 Indian agriculture is dependent on the monsoons which is

not a reliable source of water. Therefore, there is a need
for an irrigation system in the country which can provide
water to the farms according to their soil types.
 This project represents the prototype design of
microcontroller based automatic irrigation system which
will allow irrigation to take place in zones where watering
is required, while bypassing zones, where adequate.

the farmers manually control irrigation by irrigating the land at regular intervals. Improving irrigation efficiency can contribute greatly to reducing production costs of vegetables.  It has been observed that maintaining the proper moisture level in soil leads to higher yield per hectare.NEED FOR AUTOMATION  At present. the water may reach late. This process sometimes consume more water and sometimes. . making the industry more competitive and sustainable.

. average vegetable yields can be maintained (or increased)  While minimizing environmental impacts caused by excess applied water and subsequent agrichemical leaching.we provide an efficient solution for automatic control of irrigation motor with soil moisture sensor . Through proper irrigation.

The sensor will operate the motor according to the quantity of moisture in the soil. Also GSM modem which will operates the soil moisture sensor.Operation of project  The microcontroller forms the heart of the device and there are also soil moisture sensors. modem which one at the soil moisture sensor.. . The microcontroller will operate the sensor i.e.  when pump is off or changes its state. For this we will use GSM technology is also used . which are meant for detecting the moisture in the soil. ON/OFF.  Here we are going to operate the soil moisture sensor. it will send the information to the micro controller through decoder.

Here we get the feedback of motor status i.e. ON/OFF in the form of message from the GSM modem present at the motor end.. .  The purpose of this project is to monitor water level. This can be achieved by using soil moisture sensor. which senses the water content in the soil. This process will be continued until we stop the sensor. This sensor output is given to a Microcontroller based control system for further data processing.




 The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. high-performance CMOS 8-bit micro controller with 8Kbytes of in-system programmable flash memory.  Using Atmel’s high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 micro controller. full duplex serial port.MICRO CONTROLLER  The AT89S52 is a low-power. three 16-bit timer/counters. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed insystem or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. . two data pointers. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. Watchdog timer. 32 I/O lines. 256 bytes of RAM.

disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt . and interrupt system to continue functioning The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator. serial port.The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM timer/counters.


Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit  relays can "control" larger voltages and amperes by having an amplifying effect because a small voltage applied to a relays coil can result in a large voltage being switched by the contacts  Protective relays can prevent equipment damage by detecting electrical abnormalities .RELAYS  Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically.

 The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V). This makes it difficult to establish a direct link between them to communicate with each other.MAX232  The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC.  The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. .

.Humidity sensor  The humidity sensor just senses the humidity or the moisture of the soil.  Whenever the soil is dry the conductivity of soil is less and vice-versa. The change in humidity is proportional to the amount of current flowing through the soil.

. stands for transfer of resistance. A transistor. is commonly used to amplify current.Temperature sensor  BC 547 is used as temperature sensor  BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A small current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals.

which is now supported on other mobile .GSM  GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a cellular network. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in vicinity  GSM also pioneered a low-cost. to the network carrier. alternative to voice calls. the Short t message service (SMS. also called "text messaging").

DCS 1800 MHz and PCS1900 MHz SIM300 provides GPRS multi-slot class 10 capability and support the GPRS coding schemes CS-1. CS-3 and CS-4.SIM300  Designed for global market. . CS-2. SIM300 is a Tri-band GSM/GPRS engine that works on frequencies EGSM 900 MHz.

easy to use. For an 8-bit data bus. and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 5X7 dots plus cursor of the display.LCD  Many microcontroller devices use 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. . are inexpensive. LCD displays designed around LCD NT-C1611 module.  They have a standard ASCII set of characters and mathematical symbols. the display requires a +5V supply plus 10 I/O lines (RS RW D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0).

as in the simple LED circuit.  LEDs are widely used as indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applications such as flashlights and area lighting. .LED  A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electrical current is applied in the forward direction of the device.

 The person after receiving the SMS would switch the pump on/off. Three probe(wireless are used as soil moisture sensor. we sense the analogue input through the moisture sensor probe. . Resistance between these two probes is continuous gathered by the ADC circuit. Working of the pump is controlled by the moisture content of the field.WORKING  Moisture sensor to control the working of pump. ADC circuit senses the analogue signal and converts it into digital signal. Firstly. if the field is dry then our system automatically send a SMS to the particular person.

When the field is dry then the system sends a SMS and the person switches the pump ON/OFF if required . the circuit sends and receives the SMS from particular phone. In this project. RS232 code to TTL code.Working(cont)  Use MAX232 IC with controller to convert TTL code to RS232 code and.

. When the moisture value of soil is equal to the preset value.Working(cont)  Microcontroller continuously senses this signal and then converts it into decimal inside the micro controller and save the record in a temporary memory. then the circuit is off. With this value micro controller continuously senses and compares the input value with the preset microcontroller value.  We connect two switches with the microcontroller to set a preset value. Now this data is sent to the LCD display connected to the microcontroller.

When the field is dry. then the controller sends a AT command to the gsm modem.  Output of the PNP transistor is connected to the dc motor pump control. . Gsm modem automatically sends a SMS to the desired person. GSM modem SIM 300 is connected to the microcontroller TX and RX pin.Working(4)  Now when value is compared then one bit of microcontroller is activated automatically and the pump connected to it is turned on.

Low cost and reliable circuit .MERITS  Highly sensitive. .  System can be switched into manual mode whenever required.  Complete elimination of manpower  Can handle heavy loads up to 7A . Works according to the soil condition .

FUTURE EXTENSION  The working of the project is dependent on the output of humidity sensors. then it will not be possible by using sensor technology  DTMF technology is used which can be better implemented in paddy crops  It is very economical in terms of hardware costs and reliability . Whenever there is a need for excess water in the desired field (RICE crops).

Even after then they need to wait until the field is properly watered.  In present days. .CONCLUSION  The system provides with several benefits and can operate with less manpower.  Here is an idea that helps not only farmers even for watering the gardens also. which makes them stop doing other activities. The system supplies water only when the humidity in the soil goes below the reference. especially farmers are facing major problems in watering their agriculture fields. Automatic Irrigation System is very useful. Automatic Irrigation System . which senses the soil moisture and switches the pump automatically when the power is ON . it’s because they have no proper idea of when the power is available so that they can pump water.

Prasad .Gaonkar [5]Electronic Components. Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Janice Gillispie Mazidi [2]The 8051 Micro controller Architecture.REFERENCES [1]The 8051 Micro controller and Embedded Systems.V. Programming & Applications. D. Kenneth J. Programming & Applications. Ramesh S.Ayala [3]Fundamentals of Micro processors and Micro computers. B.Ram [4]Micro processor Architecture.