# Numerical analysis

Numerical methods

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 The purpose of the course is to provide
engineers with plenty of mathemacial tools to
solve all different types of equations .
 Issam Almustafa

Restirictions of the
course

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10

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Exams
Final Exam
workshops ( in class)
assitence

Cell phone

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ON EXAMS DAY YOU HAVE
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OTHERWISE YOU HAVE NO
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if not submitted on time you lose the assignment points . .Assignments and workshops   They have start and end date.

4 : Solving a set of problems from Chapter 3 which should be delivered printed . b) 10 pts for making bisection method in Excel ( in class ) c) 70 pts written includes two problems .  Exam 3 : Session 15 Chapter 3 .Exams   Exam 1 : Written Chapter 1 only. session 4  Exam2 : written session 9 Chapter 2 : a) 20 pts for writing a program for one of the rooting finding methods ( done in class with explanation ). .

43 ± 0. you imply an uncertainty of about 0.02 m. If we would round it again to two decimal places to be 0. the number of meaningful digits that you write down implies the error in the measurement. not 0.02 m .428 ± 0. For example if you say that the length of an object is 0.001 In other words we are not sure of the 8 was rouded up or down .43 then the estimated error is 0.Significant figures  Whenever you make a measurement.428 m.02 m you would report a result of 0.

Rules of significat figures  .

Why is that ?  *Due to scientific    notation  400 can be written in a scientific notation as 400 = the number that shows the quantity is the 4 while the zeros show the magnitude . .  They don't show the quantity. they are not significant.  The leading 0's ARE 100% sure. but rather the order of magnitude of that quantity. but nobody really cares about them. Therefore.

 500 = 5 the quantity is 5 the 2 show how big it is .005   = 5 quantity is 5 . magnitude -2 showing how small it is .Examples   0.

00595995 and was rounded to 7 decimal places .Special case   0.  Might have been 0.0059600 leading zeros are “PLACEHOLDERS “ because they hold the place of the numbers that were rounded .

00035 is accurate to the hundred-thousandths place  0.14159 is accurate to the hundred-thousandths place  1000 is accurate to the thousands place  1000.Accuracy Notations   3.0 is accurate to the tenths place  0.000350 is accurate to the millionths place (note the extra zero)  1006 is accurate to the units place  560 is accurate to the tens place  560. is accurate to the units place (note the decimal point)  560.0 is accurate to the tenths place .

43 .Un 5 seguido de cualquier dígito diferente de cero.627 ~ 8.123 ~ 5. se aumenta una unidad el dígito precedente.12 2-Mayor que 5. 4252 ~9. 8. se deja el dígito precedente intacto  Ejemplos: Supongamos que se desea redondear los siguientes números a Tres cifras significativas: 5. se aumenta una unidad el dígito precedente.Las Reglas de Rodondeo 1-Menor que 5.63 3. 9.

y se aumenta una unidad si es impar. se deja el dígito precedente sin cambiar si es par. se aumenta el dígito precedente una unidad si es impar.38 5.28 . 4-Un 5 no seguido de dígitos.275 ~ 6. 7. 6. de modo que siempre termine par.Si el dígito a la derecha del último requerido es un 5 no seguido de dígitos.385 ~ en 7.

422 becomes 6. if only one decimal is to be kept.7. if only one decimal is to be kept.00.49. if only two decimals are to be kept. then 6.CASE A: In rounding off numbers. the last figure kept should be increased by 1 if the first figure dropped is greater than 5. Similarly. if the first figure dropped is 5. For example. 6.995 becomes 9. For example. if only two decimals are to be kept. then 7. then 6. then the last figure kept should be increased by 1. CASE B: In rounding off numbers. For example. 8. then 6.  For example.49.755000 becomes 6. then 6.6501 becomes 6.76. if only two decimals are to be kept. if only one decimal is to be kept.997 becomes 7. if the first figure dropped is 5. if only two decimals are to be kept. and there are any figures following the five that arenot zero. if the first figure dropped is 5.6500 becomes 6. CASE C: In rounding off numbers.00.48. and all the figures following the five are zero or if there are no figures after the 5. then the last figure kept should be increased by 1 if that last figure is odd. if only two decimals are to be kept. and all the figures following the five are zero or if there are no figures after the 5. CASE E: In rounding off numbers. For example.485 becomes 7. .4852007 becomes 7. For example.4872 becomes 6. then 7. For example. For example.4.6. CASE D: In rounding off numbers. then 6. the last figure kept should be unchanged if the first figure dropped is less than 5. then the last figure kept should be unchanged if that last figure is even.

49 6.4872 2 6.755000 2 6.6501 1 6.422 1 6.6500 1 6.997 2 7.00 6.4 6.49  .4852007 2 7.48 6.00 6.995 2 9.6 7.Example NUMBER Number of decimal places desired number becomes to desired decimal place 6.485 2 7.7 7.76 8.

and two significant digits 231.07284 (four significant digits) 0.000 (two significant digits)  Round 0.07284 to four.073 (two significant digits)  Round 231.396 to four.400 (four significant digits) 742.5 (four significant digits) 231 (three significant digits) 230 (two significant digits) . three. three. and two significant digits: 0.More Examples :   Round 742. and two significant digits: 742.0728 (three significant digits) 0.000 (three significant digits) 740. three.45 to four.

2290 Rounding to the tenths place. but then you would round the answer to the same decimal place as the least-accurate number.214 + 234.6.Rounding Addition  How do you round when they give you a bunch of numbers to add? You would add (or subtract) the numbers as usual.38 = 261. I get: Copyright © 2000-2011 All Rights Reserved 13. all the other numbers are accurate to a greater number of decimal places.0350 + 6.0350 + 6. I see that the second number.214 + 234.38 Looking at the numbers.38 = 261. So my answer will have to be rounded to the tenths place: 13.2 .6 + 7. 234.214 + 234.0350 + 6. is only accurate to the tenths place.6 + 7.  Round to the appropriate number of significant digits: 13.6 + 7.

Rounding Multiplication

How do you round, when they give you numbers to multiply (or divide)? You would
multiply (or divide) the numbers as usual, but then you would round the answer to the same
number of significant digits as the least-accurate number.

Simplify, and round to the appropriate number of significant digits:
16.235 × 0.217 × 5
First, I note that 5 has only one significant digit, so I will have to round my final answer to
one significant digit. The product is:
16.235 × 0.217 × 5 = 17.614975
Since I can only claim one accurate significant digit, I will need to round 17.614975 to 20,
which is accurate to one significant digit.
16.235 × 0.217 × 5 = 20

Another example

Find the product of 0.00435 and 4.6 to the appropriate number of digits.
First I multiply:
0.00435 × 4.6 = 0.02001

Looking at the original numbers, I see that 4.6 has only two significant digits, so I will
have to round 0.02001 to two significant digits. The 2 is the first significant digit, so the 0
following it will have to be the second significant digits. In other words, I must report the
answer as being:
0.00435 × 4.6 = 0.020
The answer should not be 0.02, because 0.02 has only one significant digit; namely, the "2". The
trailing zero in 0.020 indicates that "this is accurate to the thousandths place, or two significant
digits", and is therefore a necessary part of the answer.

Practica

11.Today session 2  Review last week Precision and accuracy Intro to Error Relative Error and absolute errors Exercises pages ( 8 . 13 . 14) of last week  Exercises page 21for today’s topic      . 9 .

Precission and Accuracy  .

What is an error?  Errors are the result of calculating approximation For various reasons we may not be able to obtain the exact value and we must be content with an approximation to the true value.  Imperfect physical measurements. Some of these reasons are the following.  Propagation of Round-off errors .*** . ***The value measured is called approximation relative to the value calculated according to a theory which is considered the true one .

Evaluating the mean when given a series of values    = .

 Standard deviation of the mean   σ= .Certainty in the of the mean   To   measure how accurate the is from the  Which is the average of the difference between each point and the mean .

022 sum of the squared  deviation   ÷5 mean 22.066 mm.7 0.1 0.0 0.6 0. .0     23.8 0.2     22.8 ± .8 ÷ 5 and take the (N = number data square root points = 5) 0. Assume you made the following five measurements of a length: Thus the result is 22.  Length (mm) Deviation from   mean   22.2 0.066 standard deviation of the mean The following example will clarify these ideas.2     23.1     22.2   sum 114.

2       16.8       10.  Practice  Length (mm) Deviation from   mean   12.6       13.0     sum     sum of the squared deviation   mean ÷5   ÷ 5 and take the (N = number data square root points = 5)   standard deviation of the mean           .5       14.

.Relative and Absolute error   The absolute error. .xa |. is the magnitude of the error  (2)  = | x .

**** . ***The value measured is called approximation of the value calculated according to a theory which is considered the true one .

Example 2 : serie de Taylor de  .

5  1.The more terms we add the more accurate our approximation is .5 1 Present value e 0.5 . thus we can calculate two values which we will call present value and previous value in order to estimate the error between them  Previous value x e e 1 x e  1 x 1! 0 .

3% .5-1)/1. Aplicando la formula assuming that 1.5 100% = 33.5 is the unrounded value and 1 is the rounded value (approximated as it drops off the other terms). E = (1.

11. . 13 . 9 . 14) in the module of last week  Exercises on page 15 for today’s topic  Upload assignments to Latina's platform .Practice   Exercises on pages ( 8 . they must submitted in the Assignments section .

Chapter 1 Concept map  .

Fundamentos matematicos   Ecuaciones continua  Ecuaciones descontinua .

 2.cuando la funcion se puede dibujar sin quitar la mano del papel . .la funcion es continua en un punto cuando en este punto la función es definida .Pasos para saber la continuidad   1.

que es una funcion continua 2.ejemplo 3.que es una funcion no continua 4-ejemplo 1.raiz de ecuaciones con numero imaginario .Fundamentos matematicos         1.3 5-Que significa raiz ? 6.que significa numero imaginario 7.2.

Función continua     * Dibjuar y mostrar .

* Es continua cuando es definida en un punto dado .Ejemplo 3 :  * La funcion es continua si en un punto x = c el lado izuerdo es igual al lado derecho .

Funcion descontinua Ejemplo 1 :  * Si limitamos x para sea siempre mayor de 0 entonces tendramos una funcion continua. .

Ejemplo2 :  No tiene raiz .

almustafa@gmail. me avisan si vamos rapido o mandan sus comentarios a mi correo si lo prefieren asi pasada • Lssam.com • Modelos de problemas (cuales son) y sus pasos • Repaso sobre el concepto del raiz • Generar graficas usando Excel para verificar el raiz • Introducción al metodo bisección y su diagrama de flujo • taller .Semana 4  • Arreglar un error de continuidad de la semana ( disculpa ) en 24 • Comentarios.

valor aproximado 3.valor real 2.valor aproximado caundo x = c 3.Te da una grafica y la función con dos valores de x te pide : 1.calcular el error absolulto 2. mas el valor Δx te pide : 1.valor de error absoluto y relativo 2.Te da la ecuación y un punto.Modelos de problemas y pasos para resolverlas  1.Te da dos puntos mas Δx y te pide : 1.muestra en la graifica el error .

Te da una ecuación en forma 1.Modelos de problemas y pasos para resolverlas 4.calcular el raiz imaginario .calcular el segundo valor aproximado hasta n+m terminos 3.Te da una ecuación en forma 1.evaluar el error por ciento  6.calcular el primer valor aproximado hasta n terminos 2. 5.Te da una grafica y pide :  marcar los puntos adonde la funcion tiene raiz .Te da una ecuacion de serie de taylor y pide : 1.calcular el raiz de la funcion si existe  7.

Encontrar el raiz  La función tiene raiz cuando : 1-En este punto es continua 2.cruza el eje x  Ejemplo : 1.2x + 6 = 0 2- * Grafica .

Pasa al otro lado el -4 .verifique si es cuadrado ( si no ??!!) • 3.suma el nuevo termnio con el anterior .verifique si el signo de segundo termino es negativo o postivio • 4. • 2.Tomar el raiz para los ambos lados. • 1.agrega un valor con signo contrario del segundo termino • 5.  Introducción al metodo de bisección Calculo Humano :  • 1. • El Calculo Humano en la computadora seria asi : • Porque tendramos que escribir mas codigo y para cada ecuacion otro coidgo .verifique cuanto terminos hay ( mas terminos mas codigo ) • 2.

Flujograma  .

Tody   1.  5.What mathematical modeling ?  2.  3.Linear and polynomial (just quadratic in this course ) regression .  6.workshop : solve one problem of linear regression and solve a quadratic regression using the Excel.Find a linear equation that best fits the data using the formulas to find the coefficients “a” and “b”.Find coefficient for quadratic regression using an online application .  Solve one problem of Newton’s interpolation second order .Create scatterplot in Excel  4.

Mathematical modeling   There are many types of mathematical modeling . that one we are interested in is called Linear model which is basically a way to describe a set of data in a form of a linear equation to be able to evaluate a point that is not in the data set . .

Example : Write equation : solve it  .

Plot in Excel  Data plot Linear regression Polynomial regression of second .

Another example  .

   How does Excel calculate the  function?  .�) .

problem 1 : Solve on paper . practice  1.

Example 2   Solve in Excel and calculate the answer .

Example 3   Solve in Excel .

.Newton’s Divided Diference  Interpretation  This   method is used to connect data points that lie exactly on a graph of a function . or polynomial  a+b or even higher degrees .  The function can be linear : ax+ b .

Example :  .

5 602.67 Determine the value of the velocity at t = 16 seconds using first order polyn interpolation by Newton’s divided difference polynomial method. .04 15 362.35 22.78 20 517.  Table 1 Velocity as a function of time. Example 1  The upward velocity of a rocket is given as a function of time in Table 1 (Figure 3). t (s) v(t) (m/s) 00 10 227.97 30 901.

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.Quadratic interpolation  Used when we want to get a more accurate value between two points or more .

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Secant method  .

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com/calculator  Geogebra .Graphing sotware   https://www.desmos.

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