21st Century considerations on

pork production and quality assurance

Seminar ‘Livestock Development & Food Safety’
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 31 March 2011

Prof.dr. Frans van Knapen, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences
Division of Veterinary Public Health, Utrecht University

Veterinary medicine

production, health and welfare

health and welfare of humans

Veterinary public health is that part of public
health activities using veterinary skills,
knowledge and resources to protection and
improvement of human health and human welfare.

Veterinary Public Health concerns:



(organized) fight against animal diseases 2. Meat inspection and zoonoses control 3.Development in Veterinary Public 1. Health. Health sciences. three phases: .

.Development in Veterinary Public Health (1) (organized) fight against animal diseases  Europe in the 19th century  Third world countries  Developed countries without veterinary infrastructure.

security .Poverty reduction goes together with food security.

food .tractive power .transport .Animals are needed for: .

Veterinary Public Health phase 1 = food security .

.Development in Veterinary Public Health (2) Meat inspection and zoonoses control  Most countries of modern world  Regulation by legislation.



Veterinary Public Health phase 2 = food safety .

Development in Veterinary Public Health (3) Health sciences  A few countries or regions with industrialized animal food production. .  Per definition wealthy countries.

Development in Veterinary Public Health (3)  Healthy feed – healthy animals – healthy food  Animal welfare  Environment protection  Novel food. neutroceuticals. fast food. .

Veterinary Public Health phase 3 = food acceptance .

. Phase 3: new concept of process control and certification.traditional meat inspection. Phase 2: . (GMP. GVP.Salmonella control at farm level (monitoring).Meat inspection: Phase 1: don’t waste animal protein.) surveillance = monitoring + measures! . HACCP etc.

Food security Food safety Food acceptance .

Traditional veterinarian (stage 2)    Diseased animals Meat inspection (64/433/EU) (71/118/EU) Veterinary inspection markets. exhibitions etc. .

Modern and future veterinarian (stage 3) Quality manager in the food chain: Healthy feed . 1994) .healthy animals - healthy food No place for diseased animals in the food chain (EU.

 Lean animals  Cripple animals  Downers    are not necessarily sick animals. at some degree of inconvenience animal welfare comes into consideration. . special abattoirs or logistic slaughtering.

Quality of meat (products) is not of veterinary concern ! Animal welfare and food safety are ! .

specialisation. .Changes in the sector:  until 1960: relatively small scale farming.  then: scaling up. mechanisation.

Changes in the sector:  After 1980: traditional farming industrial farming .

industrialised farming .vertical farming .Changes in the sector:  after 1990: .integrated quality control .


Changes in the society (1) Animal welfare  ± 1900 animal protection act (to protect society against visible cruelty!) Animals are objects. . – public’s agitation about animal fur industry  ± 2000 public’s agitation about: – mass culling – yes/no vaccination – animal industry – animal transports. not beings  ± 1975 – laboratory animal act.

Changes in the society (2) Until 1980 – producers market After 2000 – consumers market .

.Changes in the society (3)  The community’s perception of animal welfare has dramatically changed.  Animals have become beings with intrinsicality.  There is a strong plea for small scale animal handling.

 Animal Liberation Front.  “Party for the Animals” (the Netherlands). .  Green (political) parties.Changes in the society (4)  Greenpeace.  Animal rights groups.

EU Food law (178/2002/EU) .Quality assurance systems .Breeding Food Safety: Transportation Raising Transportation Slaughterhouse Cutting Packing Distribution Retail .Each of the chains has its responsibility to the others.

Breeding Raising Transportation Abattoir Cutting Packing Distribution Retail pre-harvest discussion about animal welfare .

Transportation: crowding. economics). stress. bleeding (ritual slaughter. Abattoir: stunning.Public and political discussion about animal welfare:    Farming: ecological. . long distance. water facilities. industrialised. traditional. temperature control.

Industrialised Pork production Ecological farming .

 Integrated quality control.  Environment protection.  Animal welfare needs attention.Industrialised pork production  Hygiene barriers.  Food safety guarantees .

Ecological farming and pork production  Small scale  Animal welfare  Environmental hygiene  Contamination cycles (microbial and nonmicrobial)  Food safety – no guarantees ! .

)  Toxoplasma  Sarcocystis sp. pesticides etc. heavy metals.  Trichinella  Cysticercosis  Salmonella  Yersinia Who is preparared to pay for this? .Food safety guarantee in ecological farming would include:  Residues (drugs.

Suggestion: A-quality (raw products) 1. Pork should be decontaminated in all cases . Pork B-quality (well treated products) 2.

Phase 3: . Phase 2: .food acceptance - quality assurance (companies) process oriented consumers demand.food security - strategic choices government poverty reduction.product oriented.Conclusions on development in veterinary public health Phase 1: .food safety . .rigid legislation (authority) .

Thank you for your attention .