Mohd Fadeli Md Halid

Motivation and LHC challenges
The CMS muon detector and trigger

The Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider .

best choice of decay channel is H→γγ Higher mass Higgs can be searched for using WW and ZZ channels Decay to b quarks very challenging Decays to τ very interesting for Higgs parameters .Higgs decay at the LHC For low mass Higgs.

Higgs decay at CMS .

LHC challenges: data rate • At full LHC luminosity we have 22 events superimposed on any discovery signal • 109 events per second x typical event size of 1-2 Mbytes > 1TByte/sec • Enormous data rate. Need super-fast algorithms to select interesting events while suppressing less interesting events .

LHC trigger challenges .pileup Higgs -> 4μ We want to select this type of event. for example Higgs to 4 muons .

for example Higgs to 4 muons which has this superimposed on it……Sophisticated algorithms necessary .LHC trigger challenges .pileup Higgs -> 4μ +30 MinBias We want to select this type of event.

5 m separation Out-of-time pile up: Due to events from different crossings Need a to identify the bunch crossing that a given event comes from .LHC trigger challenges .pileup In-time pile up: Same crossing different interactions New events come every 25 nsec → 7.

01 Hz >>Need to select events at the 1:1011 level .1 Hz H(600 GeV): 0.LHC challenges: needle in a haystack QCD cross sections are orders of magnitude larger than electroweak or any exotic channels Event rates: Inelastic: 109 Hz W→lν : 100 Hz t-tbar:10 Hz H(100 GeV): 0.

Events are lost forever! .Challenges Enormous data rate: 109 Hz → more than 1TByte/s Minimum bias in-time pile-up → 22 events per bunch crossing Out-of-time pile-up → events from different bunch crossings overlayed Tiny cross sections for Higgs and new physics → selection 1:1011 All online → can’t go back and fix it.

CMS Trigger System .

The CMS trigger system  40 MHz input rate to Level 1  Selection cannot be done in 25ns so pipelined trigger  100 KHz Level 1 output rate  100 Hz written at the output  Event Size 1-2 Mbytes Level-1 Trigger: → Custom made hardware system → The topic of the rest of this talk High Level Trigger: → PC farm (~1000 units) using reconstruction software and event filters similar to the offline analysis .

Pipelines deep enough for 128 bunch crossings (3. Regional triggers search for Isolated e.2s) 2. Can only use CAL and muon systems . jets and compute the transverse and missing energy of the event.The CMS Level 1 Trigger Huge rejection necessary → sophisticated algorithms 1. Detector data stored in front-end pipelines. Event selection algorithms run on the global triggers. . Must give a trigger decision every 25ns. . 4. Trigger decision derived from trigger primitives generated on the detector 3. GCT next  slide.

Level 1 trigger components .

Global muon trigger Muon trigger system .

Red: Muon chambers Yellow: A lot of Iron !-> Compact Muon Solenoid .

. etc . noise.L1 muon trigger Combination of three technologies  Drift tubes  Cathode strip chambers  Resistive plate chambers  For triggering only  Redundant  Complementary technologies  Geometric overlap Tracks from different systems combined in the Global Muon Trigger  Combination uses optimal information from each system and is less sensitive to backgrounds.

apply thresholds in muon momentum at trigger level. .The Muon system has to: Provide independent muon tracking to improve muon reconstruction. redundant. and perform BX identification. independent Level-1 trigger for muons. especially at high momenta Provide a robust.

The muon trigger system Old new .

Resistive-Plate-Chambers (RPC) End-Caps:Cathode-Strip-Chambers (CSC). Resistive- Plate-Chambers (RPC) .Sub-detector Barrel:Drift-Tubes (DT).

The DRIFT tube chamber Sub-detector .


Trigger segments from each station are matched together according to proper Look-up-Tables •pt.  Up to 2 muon segments perstation for each BX  A ghost suppression mechanism to remove fake or wrong candidates  Performed by electronics on the chambers . position and charge are assigned  Search for hit alignment in each muon station.

Conclusion Triggering at the LHC is a huge challenge The CMS trigger is highly complex The GCT is a key component in the trigger Understanding the trigger and taking the right data samples will be the key to early discovery of new physics Working on the trigger you get your hands on the data first .

Extra slide Simplest trigger system .