© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights

CHAPTER 7 Regional Economic Integration McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. All Rights .

All Rights . Inc.Slide 7-1 Key Issues • Understand the different levels of economic integration among nations • What are the political and economic arguments for and against regional integration? • Be familiar with the world’s most important regional economic agreements • What are the implications for business from regional economic integreation? McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies..

Inc. All Rights ..Slide 7-1 Regional Economic Integration • Agreements among geographically proximate countries to reduce/remove tariff and non-tariff barriers to free flow of – Goods – Services – Factors of production McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.. All Rights .Slide 7-2 Levels of Economic Integration • Free Trade Area (FTA): – removes tariffs among members – members retain own trade policies toward others • Customs Union (CU): FTA and … – common trade policy toward others • Common Market (CM): CU and … – elimination of intra-market factor of production movements • Economic Union (EU): CM and … – full integration of member economies (common policy) • Political Union: EU and … – political integration McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Slide 7-3 Reasons for Regional Integration • Economic enhancement of the member states – Free trade – Fee FDI • Political Reasons – Linked economies create interdependencies that reduce the potential for armed conflict – Grouping gives countries more political clout world-wide • Impediments – Painful adjustments in certain segments of economy – Threat to national sovereignty McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc. All Rights .

All Rights . GDP > US • 1951 6 members of coal and steel community – France. Denmark McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Italy. Belgium. Inc.).. Luxembourg • 1957 Treaty of Rome: European Community – – – – Common market Elimination of internal trade barriers Common external tariff Free movement of factors of production • 1973 1st enlargement: Britain. Netherlands. Ireland. Germany (W. 350mm people.Slide 7-4 European Union • 15 member countries.

Sweden • 2002 5th enlargement: Cyprus. the Czech Republic. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Latvia..Slide 7-5 European Union • 1981 2nd enlargement: Greece • 1983 3rd enlargement: Portugal. Malta. Inc. All Rights . Hungary. Lithuania. Finland. Spain • 1992 single European act • • • • • • Remove all frontier controls Principle of mutual recognition to product standards Open public procurement to non-national suppliers Lift barriers of competition to banks and insurance Remove restrictions on foreign exchange transactions Abolish restriction on cabotage (trucking) • 1994 Maastricht treaty: European Union • 1996 4th enlargement: Austria. the Slovak Republic and Slovenia conclude accession agreements. Poland. Estonia.

All Rights . Britain) • Currency was issued 1/1/2002 and 12 national currencies were withdrawn by April 2002 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Slide 7-6 The Euro (€) • Maastricht treaty: – – – – European common currency adopted 1/1/99 Common foreign and defense policy Common citizenship EU parliament with “teeth” • € now used by 12 countries (x-Sweden. Denmark..

Slide 7-7 Benefits of the Euro (€) • Lower transaction costs for individuals / business • Prices comparable across the continent. increased competition • Rationalization of production across Europe to reduce cost • Pan-European capital market • Increase range of investment options available to both individuals and institutions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights . Inc..

Finland vs Portugal) • Interest rates may be too high in depressed regions or too low for economically booming regions • May need to deal with this through fiscal transfers from prosperous to depressed regions • Economic issues may come against political ones McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ger.) • ECB is not under political control..g. All Rights . issues instructions to national central banks • EU is not an optimal currency area • Not enough similarities in the underlying structure of economic activity (e.Slide 7-8 Costs of the Euro (€) • Loss of monetary policy control at national level • ECB sets interest rates and determines monetary policy (Frankfurt. Inc..

Slide 7-9 Enlargement of the EU • Enlargement means more disparity and more difficult governance and control • Norway opted out of the EU (1994) • The EU plans to conclude accession negotiations by the end of the 2002 with: Cyprus. Estonia. • US and Asian countries fear that EU will become protectionist (“fortress Europe”) McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Latvia. the Slovak Republic and Slovenia.. Lithuania. Malta. the Czech Republic. Poland. All Rights . Hungary.

Argentina. Guatemala.Slide 7-10 The Americas • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – USA. Mexico. Canada • The Andean Pact – Bolivia. Honduras. Inc. Uruguay • Central American Common Market (CARICOM) – Costa Rica. Chile. Colombia. Peru • MERCOSUR (FTA) – Brazil. Paraguay. El Salvador. Nicaragua McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights . Ecuador..

Laos. the Philippines. Indonesia.. Vietnam • Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation – USA. Malaysia.Slide 7-11 Elsewhere • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Brunei. Inc. Japan. Thailand. Myanmar. All Rights . China + 15 Pacific nations McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Singapore.

Inc. Mexico (FTA-1988) – USA-Canada is world’s largest trading relationship – USA is Mexico’s largest trading partner – Mexico. All Rights .Slide 7-12 NAFTA • USA. USA’s third largest trading partner • Continuation of opening process through elimination of tariffs McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Canada..

Culture in Canada. All Rights . minimum wages McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Key provisions • General (effective 1/1/94) – Tariffs reduced across all sectors by 99% over 10 yrs – FDI unrestricted (x-oil and railways in Mexico.. child labor. airlines-communications US) – No free movement of labor (x-white collar easement) – Protection of intellectual property rights – Cross-border flow of services unrestricted – Application of environmental standards – Two commissions have the right to impose penalties on issues of health/safety. Inc.Slide 7-13 NAFTA .

higher economic growth – Lower cost of doing business (fewer borders) • Threats – – – – Cultural differences persist Increased price competition within blocks Across-trading-block rivalry can increase barriers Improvement of competitiveness of many local firm within the blocks McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Slide 7-14 Implications for Business • Opportunities – Less protectionism.. All Rights .