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Prashant Rawat

Department

of

Nuclear Science & Technology

Vector Calculus

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

• RECTANGULAR or Cartesian

• CYLINDRICAL

• SPHERICAL

Examples:

Sheets - RECTANGULAR

Wires/Cables - CYLINDRICAL

Spheres - SPHERICAL

Choice is based

on symmetry of

problem

Cylindrical Symmetry

Spherical Symmetry

**Cartesian Coordinates Or Rectangular Coordinates
**

P (x, y, z)

z

x

y

P(x,y,z)

y

z

x

A vector A in Cartesian coordinates can be written as

( Ax , Ay , Az )

or

Ax a x Ay a y Az a z

where ax,ay and az are unit vectors along x, y and z-directions.

Φ. Φ.Cylindrical Coordinates P (ρ. tan 2 2 1 z=z y .z z x y . z) z 0 0 2 z z P(ρ. x y . Az ) or A a A a Az a z where aρ. Φ and zdirections. aΦ and az are unit vectors along ρ. y=ρ sin Φ. z) x Φ ρ A vector A in Cylindrical coordinates can be written as ( A . x= ρ cos Φ. A .

Ay.aΦ. Az) and (Aρ. AΦ. az)are a x cos a sin a a y sin a cos a az az or a cos a x sin a y a sin a x cos a y az az Then the relationships between (Ax. az) and (aρ.The relationships between (ax. Az)are A ( Ax cos Ay sin )a ( Ax sin Ay cos )a Az a z .ay.

A Ax cos Ay sin A Ax sin Ay cos Az Az In matrix form we can write A cos A sin Az 0 sin cos 0 0 0 Ax A y 1 Az .

y=r sin θ sin Φ. aθ. tan z x . x=r sin θ cos Φ. θ. θ. and aΦ are unit vectors along r. A ) or Ar ar A a A a where ar.Spherical Coordinates P (r. tan 1 Z=r cos θ x2 y2 1 y . Φ) z 0r 0 θ r 0 2 x P(r. and Φ-directions. Φ) Φ y A vector A in Spherical coordinates can be written as ( Ar . A . r x 2 y 2 z 2 . θ.

aΦ)are a x sin cos ar cos cos a sin a a y sin sin ar cos sin a cos a a z cos ar sin a or ar sin cos a x sin sin a y cos a z a cos cos a x cos sin a y sin a z a sin a x cos a y Then the relationships between (Ax. az) and (ar.ay. Az) and (Ar.Ay. Aθ.and AΦ)are A ( Ax sin cos Ay sin sin Az cos )ar ( Ax cos cos Ay cos sin Az sin )a ( Ax sin Ay cos )a .The relationships between (ax.aθ.

Ar Ax sin cos Ay sin sin Az cos A Ax cos cos Ay cos sin Az sin A Ax sin Ay cos In matrix form we can write Ar sin cos A cos cos A sin sin sin cos sin cos cos sin 0 Ax A y Az .

Φ) z Cartesian Coordinates P(x. θ. z) P(x.z θ r x Φ P(r. Φ) z Cylindrical Coordinates P(ρ. Φ. z) z P(ρ. θ. y.z) y x y Spherical Coordinates P(r. Φ.y. z) x Φ r y .

Differential Length. Area and Volume Cartesian Coordinates Differential displacement dl dxax dya y dza z Differential area dS dydza x dxdzay dxdyaz Differential Volume dV dxdydz .

Cylindrical Coordinates ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρρ .

Area and Volume Cylindrical Coordinates Differential displacement dl da da dza z Differential area dS ddza ddza dda z Differential Volume dV dddz .Differential Length.

Spherical Coordinates .

Area and Volume Spherical Coordinates Differential displacement dl drar rda r sin da Differential area dS r 2 sin ddar r sin drda rdrd a Differential Volume dV r sin drdd 2 .Differential Length.

Line.dl L Surface Integral A. Surface and Volume Integrals Line Integral A.dS S Volume Integral dv v V .

A A A 2 Vector . Divergence and Curl The Del Operator • Gradient of a scalar function is a vector quantity. • The Laplacian of a scalar A f .Gradient. • Divergence of a vector is a scalar quantity. • Curl of a vector is a vector quantity.

Del Operator Cartesian Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates ax a y az x y z 1 a a a z z Spherical Coordinates 1 1 ar a a r r r sin .

Gradient of a Scalar The gradient of a scalar field V is a vector that represents both the magnitude and the direction of the maximum space rate of increase of V. V V V V ax ay az x y z V 1 V V V a a az z V 1 V 1 V V ar a a r r r sin .

divA .dS S v A A A .Divergence of a Vector The divergence of A at a given point P is the outward flux per unit volume as the volume shrinks about P. A x y z 1 1 A Az . A lim v 0 A. A ( A ) z .

Curl of a Vector The curl of A is an axial vector whose magnitude is the maximum circulation of A per unit area tends to zero and whose direction is the normal direction of the area when the area is oriented to make the circulation maximum. A . dl curlA A lim L s 0 S an max Where ΔS is the area bounded by the curve L and an is the unit vector normal to the surface ΔS .

ax A x Ax ay y Ay az z Az a 1 A A Cartesian Coordinates ar 1 A 2 r sin r Ar a A az z Az Cylindrical Coordinates ra rA r sin a r sin A Spherical Coordinates .

A.dS .Divergence or Gauss’ The divergenceTheorem theorem states that the total outward flux of a vector field A through the closed surface S is the same as the volume integral of the divergence of A. Adv V .

Stokes’s

Stokes’

theorem states that the

Theorem

circulation of a

**vector field A around a closed path L is equal to
**

the surface integral of the curl of A over the open

A A and

surface S bounded by L, provided

are continuous on S

A.dl ( A).dS

L

S

Coulomb’s Law

It states that the force F between two point charges Q1 and Q2 is

kQ1Q2

F

R2

In Vector form

Or

If we have more than two point charges

**Electric Field Intensity
**

Electric Field Intensity is the force per unit charge when placed in the

electric field

F

E

Q

**In Vector form
**

E

If we have more than two point charges

**Electric Field due to Continuous Charge
**

Distribution

**If there is a continuous charge distribution say along a line, on a
**

surface, or in a volume

**The charge element dQ and the total charge Q due to these charge
**

distributions can be obtained by

The electric field intensity due to each charge distribution ρ L. ρS and ρV may be given by the summation of the field contributed by the numerous point charges making up the charge distribution. .

Electric Flux Density The electric field intensity depends on the medium in which the charges are placed. Suppose a vector field D independent of the medium is defined by D oE The electric flux ψ in terms of D can be defined as The vector field D is called the electric flux density and is measured in coulombs per square meter. .

Electric Flux Density For an infinite sheet the electric field intensity D is given by For a volume charge distribution the electric field intensity D is given by .

Gauss Law It states that the total electric flux ψ through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that surface. Qenc (i) .

.Using Divergence Theorem (ii) Comparing the two volume integrals in (i) and (ii) This is the first Maxwell’s equation. It states that the volume charge density is the same as the divergence of the electric flux density.

dl The negative sign indicates that the work is being done by an external agent. We can obtain E without involving vectors by using the electric scalar potential V.dl Q E. E due to a charge distribution can be obtained from Coulomb’s Law.Electric Potential Electric Field intensity. or using Gauss Law when the charge distribution is symmetric. From Coulomb’s Law the force on point charge Q is F QE The work done in displacing the charge by length dl is dW F . .

2. there AB is a gain in potential energy in the movement (an external agent does the work). there is loss in potential energy in moving Q from A to B (work is being done by the field). .dl VAB Q A VAB is known as the potential difference between points A and B. It is independent of the path taken. B W E.The total work done or the potential energy required in moving the B point charge Q from A to B is W Q E.Vif is positive.dl A Dividing the above equation by Q gives the potential energy per unit charge. It is measured in Joules per Coulomb referred as Volt. 1. If V AB is negative.

r V E. the potential V ( r ' ) at r ' becomes V (r ) Q 4 o | r r ' | . the potential at a distance r from the point charge is the work done per unit charge by an external agent in transferring a test charge from infinity to that point.d l If the point charge Q is not at origin but at a point whose position vector is r ' . Assuming zero potential at infinity.The potential at any point due to a point charge Q located at the origin is Q V 4 o r The potential at any point is the potential difference between that point and a chosen point at which the potential is zero.

r n the potential at r is 1 V (r ) 4 o n Q |r r k 1 k | If there is continuous charge distribution instead of point charges then the potential at r becomes . Q3…... r 3 ..For n point charges Q1. Q2...Qn located at points with position vectors r 1 . r 2 .

Relationship between E and V The potential difference between points A and B is independent of the path taken VAB VBA B A A B VAB E.d l 0 E. .d l VAB VBA E.d l 0 It means that the line integral of (i) E along a closed path must be zero.d l and VBA E.

Physically it means that no net work is done in moving a charge along a closed path in an electrostatic field.d S 0 E 0 (ii) Equation (i) and (ii) are known as Maxwell’s equation for static electric fields. both depicting conservative nature of an electrostatic field. . Equation (i) is in integral form while equation (ii) is in differential form. Applying Stokes’s theorem to equation (i) E.d l ( E ).

The negative sign shows that the direction of E is opposite to the direction in which V increases.Also E V It means Electric Field Intensity is the gradient of V. .

r1 = d cosθ and r1r2 = r2 then . Φ) is If r >> d. θ. The potential at P (r.Electric Dipole An electric dipole is formed when two point charges of equal magnitude but of opposite sign are separated by a small distance. r2 .

then The dipole moment p is directed from –Q to +Q.ar where d d az If we define p Q d as the dipole moment.But d cos d . if the dipole center is not at the origin but at r ' then .

In polarized the electron cloud is distorted by the applied electric field.Polarization in Dielectrics Consider an atom of the dielectric consisting of an electron cloud (-Q) and a positive nucleus (+Q). F Q E E by F Q E while in the opposite A dipole results from the displacement of charges and the dielectric is polarized. . the positive charge is displaced E from its equilibrium position in the direction of the negative charge is displaced by direction. When an electric field is applied.

we define polarization P (coulomb per square meter) as dipole moment per unit volume .This distorted charge distribution is equivalent to the original distribution plus the dipole whose moment is p Qd where d is the distance vector between -Q to +Q. If there are N dipoles in a volume Δv of the dielectric. the total dipole moment due to the electric field For the measurement of intensity of polarization.

N2. . O2 Other types of molecules that have in-built permanent dipole moments are called polar.The major effect of the electric field on the dielectric is the creation of dipole moments that align themselves in the direction of electric field. eg: H2. HCl When electric field is applied to a polar material then its permanent dipole experiences a torque that tends to align its dipole moment in the direction of the electric field. eg: H2O. This type of dielectrics are said to be non-polar.

' P dv The potential dV at an external point O due to (i) where R2 = (x-x’)2+(y-y’)2+(z-z’)2 and R is the distance between volume element dv’ and the point O. But Applying the vector identity = - .Field due to a Polarized Dielectric Consider a dielectric material consisting of dipoles with Dipole moment P per unit volume.

Put this in (i) and integrate over the entire volume v’ of the dielectric Applying Divergence Theorem to the first term (ii) where an’ is the outward unit normal to the surface dS’ of the dielectric The two terms in (ii) denote the potential due to surface and volume charge distributions with densities .

where ρps and ρpv are the bound surface and volume charge densities. an equivalent volume charge density. Equation (ii) says that where polarization occurs. ρps is formed over the surface of dielectric. ρpv is formed throughout the dielectric while an equivalent surface charge density. Bound charges are those which are not free to move in the dielectric material. The total positive bound charge on surface S bounding the dielectric is while the charge that remains inside S is .

Total charge = When dielectric contains free charge If ρv is the free volume charge density then the total volume charge density ρt Hence Where .Total charge on dielectric remains zero.

The effect of the dielectric on the electric field E inside it by an amount P is to increase D . . The polarization would vary directly as the applied electric field. Where e is known as the electric susceptibility of the material It is a measure of how susceptible a given dielectric is to electric fields.

. єo is the permittivity of the free space and єr is the dielectric constant or relative permittivity.Dielectric Constant and Strength We know that and Thus or where o r and where є is the permittivity of the dielectric.

The minimum value of the electric field at which the dielectric breakdown occurs is called the dielectric strength of the dielectric material. When a dielectric becomes conducting then it is called dielectric breakdown. temperature and the amount of time for which the field is applied. or The dielectric strength is the maximum value of the electric field that a dielectric can tolerate or withstand without breakdown.No dielectric is ideal. . humidity. When the electric field in a dielectric is sufficiently high then it begins to pull electrons completely out of the molecules. It depends on the type of material. and the dielectric becomes conducting.

Continuity Equation and Relaxation Time According to principle of charge conservation. Using divergence theorem But . the time rate of decrease of charge within a given volume must be equal to the net outward current flow through the closed surface of the volume. The current Iout coming out of the closed surface (i) where Qin is the total charge enclosed by the closed surface.

Equation (i) now becomes or (ii) This is called the continuity of current equation. Effect of introducing charge at some interior point of a conductor/dielectric According to Ohm’s law According to Gauss’s law .

Equation (ii) now becomes or This is homogeneous liner ordinary differential equation. By separating variables we get Integrating both sides .

53 x 10-19 sec (short for good conductors) For fused Quartz Tr = 51.2 days (large for good dielectrics) . Relaxation time is the time in which a charge placed in the interior of a material to drop to e-1 = 36.8 % of its initial value. For Copper Tr = 1.(iii) where Equation (iii) shows that as a result of introducing charge at some interior point of the material there is a decay of the volume charge density ρv. The time constant Tr is known as the relaxation time or the relaxation time.

Conductor and Dielectric 3. Conductor and free space For determining boundary conditions we will use Maxwell’s equations and . We will consider the boundary conditions at an interface separating 1. Dielectric (єr1) and Dielectric (єr2) 2.Boundary Conditions If the field exists in a region consisting of two different media. the conditions that the field must satisfy at the interface separating the media are called boundary conditions These conditions are helpful in determining the field on one side of the boundary when the field on other side is known.

Dielectric-Dielectric boundary .

) .Dielectric-Dielectric boundary (Contd.

Dielectric-Dielectric boundary .

) .Dielectric-Dielectric boundary (Contd.

Dielectric-Dielectric boundary (Contd.) .

Dielectric-Dielectric boundary (Contd.) .

Conductor-Dielectric boundary .

) .Conductor-Dielectric boundary (Contd.

Conductor-Dielectric boundary (Contd.) .

Conductor-Dielectric boundary (Contd.) .

Conductor-Free space boundary .

Conductor-Free space boundary .

Poisson’s & Laplace’s equation .

Poisson’s & Laplace’s equation (Contd.) .

We can solve a Laplace equation in different ways but every method will lead to the same solution which satisfies the given boundary conditions. This is known as the uniqueness theorem. numerical . . graphical.Uniqueness Theorem There are several methods (analytical. experimental etc. This theorem applies to any solution of the Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation in a given region or closed surface. Any solution of Laplace equation which satisfies the same boundary conditions must be the only solution regardless of the method used.) for solving a problem.

.

The negative sign shows that the induced voltage acts in such a way to oppose the flux producing in it. The induced emf (Vemf) in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux linkage by the circuit.Faraday’s law According to Faraday a time varying magnetic field produces an induced voltage (called electromotive force or emf) in a closed circuit. This is Faraday’s Law and can be expressed as where N is the number of turns in the circuit and ψ is the flux through each turn. which causes a flow of current. This is known as Lenz’s Law. .

. Ef and Ee have opposite directions in the battery. Consider the electrical circuit where battery is a source of emf.The direction of current flow in the circuit is such that the induced magnetic field produced by the induced current will oppose the original magnetic field. Ee ( V ) also exists Ee Ef The total electric field at any point is Ef is zero outside the battery. The battery produces a field Ef. Due to the charge accumulation at the battery terminals a electrostatic field.

Ef and Ee are equal but opposite within the battery. It is the potential difference (VP . .VN) between the battery’s open circuit terminal.On integration over the closed circuit Through battery where because Ee is conservative. The emf of the battery is the line integral of the emf produced field.

and S is the surface area of The equation says that in time-varying situation.. both electric and magnetic fields are present and are interrelated. .Transformer and Motional EMF For a circuit with a single turn (N = 1) In terms of E and B this can be written as (i) where ψ has been replaced by the circuit bounded by a closed path L.

1. Stationary loop in a time-varying B field (Transformer emf) Consider a stationary conducting loop in a time-varying magnetic B field. By having a time-varying loop area in a static B field. By having a time-varying loop area in a time-varying B field. 2. The equation (i) becomes . By having a stationary loop in a time-varying B field. 3.The variation of flux with time may be caused in three ways.

By applying Stokes’s theorem to the middle term. we get Thus This is one of the Maxwell’s equations for time-varying fields.This emf induced by the time-varying current in a stationary loop is often referred to as transformer emf in power analysis since it is due to the transformer action. It shows that the time-varying field is not conservative. .

The force on a charge moving with uniform velocity u in a magnetic field B is The motional electric field Em is defined as Consider a conducting loop moving with uniform velocity u. Moving loop in static B field (Motional emf)in a static B field. generators . the emf induced in the loop is (i) This kind of emf is called the motional emf or flux-cutting emf. an emf is When a conducting loop is moving introduced in the loop. eg.2. Because it is due to the motional action.. Motors.

we get .Consider a rod moving between a pair of rails Here B and u are perpendicular so the force can be given by or The equation (i) becomes By applying Stokes’s theorem to equation (i).

Moving loop in time-varying field Consider a moving conducting loop in a time-varying magnetic field Then both transformer emf and motional emf are present. Thus the total emf will be the sum of transformer emf and motional emf also .3.

Displacement Current For static EM fields (i) But the divergence of the curl of a vector field is zero. . So (ii) But the continuity of current requires (iii) Equation (ii) and (iii) are incompatible for time-varying conditions So we need to modify equation (i) to agree with (iii) Add a term to equation (i) so that it becomes (iv) where Jd is to defined and determined.

we get This is Maxwell’s equation (based on Ampere Circuital Law) for a time-varying field. So (v) In order for equation (v) to agree with (iii) or (vi) Putting (vi) in (iv). The term is known as displacement current density and J is the conduction current density .Again the divergence of the curl of a vector field is zero. .

Maxwell’s Equations in Final Form .

Acknowledgement Many thanks to Drs Amit Chawla & Gagan Anand for sharing their slides with me! .

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