Metallurgy 1

Metallurgy is the science and
technology of metal. It is the
oldest of the sciences devoted to
the study of engineering
materials. Metallurgy has evolved
into three separate groups:
extractive, mechanical, and

Metallurgical Engineering
Metallurgical engineering or
metallurgy is the study of metals
and is the oldest sciences
devoted to the study of
engineering materials.

Extractive Metallurgy
• Extractive metallurgy is the study of the
extraction and purification of metals from
their ores.
• Extracting a metal from its ore is
conducted in several process steps.
• For example, the extraction route from ore
to refined metal includes any or all of the
following process steps.


.Mechanical Metallurgy Mechanical metallurgy is the study of the techniques and mechanical forces that shape or make finished forms of metal.

• The crystal structure is shown through modeling. The two structures studied in physical metallurgy are the crystal structure and micro structure. • These changes lead to hardening and strengthening of steels. • The technology of heat treatment of steels is based on a specific crystal structure and microstructure change that occurs when steel is rapidly cooled from a high temperature. An atom is the smallest building block of matter that can exist alone or in combination. . • The microstructure is the microscopic arrangement of the components. or phases. within a metal. It cannot be divided without changing its basic character. See figure 1-4 The crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms in the metal.Physical Metallurgy • • • • • • Physical metallurgy is the study of the effect of structure on the properties of metals.


inorganic materials by firing at high temperatures. is the study of the development and production of products made from nonmetallic. or ceramics. Ceramic materials are divided into four groups: .Ceramic Engineering Ceramic engineering.

• • • • Clay-based materials Refractories Glasses Inorganic cements .Ceramic Engineering Cont.

Polymer Engineering Polymer engineering or polymer is the study of the development and production of synthetic organic materials. Polymer are divided into two groups: .

and automotive and aerospace components. fibers sporting goods.Polymer Engineering Cont. building products. • Thermoplatics • Thermosets • Polymer are used I applications such as adhesives. .

Composites are used to strengthen metals. . ceramics. or polymers and improve their structural usefulness. or composites. is the study of the applicability of combinations of materials.Composite Engineering Composite engineering.

which crosses the boundaries of all the branches of materials sciences. . is the study of the evaluation of the characteristic properties of all materials.Materials Engineering Materials engineering.

These properties are: Physical properties Mechanical properties Chemical properties. . Metals and all other materials exhibit three types of properties that help identify the materials. A metal is described as a pure metal or as an alloy and may be further divided into and identified as ferrous or nonferrous.METAL IDENTIFICATION Metal is performed by studying certain characteristics that metals exhibit.

which are also chemical elements. which are usually soft and have low-strength. are chemical elements and pure metals. have extremely limited usage in engineering applications. Alloys are materials that have metallic properties and are composed of two or more chemical elements. See figure 1-6 . For example. copper.Metals and Alloys Metals refer strictly to pure metals. and zinc. manganese. Pure metals. iron. At least one of the elements in an alloy is metal.


Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals and alloys are also described as ferrous or nonferrous. Nonferrous metallurgy encompasses all other pure metals and alloy systems. where the major alloying element is iron. Ferrous metallurgy encompasses alloys based on iron. .

.Chemical Analysis Chemical analysis is the key to the identification of alloys and is used to determine the weight percentages of all the elements that make up alloys.

mechanical. or chemical nature. .Properties A property is a measurable or observable attribute of a material that is of a physical.

light. electricity.Physical Properties Physical properties are the characteristic response of materials to forms of energy such as heat. density. . and weight of a material are physical properties. and magnetism. magnetic permeability. Color.

Mechanical Properties Mechanical properties are the characteristic dimensional changes in response to applied external or internal mechanical forces. .

. Corrosion resistance and resistance to acids and alkalies are examples of chemical properties.Chemical Properties Chemical properties are the characteristic responses of materials in chemical environment.

or from powders. Cast metals are produced from molten metal solidifying in a mold cavity. as wrought. The properties of cast and wrought metals any be substantially and identifiably different.Process Condition Metals may be supplied as cast. .


For example. . Metal powders are used when stringent composition controls are required. rolling.Process Condition Cont. Superalloys are various high-strength. Wrought metals are worked into finished forms. and pressing. often complex alloys having resistance to elevated temperatures. They are worked using processes such as drawing. extruding. metal powders are used in the production of superalloys.

Properties of Engineering Materials • • • • • • • Mechanical Properties Physical Properties Thermal Properties Electrical Properties Chemical Properties Magnetic Properties Optical Properties .

Mechanical Properties • • • • • • • • • Malleability Ductility Hardness Brittleness Fatigue Toughness Elasticity Plasticity Stiffness .

Eg.Mechanical Properties • Malleability – ability of a material to be plastically deformed by hammering or filling into sheet form. . • Ductility – ability of a material to be plastically (permanently) deformed by tension before fracture occurs. • Hardness – ability of a material to resist scratching or penetration. Eg. Eg. Gold. Eg. Wire drawing. Glass. Copper wire.

Eg. Eg. Glass • Fatigue – the failure of a material under the action of repeated alternating stresses. Elastic band . Eg.• Brittleness – tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation particularly under low stress. Steel. • Elasticity – materials ability to return to its original shape after being subjected to a load that caused deformation. Aluminium wire • Toughness – materials ability to withstand stresses as well as deformations. Eg.

Bridge structure .• Plasticity – the ability f a solid material to undergo some degree of permanent deformation without rupture. Eg. plaster sine • Stiffness – a measure of a materials ability to resist deformation or deflection under load. Eg. Hot working a metal.

Importance of Mechanical Properties of Materials in Engineering • The need to acquire knowledge of the properties of materials is ultimately for one main reason: The correct selection of a material for a given application. In the case of mechanical properties. . They are expressed in terms of forces which may deform materials or even cause them to fail completely. these are data used to predict the response of materials under mechanical loads.

006 0.002 0.010 Strain .008 0.Mechanical Properties of Metals Stress (MPa)  500 CONTINUED 400 300 200 100 0 0.000 0.004 0.

Mechanical Properties • Stiffness .Measure of ability to absorb energy (J/m3).Yield.Measure of ability to deform plastically without fracture . Measured as stress (MPa) • Ductility .) . Fracture Strain .g. Offset Yield. Ultimate.Resistance to indentation/abrasion (Various scales. Proof. Resilience .Elastic Modulus or Young’s Modulus (MPa) • Strength . Rockwell. e.(no units or mm/mm) • Toughness. Vickers. Brinell.Elongation. Area Reduction.. • Hardness . Fracture.

strain is the deformation of the component/original length.leading to corresponding deformations. • Stress cannot be measured directly.Stress and Strain • In a simplistic sense. stress may be thought of as Load/Area. . • A stress may be direct. or torsional . • Similarly. shear. but deformation can be.

P L/2 Lo L e Lo Area Ao L/2 Engineering Strain P Direct Stress ­ Compression . P L/2 Lo Area Ao L/2 P Direct Stress ­ Tension Engineering Stress P S Ao Load.Direct Stress Examples Load.

Tension Test Measures P Extensometer Measures L Typical Universal  Testing Machine .

Modern Materials Testing System Hydraulic Wedge  Grips Extensometer Specimen .

20 in2 0.ASTM Tension Test Specimen Ao=0.505" Dia 2” Gauge Length Lo .

Raw Data Obtained Load. Pf . L (mm) Load. Pmax Elastic Deformation Elongation. P (kN) Total  Elongation Uniform Deformation X Maximum  Load.

 S=P/Ao  Elongation Sy 0.2% offset  yield stress (Ultimate) E Su E Proportional Limit Engineering Strain.Engineering Stress-Strain Curve Engineering Stress. e = L/Lo) .

• Express Load in Newtons (N) and Area in mm2 to get Stress in MPa. N 2  MPa mm • Mechanical properties of metals are almost always given in MPa or ksi.89 MPa . • Imperial units: Load in kips (1000 lbf) & Area as in2 gives Stress in ksi (kips/in2) • 1000 psi = 1 ksi = 6.

and concrete. the elastic region is linear. For some materials.Hooke’s Law Elastic Deformation • Elastic deformation is not permanent. it means that when the load is removed. the elastic region is non-linear. Hooke’s Law may be applied: S  Ee • Where E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa) . • If the behavior is linear elastic. or nearly linear-elastic. • For most metals. polymers. including metals such as cast iron. the part returns to its original shape and dimensions.

000 0.008 0.004 0.010 .0) 100 0 0.015  0.006 Strain 0.Stre ss (M Pa )  Modulus of Elasticity .002 0.Stiffness 500 CONTINUED 400 300 200 S (300  0)MPa E   2x10 5 MPa e (0.

Atomic Origin of Stiffness Net Interatomic Force  dF  E     dr  ro Strongly Bonded Weakly Bonded Interatomic Distance .

 G =  /(elastic region) .  = Shear Load / Area shear strain. Shear Stress. Shear Stress Shear Stress and Strain G Shear Strain shear stress.  = angle of deformation (radians) shear modulus.Shear Strain.

. there are corresponding strains in all other directions.e. the lateral strains are opposite in sign to the axial strain. • The ratio of lateral to axial strains is known as Poisson’s ratio. the lateral strains are constrictive. the lateral strains are expansive. • i.Elastic Properties of Materials • Poisson’s ratio: When a metal is strained in one direction. . for a uniaxial compressive strain. • Conversely. • For a uniaxial tension strain. .

   0. ey ex    ez ez For most metals.Poisson’s Ratio.25 < < 0.35 in the elastic range Furthermore: E  2G(1   ) .

002 Low carbon Steel .Plastic Deformation Elastic  Plastic Elastic  Plastic Sy Sy Elastic  Plastic Stress Sy 0. Cu 0.002 Strain Clad Al­Alloys 0.002 Most Metals ­ Al.

  . Climb and Slide of atoms in the crystal structure. • Slip and Climb occur at Dislocations and Slide occurs at Grain Boundaries.Microstructural Origins of Plasticity • Slip.

002. .2% offset yield stress is the stress that gives a plastic (permanent) strain of 0.Elastic and Plastic Strain P (e.S) e  ee  e p Stress S ee  E e p  e  ee Total Strain Plastic ep Strain ee Elastic The 0.

Elastic Recovery Loading Reloading Stress Loading Unloading Unloading Strain elastic strain Strain .

Ductility .EL% & AR% • Elongation EL%  L f  Lo Lo  x 100 Lo Lf • Area Reduction AR%  Ao  A f Ao  x 100 Ao Af .

X C B • Ductile if EL%>8% (approximately)X • Brittle if EL% < 5% (approximately) D X Brittle Ductile A&B C&D Engineering Strain .Engineering Stress Ductile Vs Brittle Materials X • AOnly Ductile materials will exhibit necking.

(J/m3 or N.Toughness & Resilience • Toughness: A measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy without MPa) • Note: Both are determined as energy/unit volume . (J/m3 or MPa) • Resilience: A measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy without plastic or permanent deformation.

 e = L/Lo) . S=P/Ao  Toughness. Ut Su Sy X ef Ut   S de o (S y  Su )  EL%     100  2 Engineering Strain.Engineering Stress.

Engineering Stress, S=P/Ao 

Resilience, Ur



Ur   S de



Sy e y
Sy 2

Engineering Strain, e = L/Lo)


Typical Mechanical Properties
Metals in annealed (soft) condition
1040 Steel
1080 Steel
2024 Al Alloy
316 Stainless Steel
70/30 Brass
6-4 Ti Alloy
AZ80 Mg Alloy

Yield Stress

Stress (MPa)


Elastic Modulus


Stress Strain Curves

Bentuk spesimen uji tarik .

Mode patahan .

Hardness test • • • • • • • • Brinell hardness test Rockwell hardness test Vickers hardness test Scleroscope hardness test Durometer hardness test Scratch hardness test Ultrasonic hardness test Microhardness tests .

Rockwell hardness test .

Brinell Hardness Test where BHN = the Brinell hardness number F = the imposed load in kg D = the diameter of the spherical indenter in mm Di = diameter of the resulting indenter impression in mm .

Metode pengukuran kekerasan .

Uji impak .

seperti halnya pengujian Impak Charpy. telah dikembangkan sebelum teori mekanika perpatahan tersedia. .Mengapa Mengukur Ketangguhan Impak? • Pengujian untuk ketangguhan impak. • Pengujian impak adalah sebuah metode untuk mengevaluasi ketangguhan relatif dari bahan-bahan teknik.

. • Hal ini biasanya digunakan untuk menguji ketangguhan logam-logam. Pengujian yang serupa dapat digunakan untuk polimer.Mengapa Mengukur Ketangguhan Impak? • Pengujian impak Charpy secara kontinyu digunakan pada saat ini sebagai metode kontrol kualitas yang ekonomis untuk memperkirakan sensitifitas takikan dan ketangguhan impak dari bahan-bahan teknik. keramik dan komposit.

• Adapun bentuk alat uji dapat dilihat pada gambar 1 dan bentuk benda uji terlihat pada gambar 2.Apakah Pengujian Impak Charpy itu? • Pengujian impak Charpy mengukur energi yang diserap oleh laju regangan tinggi perpatahan dari sebuah benda uji bertakik standar. .

Apakah Pengujian Impak Charpy itu? Hasil uji impak • Gambar 1. Benda uji . Alat uji • Gambar 2.


. • Bahan-bahan yang tangguh (tough) menyerap banyak energi ketika dipatahkan dan bahan-bahan yang getas (brittle) menyerap energi sangat sedikit. yang jatuh dari jarak tetap (energi potensial yang konstan) untuk membentur benda uji dengan kecepatan yang tetap (energi kinetik yang konstan).Apakah Pengujian Impak Charpy itu? • Benda uji dipatahkan dengan benturan dari sebuah palu pendulum yang berat.

. perubahan specimen oleh impak menyebabkan usaha pada zona plastis mengeras. • Hal ini mengingkatkan tegangan dan regangan pada zona plastis sampai specimen patah. Ketika pengujian dilanjutkan. • Pada Impak.Apakah Energi Impak itu? • Energi impak yang diukur dengan pengujian Charpy adalah usaha yang dilakukan untuk mematahkan benda uji. dan sebuah zona plastis berkembang pada takikan. spesimen berubah bentuk secara elastis sampai peluluhan tercapai (deformasi plastik).




• Gambar 4. Struktur mikro mekanisme perpatahan a)
Microvoid Coalescence b) Cleavage

Transisi Ulet ke Getas

Skematik kurva transisi ulet ke getas

Bend tests
• Are often used as a means of judging the
suitability of a metal for similar treatment
during a production process.

Solidification and Heat Treatment  Solidification Crystal structures Structure-property relationships Heat treatment .

• Some metals undergo allotropic transformation in solid state. which again to bcc iron at 906 C.Pure Metal Solidification • Temperature remains constant while grains grow. . • For example on cooling bcc -iron changes to fcc -iron at 1400 C.

.2Tm) – Heterogeneous nucleation: nucleation agents (5ºC undercooling) • Grain growth – Planar: pure metal – Dendritic: solid solution • Grain size – depends on number of nuclei and cooling rate. – Homogeneous nucleation: very pure metal.Nucleation and Grain Growth • Nucleation. substantial undercooling (0.

” by Serope Kalpakjian .Crystal Nucleation and Growth “Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

.Crystal Structure of Metals • Atoms arrange themselves into various orderly configuration. • The smallest group of atoms showing the characteristic lattice structure of a particular metal is known as a unit cell. • The arrangement of the atoms in the crystal is called crystalline structure. called crystals.

Crystal Structure of Metals .

called slip systems. 6x2=12 4x3=12 1x3=3 . • The slip plane/direction is the plane/direction with the most closely packed atoms.Slip Systems • Deformation (dislocation) occurs on preferential crystallographic planes and directions.

and Zinc . Low probability of slip. Molybdenum.g. e. Generally brittle materials. Titanium. Copper. Steel. Tungsten. e. Silver HCP has 1 slip plane and 3 slip directions on that plane (3 systems). but distance between slip planes is larger than BCC.. therefore the required stress is high. Good Strength and moderate ductility.g. Therefore. e.. Beryllium. probability of slip is moderate. FCC has 4 slip planes and 3 slip directions per plane (12 Slip Systems).Slip Systems • • • BCC has 6 slip planes and 2 slip directions per plane (12 slip systems). Moderate Strength and Good Ductility. Magnesium. but distance between slip planes is small.g. Aluminum. shear stress to cause slip is low. Gold.

Plastic Deformation of Single Crystals .

G b • Theoretical  maxor ideal tensile strength betweenof material G / 10 ~ G 30 tensile stress is/the 2 the a atomic bonds between two neighboring required to break atomic planes. • The actual strength of metals is approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical strengths. The discrepancy  max  E in / 10terms of imperfections in the crystal structure. can be explained .Theoretical Shear Strength and Tensile Strength • Theoretical shear stress is the shear stress to cause permanent deformation in a perfect crystal.

• Substitutional solid solution • Interstitial solid solution .Solid Solutions • Most metals are not pure but contain a number of other metallic or non-metallic elements. either alloying elements or contaminants. Alloying elements are uniformly distributed in the base metal. forming a solid solution.

gases .Effect of Imperfections • • • Pure metal: dislocation Solid solutions – Solute atoms of slightly different size distort the lattice and makes dislocation propagation more difficult. Interfaces. – Interstitial elements play a similar role in impeding dislocation mobility although they can have an embrittling effect. inclusions. thus strength increases without necessarily reducing ductility.

• However at low strain rate and close to Tm. Both processes are easier if grain size is small. dislocation is resolved by diffusion. it is generally found that the yield strength of a material increase with decreasing grain size according to the Hall-Petch equation. . Material deforms by sliding of grains or reshaping of grains. Therefore.Grain Size Effect • Grain boundaries present obstacles to dislocation propagation.

Phase Diagrams • A phase diagram. composition. graphically illustrates the relationships among temperature. also called equilibrium diagram or a constitutional diagram. and the phases present in a particular alloy system. .

Lever Rule • The composition of various phases in a phase diagram can be determined by a procedure called the lever rule.9  91.9  91.2     23. C E  C  71. C  CL S  0 S  L Cs  C L • or C  C0 L  s S  L Cs  CL Example: Calculate the relative proportions of the phases in a CuAg alloy of eutectic composition just below the eutectic temperature.2%    C  C  7.2 .

The Structure of a Cu-Ag Solid Solution with 20% Ag .

Iron/Iron Carbide Phase Diagram .

Nonequilibrium Solidification Microsegregation or coring .

Heat Treatment • Most parts will require heat treatment either after or during the processing for proper in-service properties • Annealing – Heat to elevated temp. cool – Softens the material and removes stress • Precipitation Hardening – Diffusion of alloys to produce two phase structure that promote good strength and ductility – (Aging – Aluminum for example) • Heat Treatment of Steel . hold.

Heat Treatment of Steel (TTT Diagram) .

. • Heat treatment can modify material properties by changing the crystal structure.Summary • Solidification process affects crystal structures which in turn affect material properties. • Single crystal materials behave very differently than metal alloys. • The effect of imperfections and grain size in solid solutions.

18 % C • AISI-SAE 1045 – 0.45 % C • AISI-SAE 1095 – 0.95 % C • Austenitized at 870°C for 2 hours .Samples • AISI-SAE 1018 – 0.

• WT(705)– Water quenched.Oil Quenched WQ – Water quenched.Air cooled.Heat Treatments • • • • • A – Furnace Annealed – Slow cooled N . . WT(370)– Water quenched.Normalized . O . tempered at 705°C for 1 hour. tempered at 370°C for 1 hour.

The Jominy bar measures the hardenbility of a steel Softest Hardest . the faster steel cools. the harder it will be.Jominy Test Generally.

Proceed to Furnace Room to:
• Quench the samples (except the
normalized ones)
• Place the tempering samples into Furnaces
• Jominy Test demonstration

Pearlite Formation
• Austenite precipitates
Fe3C at Eutectoid
Temperature (727°C).
• When slow cooled, this
is Pearlite (looks like
Mother of Pearl)

Diffusion of Carbon in Pearlite

Morphology of Pearlite (a) (a) coarse pearlite pearlite 3000X (b) (b) fine .

you must look at cooling curve diagrams .What About Cooling Rates? • Faster cooling gives “non-equilibrium microconstituents”… – Bainite – Martensite – And more! • To know what microconstituents are present.

Microconstituents vs. Cooling Rate In creasing Cooling Rate • Spheroidite: Spherical “globs” of Fe3C in Ferrite • Pearlite: Layers of  ferrite and Fe3C – Course Pearlite – Fine Pearlite • Bainite: 200 – 500 C Transformation • Martensite: Rapid Cooling .

Bainite • Upper (550-350°C) – Rods of Fe3C • Lower (350-250°C) – Fe3C Precipitates in Plates of Ferrite • It is still Ferrite and Cementite! It’s just acicular. .

.Martensite • Diffusionless transformation of FCC to BCT (more volume!) • Lenticular structure • Very hard & very brittle.

TTT Diagrams .

A: austenite B: bainite M: martensite P: pearlite .Full TTT Diagram The complete TTT diagram for an iron-carbon alloy of eutectoid composition.

a CCT diagram’s transition lines will be different than a TTT diagram. . • Higher Temperature = Less Time. • Therefore. you are “Continuously Cooling”.So What’s a CCT Diagram? • Phase Transformations and Production of Microconstituents takes TIME. • If you don’t hold at one temperature and allow time to change.

Slow Cooling Time in region indicates amount of microconstituent! .

Medium Cooling Cooling Rate. is Change in Temp / Time °C/s . R.

Fast Cooling This steel is very hardenable… 100% Martensite in ~ 1 minute of cooling! .

.What is Tempering? • Martensite needs to be tempered to get better ductility. This happens when Fe3C is allowed to precipitate from the supercooled Martensite.

• Very soft. easy to machine . Fe3C forms “spheres” and grows inside Ferrite.Spheroidite • If tempered for a long time.

) have higher hardenbility at same cooling rates than carbon steels . etc.So What is “Hardenability”? • Jominy Bar used to show how cooling rate affects hardness • Alloyed steels (Cr. Mo. Ni.

Typical Jomminy Curves • 4340: Very hardenable. More expensive • 1040: Less hardenable. Less expensive .

Joining Processes .

Joining Processes .

Mechanical Joining .

screws. plus nuts None Tool life Long Long Long Short/mediu m Tool cost High High medium Low Energy demand Low Low Low Medium/hig .Mechanical Fastening Systems Process feature Rivetin g Selfpiercing rivets threade d fastener s Welding Speed of operation Slow Fast Slow Fast Ease of automation Mediu m Good Poor Good Pre-drilled holes Yes No Yes No Dissimilar metals Suitabl e suitable Suitable unsuitable Pre-painted/plastic coated metals Suitabl e Suitable Suitable unsuitable Consumable part Rivet Rivet Bolts.

) Oxyfuel-gas welding etc. TIG.etc. 0.5Tm Pressure welding Arc welding (SMAW.Welding Process Classification Pressure Resistance welding Friction welding Cold pressure welding Diffusion welding Gas pressure welding etc.. GMAW. Tm Fusion welding Temperature .

Cold Welding Lap welding Butt welding Explosion welding Roll bonding Ultrasonic welding .

Diffusion Bonding Surface structure Pressure ~10 Mpa.6 Tm Bonding of Ti alloy at 925 ºC . Temperature ~0.

Diffusion Bonding/Superplastic
Forming (DB/SPF)

Stop off core sheet.
Diffusion bonding by
applying pressure.
Superplastic forming
by blowing air into
Process used for Ti6Al-4V and 7475-T6.

Hot Welding

Fusion Welding
• Resistance Welding
Spot Welding


Seam Welding


Projection Welding


Consumableelectrode Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Plasma Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding .Fusion Welding • Electric Arc Welding – Nonconsumable-electrode.

75 – 3 mm • 500 W CO2 laser can weld up to 0.Other Fusion Welding Processes • Gas Welding • Electron Beam Welding Typical conditions • Laser Beam Welding • Weld widths: 0.5 mm steel at 25 mm/s Molten metal Solid Conduction mode (<10 W/cm^2) Key hole mode .25 mm thick sheet steel • 10 kW laser can weld 12.

Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) .

• Main source of strength is adhesion between filler and base metal. • When filler metal melts below 425 ºC (800 ºF) -> soldering. Lead free solders (Sn-Zn and Zn-Al alloys) have been developed. Sn-Sb are used for food applications and stainless steels. • Most widely used filler material for soldering (solder) is tin-lead alloy. • Filler materials for brazing have higher melting temperatures (45Ag-30Cu-25Zn. Sn-Ag. . otherwise -> brazing.).Soldering and Brazing • Joint established without melting of the base metal. etc.

oxides. grinding. wire brushing) •Remove dirt.Adhesive Bonding •Mechanical pretreatment (grit blasting. PE. silicones and many thermoplastic elastomers) Contamination on the surfaces of the substrates reduces adhesion . PTFE. active surface by coating with primers (for bonding plastics like PP. paint •Surface ionization pretreatment (changes the polarity of the surfaces and their energy) •Flame treatment •Corona process •Low-pressure plasma •Degreasing (uses solvents that evaporate without residues) •Building up new.

Joint Design .

Distortion in Arc Welding • Distortion occurs in six main forms: – Longitudinal shrinkage – Transverse shrinkage – Angular distortion – Bowing and dishing – Buckling – Twisting .

A Real World Example .

Summary • Difference between mechanical joining and welding • Working temperatures of different welding processes. in terms of Tm • Difference between soldering and brazing • Property variation in welding zone • Cause of welding distortions .

Fusion Welding Processes .

Sources of Energy for Fusion Welding • Chemical reactions – Burning gases • Heat from electricity – Arc • Light LASER .

Degree of inhomogeity increases from pure metals to multiphase alloys. . Microhardness (HV) profile across a weld bead.Weld Joint Structure Characteristics of a typical fusion-weld zone in oxyfuel-gas and arc welding. A fusion joint is far from homogenous.

a coarse-grained structure of lower strength exits at the melt boundary. • Cold worked base material will show recrystallization in HAZ.Typical weld zone in arc and gas welds • The base material adjacent to the melt boundary is exposed to high temperatures. • In either case. with coarse grain sizes. and the properties and structure are changed within the heat-affected zone. Melt .

Welding Defects- .Weldability and Weld Quality .

5.Welding Defects 1. 6. 3. Solidification shrinkage coupled with solid shrinkage imposes internal tensile stresses on the structure. 2. Lack of bonding or gas porosity due to surface contaminants. and cooling. Fusion welding defects due wrong heat input. Undesirable reactions with surface contaminants 4. Gases released or formed during welding (eg CO) can lead to porosity which weakens the joint and acts as a stress raiser. including oxides. may lead to distortion. Solidification cracks in the weld. oils. insufficient rate of weld metal deposition. . etc.

Postwelding heat treatment of the entire welded structure a. residual stresses. Stress-relief anneal reduces residual stresses to acceptable level. c. Normalizing a steel wipes out most undesirable effects of welding. Full heat treatment (quenching and tempering of steels) 3. Peening (hammering or rolling) of weld bead improves the strength of welds. reduces differential shrinkage. cooling rates in the weld and HAZ. 2. Preheating the weld zone – reduces energy input. b.Metal Treatment 1. . and distortion.

or reducing.Oxyacetylene Gas Welding Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel-gas welding and cutting operations: (a) neutral flame. (b) oxidizing flame. . (d) The principle of the oxyfuel-gas welding operation. (c) carburizing. flame. The gas mixture in (a) is basically equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene.

and acetylene regulators . Basic equipment used in oxyfuel-gas welding. whereas those for oxygen are righthanded. the gas is lit with a spark lighter or a pilot light. Oxygen regulators are usually painted green.Oxyacetylene Torch The acetylene valve is opened first. all threads on acetylene fittings are left-handed. then the oxygen valve is opened and the flame adjusted. To ensure correct connections.

E. and v the velocity of the arc travels along the weld line . I. Voltage. • AC and DC are used • An Inert gas shields both electrodes • Most heat energy is due to electron flow to metal Heat input H  EI v Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN): Deeper weld. Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP): Shallower and Wider H.Electric Arc Welding • Heat is produced from electric arc between workpiece and electrode material for melting the workpiece material. Current.heat input.

Classification • The Electrode – Consumable: melts and serves as a filling material – Non-consumable: does not melt. . parent metal is used.Electric Arc Welding . or a separate filler rod – Coated or Uncoated • Coating – Provides a gaseous shield to prevent oxidation – Lowers the voltage needed to establish the arc – May provide slag-blanket to protect the joint – Add alloying elements to enhance the properties of the joint.

Non-Consumable Electrode Arc Welding • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding ( TIG) • Plasma arc welding • Atomic hydrogen welding .

Mg alloys where ac helps in stripping the oxide • Both hand and automatic operations are possible • The process demands considerable skill but produces very high-quality welds on almost any material • No weld spatter or slag formation . cast iron. and stainless • AC with Al.Non-Consumable-Electrode Welding: Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding (GTAW) • Nonconsumable gas tungsten Inert gas welding (TIG) • Weld zone is protected by inert gas • DC with straight polarity is used with steel.

Consumable Electrode Arc Welding Processes • Shielded metal arc welding • Submerged arc welding • Gas metal arc welding .

Consumable Electrode Arc Welding Shielded-Metal Arc Welding Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process. . About 50% of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process.

. coiled lengths which allow uninterrupted welds in any welding position.Consumable-Electrode Welding: Gas Metal-Arc Welding (GMAW) . • Weld zone is protected by a gas or a flux • No slag is formed • Several layers could be build with little or no intermediate cleaning • It is suitable for most metals • Wire electrode can be supplied in long.MIG • Consumable gas metal-arc welding (MIG) • Consumable electrode is metal which melts to become part of the weld seam.

Consumable Electrode Arc Welding Gas . . formerly known as MIG (for metal inert gas) welding.Gas Metal-arc Welding Process- (a) Schematic illustration of the gas metal-arc welding process. (b) Basic equipment used in gas metal-arc welding operations.

Other Welding Processes High Energy Beam Welding • Electron Beam welding (EBW) – Heat is produced by high velocity electron gun in a narrow beam – No filler material – High rate of heating results in greater depth and heat-affected zone is very small – Suitable for welding refractory materials like: molybdenum and zirconium – Requires a vacuum (limitation) – x-ray will be generated around the welding gun which may be cancerous .

High Energy Beam Welding • LASER Beam welding (LBW) – Uses a focused high power monochromatic light beam as a source of heat to the metal – Beam can be directed to the welding spot with a lens – Depth of welding similar to electron beam welding – Vacuum is not necessary (advantage) – Workpiece usually needs protection by a gas – Process is suitable for automation – Welding speeds can be upto 7 m/min .