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Forces

What are forces?


Inertia
Gravity
Newtons Laws
Projectile motion

What is a force?
A

push or a pull
May be unbalanced or balanced

What does a force do?


Gives

energy to
an object
Can set an
object in
motion, make it
stop, or change
its motion

Unbalanced forces change


motion

Unbalanced forces change


motion

Unbalanced forces change


motion

Forces are represented by


vectors

Forces are added with


vectors

Friction
A

force which opposes motion,


bringing objects to rest
Types:

Inertia

Inertia
The

tendency
of an object to
stay at rest or
in motion.
Objects with
greater mass
have greater
inertia

Inertia keeps astronauts in


motion

Seat belts protect against


inertia

Gravity

Gravity
The attractive
force between
all objects in the
universe

F = M1 M2
d2
More

mass means greater gravity


More distance means less gravity

Massive objects have


lots of gravity

My gravitational
attraction is small
no matter what the
distance!

The earth exerts a force on the student


and the student
exerts a force
on the earth
because
of GRAVITY!

Newtons Laws of
Motion
1. Inertia
2. F=ma
3. Action-reaction

Newtons First Law of Motion


The

law of
inertia:
An object at
rest stays at
rest
an object in
motion stays
in motion
unless acted
upon by an
outside force.

Inertia keeps astronauts in


motion

Inertia keeps satellites in


orbit

Inertia keeps you at rest

Newtons Second Law of


Motion
Force
A

= Mass x acceleration

force is needed for acceleration


Acceleration will occur in the
direction of the force.

Which cars are


accelerating?

If

you watch carefully, the green and


blue cars are accelerating. The red
car is traveling at constant speed.

A force is needed for


acceleration
Will these accelerate?
A skier going downhill?
What force is acting on
the skier?
An astronaut on a
spacewalk?
Are any forces acting
on the astronaut?

Which of the following


will accelerate?
A

bullet shot from


a gun?
What forces are
acting on the
bullet?
A hammer and
feather dropped on
the moon?
What force is acting?

Newtons 2

nd

Force = mass x acceleration

Law

F_____
M
A
Force is measured in newtons. A newton
is a
kg m
s2

Example:

A car with mass 1000kg hits


a tree and decelerates at 50m/s/s.
What force does it exert on the tree?

Answer:
F_____
M A
1000kg * 50m/s/s =
50,000 kgm or 50,000N
s2

F = ma
A

car is traveling at constant speed.


Is a force acting on it?
Answer: although there are forces
acting on the car (gravity, friction, air
resistance,etc) since there is no
acceleration, the net force in the
direction of motion must be zero.

More 2

nd

1.

Law Problems:

What is the acceleration on a


mass of 50kg if a force of 10N is
applied?
2. An object accelerates due to
gravity at a rate of 10m/s/s. If its
mass is 15kg, what force is acting on
the mass?

Answers:
_F_

M A
1. _10N_
0.2 n/kg= 0.2 kg m = 0.2
m/s2
50kg A
s2/kg
2.
F______
15kg 10m/s2
150 kgm/s2 or 150N

Gravity is a force that causes


an acceleration
On

earth, ALL objects accelerate at


9.8m/s2 (ignoring air resistance)
because of gravity.
No matter what the mass, ALL
objects on earth accelerate at 9.8
m/s2

Newtons 2

nd

Law

F__
m a

3.

An object of mass 3kg falls off a


cliff. How much force is acting
on the object?

Answer:
F_______
3kg 9.8 m/s2
29.4N

Free fall without air


resistance
Both the elephant and
the feather land at
the same time!

Free fall with air


resistance
The feather takes
lots longer to hit
the ground!

Newtons Third Law


For

every action, there is an equal


and opposite reaction

For every action, there is an


equal and opposite reaction
In

rocketry

The gases
being expelled
is the action.
The rocket
propelling
forward is the
reaction.

How do Newtons laws describe


the motorcycle rider?
1st:

Inertia keeps the rider moving


forward.
2nd: The force with which the rider hits
the ground will be equal to his mass
times his deceleration.
3rd: The action of hitting the ground
will equal the reaction of the dirt.

Projectile motion

Projectile motion
An

object moves forward due


to inertia and accelerates
downward due to gravity.

Projectile motion of a ball fired


vertically

The motion
of the truck
causes the
ball to project
forward.
What would
happen if
the truck
stopped?

In this video, the ball is


dropped straight down and
moves forward due to inertia

Package dropped from plane

The forward motion


of the plane causes
the package to land in front
of where its dropped.

Satellites