ROLE OF TRIGGER TO

CAPTURE PHYSIC
Mohd Fadeli Md Halid

THE CMS TRIGGER
Motivation and LHC challenges
The CMS muon detector and trigger

The Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider .

best choice of decay channel is H→γγ Higher mass Higgs can be searched for using WW and ZZ channels Decay to b quarks very challenging Decays to τ very interesting for Higgs parameters .Higgs decay at the LHC For low mass Higgs.

Higgs decay at CMS .

LHC challenges: data rate • At full LHC luminosity we have 22 events superimposed on any discovery signal • 109 events per second x typical event size of 1-2 Mbytes > 1TByte/sec • Enormous data rate. Need super-fast algorithms to select interesting events while suppressing less interesting events .

LHC trigger challenges .pileup Higgs -> 4μ We want to select this type of event. for example Higgs to 4 muons .

for example Higgs to 4 muons which has this superimposed on it……Sophisticated algorithms necessary .LHC trigger challenges .pileup Higgs -> 4μ +30 MinBias We want to select this type of event.

5 m separation Out-of-time pile up: Due to events from different crossings Need a to identify the bunch crossing that a given event comes from .LHC trigger challenges .pileup In-time pile up: Same crossing different interactions New events come every 25 nsec → 7.

01 Hz >>Need to select events at the 1:1011 level .1 Hz H(600 GeV): 0.LHC challenges: needle in a haystack QCD cross sections are orders of magnitude larger than electroweak or any exotic channels Event rates: Inelastic: 109 Hz W→lν : 100 Hz t-tbar:10 Hz H(100 GeV): 0.

Events are lost forever! .Challenges Enormous data rate: 109 Hz → more than 1TByte/s Minimum bias in-time pile-up → 22 events per bunch crossing Out-of-time pile-up → events from different bunch crossings overlayed Tiny cross sections for Higgs and new physics → selection 1:1011 All online → can’t go back and fix it.

CMS Trigger System .

The CMS trigger system  40 MHz input rate to Level 1  Selection cannot be done in 25ns so pipelined trigger  100 KHz Level 1 output rate  100 Hz written at the output  Event Size 1-2 Mbytes Level-1 Trigger: → Custom made hardware system → The topic of the rest of this talk High Level Trigger: → PC farm (~1000 units) using reconstruction software and event filters similar to the offline analysis .

Pipelines deep enough for 128 bunch crossings (3. Regional triggers search for Isolated e.2s) 2. Can only use CAL and muon systems . jets and compute the transverse and missing energy of the event.The CMS Level 1 Trigger Huge rejection necessary → sophisticated algorithms 1. Detector data stored in front-end pipelines. Event selection algorithms run on the global triggers. . Must give a trigger decision every 25ns. . 4. Trigger decision derived from trigger primitives generated on the detector 3. GCT next  slide.

Level 1 trigger components .

Global muon trigger Muon trigger system .

Red: Muon chambers Yellow: A lot of Iron !-> Compact Muon Solenoid .

. etc . noise.L1 muon trigger Combination of three technologies  Drift tubes  Cathode strip chambers  Resistive plate chambers  For triggering only  Redundant  Complementary technologies  Geometric overlap Tracks from different systems combined in the Global Muon Trigger  Combination uses optimal information from each system and is less sensitive to backgrounds.

apply thresholds in muon momentum at trigger level. .The Muon system has to: Provide independent muon tracking to improve muon reconstruction. redundant. and perform BX identification. independent Level-1 trigger for muons. especially at high momenta Provide a robust.

The muon trigger system Old new .

Resistive-Plate-Chambers (RPC) End-Caps:Cathode-Strip-Chambers (CSC). Resistive- Plate-Chambers (RPC) .Sub-detector Barrel:Drift-Tubes (DT).

The DRIFT tube chamber Sub-detector .

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Trigger segments from each station are matched together according to proper Look-up-Tables •pt.  Up to 2 muon segments perstation for each BX  A ghost suppression mechanism to remove fake or wrong candidates  Performed by electronics on the chambers . position and charge are assigned  Search for hit alignment in each muon station.

Conclusion Triggering at the LHC is a huge challenge The CMS trigger is highly complex The GCT is a key component in the trigger Understanding the trigger and taking the right data samples will be the key to early discovery of new physics Working on the trigger you get your hands on the data first .

Extra slide Simplest trigger system .