagram .

Example -5 R G3 + + + G1 - G2 + H2 H1 C G1G 2  G1G3  R 1  G 2 H 2  G1G 2 H 1  G1G 2G3H 1H 2 C .