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Non Homogeneous Linear Equations
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HOMOGENEOUS

LINEAR EQUATIONS

In this Topic we will discus the general solution of

Linear DE with constant coefficient f(D)y = F(x)

The solution of the reduced (or homogeneous)

equation f(D)= 0 is denoted by yc and is called

Complimentary Function (C F). It is the general

solution of the reduced equation.

1

The function y p = [ F ( x )] is called

f ( D)

1

particular Integral (P I) where is the

inverse operator of f(D). f ( D)

Since y p is any particular solution, therefore it

does not contain any constant

Theorem

If yc is the Complimentary Function (C. F) and y p

Particular Integral (P. I) of the equation

f(D)y = F(x)

then y= y +y c p

Is called the General Solution.

When a differential equation is of higher

order is of the form

f(D)y = F(x)

then Particular Integral (P. I) depends upon the

nature of F(x).

WORKING RULE

FOR FINDING P I

Following cases will be discussed:-

a. F(x) = eax ,

1 1 ax

then yp = e =

ax

e

f ( D) f (a )

provided f(a) is non-zero. However, if f(a) = 0,

then

1 1

yp = x / e =x /

ax

e ax

f ( D) f (a )

process till the time we get a non-zero

denominator.

b. If F(x) = sin ax or cos ax, then we have two

alternate methods:-

cos ax 1

1. y p = = iax

Re(e ) and

f ( D) f ( D)

sin ax 1

yp = = iax

Im( e )

f ( D) f ( D)

and then proceed as in rule 2a.

cos ax cos ax cos ax

2. yp = = =

f ( D ) g( D ) g( −a )

2 2

However, if g(-a2 ) = 0, then

1 1

yp = x / cosax = x 2

cosax

f ( D) h( D )

1

=x cosax

h( − a )

2

process till the time we get a non-zero

denominator. Case for sin ax is similar.

c. If F(x) = eax cos bx, then

e ax cos bx 1

yp = =e ax

cos bx

f ( D) f ( D + a)

and proceed as in para 2 b. This method is

known as “Exponential Shift”.

d. If F(x) = f(x), then

f ( x) −1

yp = = [ f ( D )] f ( x )

f ( D)

we expand finitely the negative exponent by

Binomial Theorem and apply operators on

f(x).

Solve d y 2

dy

2

− 3 + 2y = e + e

x 2x

dx dx

Soln: Here f(D) = D2 - 3D + 2 and characteristic

equation m2 - 3m + 2 = 0 has roots 1 and 2.

Therefore yc = c1 ex + c2 e2x ………(i)

For P.I

e +ex

e2x

e x 2x

yp = 2 = 2 + 2

D − 3D + 2 D − 3D + 2 D − 3D + 2

x 2x

e e

=x +x = − xe + xe

x 2x

...(ii)

2D − 3 2D − 3

So general solution is y = yc + yp

y = c1 ex + c2 e2x - x ex + x e2x

3 2

d y d y dy

Solve 3

− 2 + − y = 4 sin x

dx dx dx

Soln: Here f(D) = D3 - D2 + D - 1 and the

characteristic equation

m3 - m2 + m – 1 = 0 has roots 1 and ± i

Therefore

yc = c1 ex + c2 cos x + c3 sin x ……(i)

For P.I

4 sin x 4 sin x

yp = 3 =x

D − D + D−1

2

3D − 2D + 1

2

4 sin x

=x (Using D = −1)

2

− 3 − 2D + 1

4 sin x ( D − 1) sin x

=x = −2 x

− 2( D + 1) D −1

2

= c1 ex+ c2 cos x + c3 sin x + x (cos x – sin x)

Solve 2

d y dy

2

− 2 + 4 y = e cos x

x

dx dx

Soln: Here f(D) = D2 - 2D + 4 and characteristic

equation m2 – 2m + 4 = 0 has roots1 ± i 3

Therefore yc = ex (c1 cos x + c2 sin x)………(i)

For P.I

e x cos x cos x

yp = 2 =e x

D − 2D + 4 ( D + 1) 2 − 2( D + 1) + 4

(by the application of exponential shift)

cos x x cos x 1 x

=e x

=e = e cos x …….(ii)

D +3

2

−1+ 3 2

cos x x cos x 1 x

=e x

=e = e cos x

D +3

2

−1+ 3 2

From (i) & (ii) the General Solution

y = yc + yp

= ex (c1 cos x + c2 sin x)

Solve 3

d y dy

3

− 7 − 6 y = e + xe

2x 2x

dx dx

Soln: Here f(D) = D3 - 7D - 6 and characteristic

equation m3 – 7m - 6= 0 has roots -1, -2 and

3. Therefore yc = c1 e-x + c2 e-2x + c3 e3x

………(i)e 2 x + xe 2 x e2x xe 2 x

= 3

y pP.I

For = 3 + 3

D − 7D − 6 D − 7D − 6 D − 7D − 6

e2x x

= +e 2x

( 2) − 7( 2) − 6

3

( D + 2) 3 − 7( D + 2) − 6

1 2x x

=− e +e 2x

12 D + 6 D + 5 D − 12

3 2

1 2x x

= − e + e2x

12 D + 6D + 5D

3 2

− 12 1 −

12

−1

1 2 x 1 2 x D + 6D + 5D

3 2

= − e − e 1 − ( x)

12 12 12

1 2x 1 2x D + 6D + 5D

3 2

= − e − e 1 + ( x )

12 12 12

1 2x 1 2x 5

= − e − e x +

12 12 12

1 2x 1 5 2x

=− e − xe −

2x

e

12 12 144

17 2 x 1

=− e − xe 2x

……………..(ii)

144 12

From (i) & (ii) the General Solution

y = yc + yp

17 2 x 1

= c1 e-x + c2 e-2x + c3 e3x − e − xe 2 x

144 12

Solve 2

d y dy

2

− 4 + 13 y = 8 sin 3 x

dx dx

Soln: Here f(D) = D2 - 4D + 13 and characteristic

equation m2 – 4m +13 = 0 has roots2 ± 3i

Therefore

yc = e2x (c1 cos 3 x + c2 sin3 x)………(i)

For P.I 8 sin 3 x sin 3 x

yp = 2 =8

D − 4 D + 13 − 9 − 4 D + 13

sin 3 x ( D + 1) sin 3 x 3 cos 3 x + sin 3 x

= −2 = −2 = −2

D−1 D −1

2

−9−1

1

= ( 3 cos 3 x + sin 3 x ) ……………..(ii)

5

From (i) & (ii) the General Solution

y = yc + yp

1

+ ( 3 cos 3 x + sin 3 x )

5 …………(iii)

Also from eq (iii)

y/ = 2 e2x (c1 cos 3x + c2 sin 3x)

+ e2x (-3c1 sin 3x + 3c2 cos 3x)

9 3

− sin 3 x + cos 3 x …………..(iv)

5 5

Using y/ = 2 at x = 0 in eq (iv) we get c2 = 1/5

Using the values of c1 and c2 in eq (iii) we get

2x

e 1

y= [ 2 cos 3 x + sin 3 x ] + [sin 3 x + 3 cos 3 x ]

5 5

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