PLANT & ANIMAL

CELL: An Introduction

INTRODUCTION
The invention of microscope in
the mid-1600s made it possible
for scientist to look at the matter
that made up of all living things.
Robert Hooke was the first
describe cells in 1663 by
observing the tissue of cork

CELL THEORY
Schledein
& Schwann
(animal)
(plants) “all living things are
composed of living cells”
but 20 years later..

CELL THEORY
-1855, Rudolf Virchow proposed
an extension to the cell theory,
aka. “biogenic law” and it states
that “ All cells arise from preexisting cells”..
-Louis Pasteur later proved this.
-Cells are the basic units of life

. biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry.To study cells. .

..Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye. MICROSCOPY  is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

scale. .ELECTRON MICROSCOPE LIGHT MICROSCOPE instruments that use a is Scientific a type of microscope which uses focused beam of electrons to visible light and a system of lenses examine objects on a very fine to magnify images of small samples.

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The scanning electron microscope (SEM) Provides for detailed study of the surface of a specimen CHLOROPLAST UNDER THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE .

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) Provides for detailed study of the internal ultrastructure of cells It also profiles specimen. a thin section of a .

Cell fractionation Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another .

Centrifuge Is used to fractionate cells into their component parts .

THE PLANT & ANIMAL CELL .

Are you ready to explore the world of plant and animal cell? .

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Other terms relating to animal and plant cells Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells Plants: Plasmodesmata Types of intercellular junctions The Endomembrane System .

Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells Collagen Fibronectin Is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s Functions of the ECM include compartmental organization Support Is made up of glycoproteins and other Polysaccharide EXTRACELLULAR FLUID molecule A proteoglycan macromolecules Adhesion complex Carbo- Movement Regulation hydrates Core protein Plasma membrane Integrin Figure 6.29 Integrins CYTOPLASM Microfilaments Proteoglycan molecule .

Plants: Plasmodesmata Are channels that perforate plant cell walls Cell walls Interior of cell Interior of cell Figure 6.5 µm Plasmodesmata Plasma membranes .30 0.

Intermediate Filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins Anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm. DESMOSOMES Desmosomes (also called anchoring junctions) function like rivets. tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across A layer of epithelial cells. Types of intercellular junctions Tight junctions Intermediate filaments Desmosome Gap junctions Space between Plasma membranes cells of adjacent cells Figure 6. Gap junctions are necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues.5 µm At tight junctions.1 µm GAP JUNCTIONS Gap junctions (also called communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell.TIGHT JUNCTIONS Tight junction Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells 0. Forming continuous seals around the cells. . sugars. fastening cells Together into strong sheets. Gap junctions consist of special membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions. amino acids.31 1 µm Extracellular matrix Gap junction 0. bound together by specific proteins (purple). and other small molecules may pass. including heart muscle and animal embryos. the membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other.

The Endomembrane System Nuclear envelope is 1 connected to rough ER. proteins are secreted from cell . which is also continuous with smooth ER Nucleus Is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization 2 Membranes and proteins Rough ER produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi Smooth ER cis Golgi Nuclear envelop Golgi 3 pinches off transport Vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes and Vacuoles Plasma membrane trans Golgi 4 Lysosome available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion 5 Transport vesicle carries 6 proteins to plasma membrane for secretion Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles.

ER (LARGE) small vacuoles ribosome Cell membrane cytoplasm mitochondria .

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PROTEI N .

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And tables to compare data A B C Yellow 10 20 7 Blue 30 15 10 5 24 16 Orange .

Maps OUR OFFIC E .

12 4 Whoa! That’s a big number. aren’t you proud? .526.89.

244 users And a lot of users 100% Total success! .124$ That’s a lot of money 185.526.89.

Our process is easy first last second .

Blue Is the colour of the clear sky and the deep sea.Let’s review some concepts Yellow Is the color of gold. and because of this it has historically been associated with sacrifice. yellow is found between green and orange. In the spectrum of visible light. yellow is found between green and orange. Red Is the color of blood. Yellow Is the color of gold. and because of this it has historically been associated with sacrifice. It is located between violet and green on the optical spectrum. butter and ripe lemons. danger and courage. Red Is the color of blood. . It is located between violet and green on the optical spectrum. In the spectrum of visible light. Blue Is the colour of the clear sky and the deep sea. butter and ripe lemons. danger and courage.

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