Integrated Pulp and Paper Mill

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Associate Professor, Thapar University Adjunct Scientist Thapar Centre for Industrial Research & Development (TCIRD)

Integrated pulp and paper mill: overview
• Pulping
– Raw material processing (storing, debarking, washing, chipping & screening), pulping (prehydrolysis, pulping, blowing), and pulp washing (screening, cleaning & washing) – Mechanical, thermo-mechanical and chemical (kraft or soda) pulping – Chemical (white liquor) consumption, energy (electrical/steam) & water intensive process, and black liquor generation

• Chemical recovery plant
– Concentrating black liquor, burning black liquor as fuel, green liquor production from smelt, white liquor production from green liquor causticizing, calcination of lime sludge – Chemical recovery in the form of white liquor, energy (steam) production, gaseous emissions generation, foul condensate generation,

Integrated pulp and paper mill: overview
• Bleaching plant
– Chemical bleaching using chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hypo, oxygen (ozone), peroxide, caustic, etc. – Water and energy intensive process, generates bleach effluent with colour and chlorinated organic compounds – Associated with chemical plants (chlorine dioxide, hypo, sulfurous acid, chilled water, etc.)

• Paper mill
– Hydropulping (secondary fiber), bleaching and deinking, stock preparation (additives, fillers and sizing chemicals), fiber mat preparation, dewatering and drying (surface sizing and coating) – Additives/fillers and sizing and coating chemical consumption, water and energy intensive process, generates white water

Kraft Pulping

unbleached pulp

bark and other wood wastes

Raw-material stor., handling & preparation

raw materials effluent from storage and washing


Pulp processing

blown pulp

Pulping foul condensate PH liquor vent gases

Weak black liquor

saturated steam

screenings (knots) & rejects (grit)

boiler feed water weak white liquor thick black liquor flue gases Recovery boiler green liquor

white liquor


BL Concentration


foul condensate



furnace oil and other fuels


exhaust gases

Kraft Pulping: Schematic Overview

process water


chemical sprays Storage

Debarking bark Washing & winnowing

raw material process water Transport & conveyance drainage water white liquor

purged air fuel oil Blower

process water effluent Rechipper

air & noise pollution problems White liquor tank LP/MP steam Chips silo process water for flushing Digesters Cyclone vents to blow tank to blow tank Blow tank liquid to digester

air dust & noise rejects pollution effluent problems chips Chippers Screens air pollution rejects accepts

noise pollution

liquor Preheater

Dust screen rejects Dust hopper wood dust


WBL tank

LP/MP steam

Condensate pots steam condensate

Wood based Pulping unit

Storage, Handling and Preparation of Raw-materials for Pulping
• Transportation and local handling of raw materials involves
– Consumption of fuel oil and electrical energy – Automobile exhaust emissions and local air pollution problems – Noise pollution – Associated with accidental risks

• Raw material storage is associated with
– – – – – – Application of raw material preserving chemical sprays Use of water for underwater storage Effluent generation from underwater storage Storm water run off from storage site Loss of raw material on storage Associated fire hazards

Storage, Handling and Preparation of Raw-materials for Pulping
• Debarking
– – – – Electrical energy consumption in mechanical debarking Water consumption in wet debarking Effluent generation from wet debarking Dry or wet bark generation

• Washing and winnowing
– Electrical energy consumption in both washing and winnowing – Water consumption in washing – Effluent generation from washing – Dust pollution from winnowing – Noise pollution from winnowing

Storage, Handling and Preparation of Raw-materials for Pulping
• Chipping or crushing and cutting
– – – – – – – – – Electrical energy consumption Dust pollution Noise pollution Fire hazard associated with chipping Electrical energy consumption Wood dust generation Dust pollution Noise pollution Fire hazard associated with screening

• Screening of chips


prepared raw material purged gas steam liquor Blower Liquid separator


vent gases

saturated liquor MP steam







white liquor WBL and/or water white liquor C. & WBL hot water vent gases liquor D.

vent gases

saturated liquor MP steam




liquor A. B. C. D. Prehydrolysis PH liquor draining Sulfate cooking Digester loading

liquor PH liquor & PH wash liquor

(excludes blowing and blow heat recovery operations)

Kraft pulping process

steam condensate

steam condensate

process water for pulp wash down Cyclone separator blown pulp for processing blow WBL vapours steam liquor recovered pulp Primary condensor vent of noncondensibles Blow tank Digester

vapours Secondary & condensate condensor

pulp blowing and reblowing


cold condensate

Hot condensate hot Condensate section condensate filter process water Cold condensate section cold condensate Heat exchanger hot process water

condensate blow down

Pulp Blowing and Blow Heat Recovery System


Kraft Pulping
• Loading of the digester
– Consumption of steam for packing and driving out of air and other non-condensable gases – Consumption of water for adjusting liquor ratio in the digester – Purged out air and other non-condensable gases – Electrical power for circulating liquor through external heat exchanger

• Prehydrolysis
– – – – – Steam consumption in the heat exchanger of the digester Generation of steam condensate at the external heat exchanger Vented out non-condensable gases Generation of prehydrolysate liquor Consumption of water for washing the chips after draining out prehydrolysate and for adjusting the liquor ratio – Generation of preydrolysate wash liquor

Kraft Pulping
• Cooking/pulping
– – – – Dosing of anthraquinone for catalysing the pulping process Steam consumption in the heat exchanger of the digester Generation of steam condensate at the external heat exchanger Generation of vent gases rich in reduced sugar compounds • • • • Generation of vent gases rich in reduced sugar compounds Release of blow vapours from the blow tank Direct steam injection for facilitating reblow Black liquor from the separate blowing of liquor and pulp

• Blowing of pulp

• Blow heat recovery
– Entrained fiber separated at cyclone separator – Electrical energy for circulating foul condensate through direct contact condensers and heat exchangers – Non-condensible gases off the condensers – Excess foul condensate overflows of condensate accumulation tank

blown pulp WBL Blow tank accepts Sand trap ? Stone traps WBL ? Spill tank WBL accepts

mill water

rejects Fiber mizer

Quart. cleaner


Tert. UBDK water Centri mill water UB HD cleaner rejects Pressure Vibratory H2SO4 tower knotter screen UBDK waterSec. H2SO4 Centrivent cleaner Dosing accepts hotwater/ mill water knots tank Vacuu UBDK water m Pulp Pri. UBDK water DD UB chestfoam pump thickener Centriwasher 1 cleaners Centrif accepts UBDK UBDK ugal water water separa tor liquid DD wash Thickener Pri. accepts UB chestFil. tank filtrate press. Seal 2 tank screen pot 1 rejects Centrif vent ugal Sec. UBDK water separa press. ? for reuse! tor screen Vacuu UBDK m rejects water pump Vibrator 1. WBL to Seal y chemical recovery plant pot knots screen blow tank, digester, ? pressure knotter, etc. Pulp processing
accepts accepts accepts

unbleached pulp

blow vapours digester vents blown Blow tank pulp WBL rejects Sand trap WBL Junk trap Priimary screen accepts rejects accepts HD cleaner Secondary screen rejects WBL for dilution knots rejected accepts Brownstock Washer-1

Vibratory Stock chest accepts screen BL leaks WBL from BSW BL from spill sumps

Pulp screening

hot process water blown pulp washed pulp

BSW -1

BSW -2

BSW -3

BSW -4

Seal tank 2 BL filter 1

Seal tank foam

Seal tank foam foam Foam tower WBL

Seal tank


vent gases Filtered BL tank WBL for sealing purposes

1. 2.

WBL for dilution and consistency adjustment purposes in pulping and unbleached pulp processing purposes WBL to chemical recovery plant

Multistage Counter-current Brown Stock Washing

water Pulp Primary centricleaner Feed tank Primary acceptscentricleanedpulp centricleaners water rejects


Secondary Centricleaner Feed tank

Secondary centricleaners water rejects accepts

Tertiary Centricleaner Feed tank water Tertiary centricleaners Fibermizer rejects

rejects accepts

Centri-cleaning operation

Pulp Processing
• Pulp screening
– Electrical power for pumping the pulp through the screens and for rotating or vibrating the screens – Foaming and liquor spatting problems at the vibratory screens – Tramp material generated at the pressure screens – Use of water! for pulp streams dilution and elutrition – Knots generated from the screening

• Pulp washing
– Use of water for pulp washing in the repulper, in the displacement showers and in the vat, and also for cleaning the screen plate of drum washers – Electrical energy for the pumping and circulation of pulp/liquor and for rotating the drum – Bad odours and foul smells from the drum washers – Foaming problems at the seal tank – Black liquor generation from the pulp washing

Pulp Processing
• Pulp cleaning
– Electrical energy for pumping the pulp through the multistage centri-cleaners – Elutriation fluid use in the stock saver of HD cleaner – Water use for pulp dilution to facilitate centri-cleaning – Rejects (high density particles) generation at HD cleaner – Rejects (grit) at the multistage centri-cleaner

• Decker washing and pulp thickening
– Use of water for pulp washing in the displacement showers and for cleaning the screen plate of drum washers – Electrical energy for the pumping and circulation of pulp/water and for the rotation of drum – Decker washwater generation

*1 goes to next effect for further concentrating *2 usually LP steam in 1st effect or flashed vapours from other effects or FCE *3 used as heating medium in some other effect or sent to the surface condensor *4 sucked out with the help of a steam ejector *5 drained out as foul condensate or reused as hot water
flashed vapours*3 Flashing section

concentrated black liquor*1

non-condensable gases*4 Condensa te leg

condensate from other effects Condensa te pot condensate*5

heating medium*2

Heater section

Black liquor

Typical Effect of a Multiple Effect Evaporation System

flashed vapours and non-condensable gases


Precooler non-conden. gases

MP steam Primary Steam ejector water

cooling water

Surface condensor condensate

cooling water

Inter cooler non-cond. condensate gases Secondary Steam ejector water vent of nonCondensable gases

Seal pot MP steam

foul condensate

After cooler


Schematic of a Flashed Vapours and Non-condensable Gases Handling System (FVNG Handling System)

foul condensate to MEE system-3

foul condensate to MEE system-1 & 2

foul condensate to MEE system-4

Vapour separator of FCE-2

Vapour separator of FCE-2

Vapour separator of FCE-2 to TBL storage tank

LP steam

vent for noncond. gases

LP steam

vent for noncond. gases

LP steam

vent for noncond. gases

Heat exchange r of FCE-1 steam cond. semi-conc. black liquor

Heat exchange r of FCE-1 black liquor steam cond.

Heat exchange r of FCE-1 black liquor steam cond.

Schematic of a forced circulation evaporation system

Cleaning of Black Liquor concentrating facilities
• • • • Isolating the facility for cleaning Draining the black liquor present into WBL storage tank Flushing the facility with water and taking flushings as WBL Circulating hot water with cleaning chemicals (NaOH/ H2SO4/ mixture of H2SO4 & sodium sulfate) through the facility and finally draining circulating solution to the WBL storage tank • Opening the facility, cooling and cleaning the interior with water jets, and draining out the wash water as wastewater • Closing the facility and filling with process water and keeping it ready for taking into line (water is drained out prior to use!)
– – – –

Water for flushing and cleaning of the facility Hot water for making the cleaning chemical solution Process water for the cleaned facility filling Wastewater generation from the cleaning operations

WBL Concentrating Section
• Concentrating in multiple effect evaporator
– involves black liquor preheating prior to passing through MEE – 2 or more effects connected in series are used – Steam/foul vapours are used in the heating section on shell side – Steam/foul condensate is generated – Entrained liquor is separated in the vapour separator – Electrical energy for circulating the liquor

• Forced circulation evaporator
– – – – Lp steam is used for heating the SCBL Steam condensate generated at the SCBL Foul vapours from the flashing of super heated liquor Electrical energy for circulating the liquor

WBL Concentrating Section
• Foul vapours and non-condensable gases handling system
– Handles foul vapours from the 1st effect and non-condensable gases accumulating on shell side of heating sections of all effects – Includes a precooler (!), surface condenser(s), and steam ejectors with coolers – often vacuum pumps replace steam ejectors – Use of circulating cooling water in surface condenser on tube side – Use of water for spray cooling in the precooler and in the coolers associated with steam ejectors – Steam consumption in the steam ejectors – Foul condensate generation at the surface condenser – Condensate generation at the coolers associated with the steam ejectors – Non-condensable gases vented at the cooler of last steam

boiler feed water vented steam steam to the turbine header combustion air FD fan MP steam Air preheater cond. sec.. prim. MP steam BL preheater cond. TBL Mixing tank TBL TBL steam for soot blowing Steam drum Economiz er hopper ash ESP ash steam Deaeratio n tank vent Stack

ID fan bypass ESP

Super heater

tert. Furnace smelt

Mud drum hopper WWL ash Ash tnak

WWL steam Wood & vent furnace oil Smelt TBL Dissolvin g tank ESP ash green liquor salt cake

to WBL storage tank

Process flow diagram of a recovery boiler

Chemical Recovery Boiler

Preparation and loading of black liquor solids for combustion in the boiler furnace
– – – – Addition salt cake (Na2SO4) and mixing of recovered ash Steam consumption for heating the black liquor Steam condensate generation from heating the black liquor Energy for pumping and loading black liquor solids to the boiler furnace

Supply of combustion air
– Energy for powering the FD fans – Steam consumption for preheating the combustion air – Steam condensate generation from combustion air preheating

Feed water supply and steam generation
– Boiler blowdown water generation

Chemical Recovery Boiler

Flue gases and their treatment and disposal
– Energy for powering the ESP – Energy for powering the ID fan – Generation of ash at the ESP and in the hoppers of boiler, economizer, air preheater, etc. – Exhaust gases emitted into atmosphere through stack

Green liquor production from smelt
– Water for smelt dissolving – Water or circulating water for cooling the spout conveying smelt – Steam for shuttering the smelt stream falling into smelt dissolving tank – Energy for powering the high volume recirculation pump – Vent vapours of the dissolving tank – Explosion risks associated with smelt dissolving

Chemical Recovery Boiler

Startup and shut down operations of recovery boiler
– Furnace oil consumption during startup as fuel – Wood consumption for initiating the burning process – Steam vented during startup till desired pressure & temp. reached – Furnace oil combustion in place of BL solids during shut down – Steam vented during shut down once temp. & pres. drops below – Water use for cleaning the boiler interiors – Wastewater generation from the cleaning

Maintenance and emergency situations management
– High pressure steam consumption in soot blowing – Waterwall tube leaks & risk of explosive mixture of smelt & water – Risk of TBL dilution of with water from tube leaks in boiler

green liquor (G/L) G/L screenin g screenings WWL for reuse G/L clarifier dregs G/L storage LP steam Caustici zers ( 2 units)

foul condensate process water LP steam G/L Preheating vents hot water Grit classifier

burnt lime Hot Reburnt water lime bin tank Drum slackers

Dregs hotwater mixer washer hot water washed dregs

Trommel screen grit stone & gravel process water


Recaust. Lime mud W/L cizers clarifiers overflows overflows hot water LMW mixer LMW-1 LMW-2 LMW mixer LMW-3

White liquor

W/L stor. tanks

WL to pulp mill air Cyclone separato r air filtrate

process water Rotary drum filter

Vacuum pump Vacuum Plume pit

lime mud

Seal pit dewatered lime mud

Process flow diagram of a causticizing unit

sealing & cooling water filtrate

air air Cyclone separator entrained filtrate

water for displacement shower washed lime mud compressed air for screen plate Cleaning !

water for screen plate cleaning

Rotary vacuum drum filter

Vacuum pump

water for gland sealing & cooling

dewatered lime mud

filtrate air vent

Seal pit

Vacuum plume pit

filtrate as seal pit overflows

gland sealing & cooling water

Process flow diagram of lime mud dewatering system

• Green liquor processing and dregs washing
– Steam for heating the green liquor – Hot water for washing the dregs – Dregs from the screening and clarification of green liquor

• Lime slacking and green liquor causticizing
– – – – – – Stones and other impurities from slacked slurry screening Hot water for washing the grit in the grit classifier Grit separated from the slacked slurry at grit classifier Steam injection in the causticizing tanks Spillage of lime Lime for causticizing

• Lime mud washing
– Hot water for lime mud washing – Lime mud washwater (WWL) from the mud washing – Steam for generating hot water from process water

• Lime mud dewatering
– Hot water use in the displacement showers of rotary vacuum dewatering drum – Water for gland sealing and gland cooling of the vacuum pump – Gland sealing and gland cooling wastewater – Compressed air for cleaning the screen plate – Seal pit overflows of the rotary vacuum drum – noise pollution from the rotary drum and from the vacuum pump

flue gases to atmosphere

ID fan

primary air Primary air blowe

reburnt lime for causticizing Calcinate d lime hopper process water for roller cooling Exhaust end of limekiln

Electrosta tic precipitato r

ESP dust Sea shell bin process water Shell washer

steam steam Steam heater of oil cond. Day tank For oil

Flame end of limekiln atomizing air


cooling water Electrical heater of oil furnace oil

dewatered lime mud

washwater Shell storage

sea shell

Process flow diagram of a limekiln

Calcination in limekiln
• • • • • • • • Furnace oil (or gas) for firing in the lime kiln steam for preheating the furnace oil Steam condensate from furnace oil heating Energy for powering the FD and ID fans Hot product lime (>950C) from the limekiln Circulating cooling water for roller cooling of the limekiln Exhaust gases from the limekiln Water for scrubbing the exhaust gases (if scrubber is used – ESP can also be used and dust recovered can be recycled to limekiln) • Lime slurry generation from the scrubbing

Waste minimization measures

Storage and handling and preparation of raw material

• Source raw materials locally, minimize inventory and practice first received first used • Store on lined impervious surface, segregate run off for proper treatment and disposal • In case of underwater storage the storage water requires treatment • Reuse of bark and wood dust (as fuel!) • Recycle and reuse the washwater and wetdebarking water • Control dust pollution from winnowing • Control noise pollution specially from chipping • Fire fighting facilities and prevention of fire accidents

Waste minimization measures


• Minimize direct injection use of steam (minimize reblows) and recover heat from steam condensate generated at external heat exchangers • Recover heat from blow vapours, route vent vapours of the digesters through this system, and direct non-condensable gases into the recovery boiler furnace • Treatment of PH liquor (low pH, high temp., and high strength wastewater with crust forming contaminants) and PH wash liquor
– neutralization with lime at elevated temperature to generate sludge (can be burnt as fuel) – anaerobic digestion and biogas generation

• Reuse foul condensate and its heat content if needed after pretreatment (thermophilic anaerobic digestion)

Waste minimization measures

Pulp processing

• Repulp washed knots or use them as fuel • Minimise water use in pulp washing and generate WBL of higher consistency
– Avoid use of water in screen plate cleaning – Use black liquor for pulp dilution and elutrition starting from reblowing to washing

• Minimize wastewater generation from decker washing of cleaned pulp
– Use for pulp consistency adjustment specially during cleaning

• In the absence of chemical recovery plant WBL (higher pH, high strength, high TDS and hot wastewater) requires treatment

Waste minimization measures

WBL concentrating

• Segregate foul condensate from steam condensate and reuse the foul condensate at all possible places • Have separate circulating cooling water system for the direct contact condensers associated with the steam ejectors and reuse the tower blowdown water as good quality foul condensate • Route non-condensable gases of the steam ejector system into the furnace of the recovery boiler • Minimize water use in the evaporators section (weak white liquor, WWL, may be used in place of process water specially if expected to dilute the black liquor • Can steam ejectors be replaced by vacuum pumps operated on steam !

Waste minimization measures

Collect the steam condensate generated at different places and supply as boiler feed water
– – – – Forced circulation evaporator TBL preheating Combustion air preheating at recovery boiler Furnace oil preeating at lime kiln

Recover heat/water from recovery boiler blowdown Minimize the frequency of startups and shutdowns Condense the steam vented out during startup and shutdown operations to recover water
 

Waste minimization measures

Minimize white liquor dilution and WWL generation through conservative use of (hot) water and/or steam directly
– Drum slacker and grit classifier – Dregs washing and recausticizing – Displacement showers of lime mud dewatering (rotary vacuum drum dewatering unit – Scrubbing of limekiln exhaust

Use of foul condensate in place of hot water generated from process water through injecting steam Use hot water generated in blow heat recovery system! Reuse all the weak white liquor

– In recovery boiler for dissolving smelt – In the WBL concentrating section for cleaning purposes provided the washwater is taken into weak black liquor

Recover dust from limekiln exhaust and recycle to the kiln

Pulp Bleaching Unit

•Chlorine bleaching •Chlorine-chlorine dioxide bleaching (ECF) •Chlorine dioxide bleaching •Hypo bleaching •TCF •Oxygen bleaching •Ozone bleaching •Peroxide bleaching •Bio or enzyme bleaching •Alkali extraction •Alkali-oxygen extraction

Bleaching Sequence Adopted
Bleaching stage Mill-1     1   2 3, 4     3, 4     2  2 5 3, 4   1  1   Mill-2   Mill-3  Mill-4 Oxygen delignification  Ozone delignification  Enzymatic treatment of  pulp Chlorine bleaching  Cl2 – ClO2 bleaching 1 Extraction  Oxidative extraction  Oxidative peroxide 2 extraction ClO2 bleaching 4 Hypo chlorite bleaching 3 Peroxide bleaching 5

Order of bleach stages is shown by natural numbers starting from 1 (nth number indicates nth stage in the bleaching sequence)

Bleach Plant
Post bleach operations
•Centricleaning •Thickening and washing bleach plant •Chilled water plant •On-site production of

Services and support activities/operations of the

•Handling of hazardous chemicals used in the bleach plant •Chlorine, sodium chlorate, sulfuric acid, methanol, etc.
•handling of fumes, vent gases and foam

–Chlorine dioxide –Sodium/calcium hypochlorite –Sulfur dioxide –Oxygen –Ozone

Generic bleach stage
Facilities and equipment • Heater mixer – to rise pulp temp. by steam injection • MC mixer – to mix bleach chemicals with pulp • Stand pipe, pump and piping - for lifting medium to high consistency pulp to reaction towers • Reaction tower (either up-flow or down-flow type, or down-flow type with an initial leg of up-flow tube) • Pulp washer (rotary vacuum drum washer) – includes vat, rotary vacuum drum, repulper, drop barometric leg sealed in seal pit, and pumps and piping • Seal pit overflows (backwater) is reused in:

– – – –

repulper of the previous stage outlet of the bleach tower for pulp dilution and pumping vat of the same bleach stage displacement shower banks of the drum washers

Bleaching chemicals

3. Bleaching tower 1. 4. Rotary vacuum drum washer 2. Repulper 5. Bleaching chemicals Seal tank Pulp to the next stage of bleaching

MC mixer

Back water from next bleaching stage

Backwater for sealing

Stand pipe & pump Filtrate for vat dilution

Pulp from repulper of previous stage steam

Heater mixer

to repulper of previous stage & to other points for reuse

Bleach effluent

1. Water for the displacement shower banks (process water, hot water, foul condensate or backwater of the same stage or some other stage of bleaching) 2. Water and compressed air in the showers meant for cleaning the screen plate of the rotary drum 3. Vent fumes to be collected treated and disposed 4. Fumes to be collected treated and disposed with the help of an enclosing hood and ventilation system 5. Foam to the foam collection and handling system

Typical bleach stage

Generic bleach stage
• Bleach chemicals are dosed at repulper and MC mixer • Water is required for
– – – – – – Pulp dilution in repulper Sealing and facilitating pumping at the standpipe and pump Pulp dilution for facilitating pumping from the reaction tower Vat pulp dilution in rotary vacuum drum washer Displacement showers of the rotary vacuum drum washer Perforated screen plate cleaning of the rotary drum water

• Steam consumption for direct heating of pulp in the heater mixer

Generic bleach stage
• Fumes, vapours and foam from
– – – – Rotary vacuum drum washer (collected by hood) Reaction tower Seal pit of the rotary vacuum drum wasjer Handled by active ventilation system supported cyclonic separator scrubber, etc.

• Seal pit overflows
– Mostly reused either in the same bleach stage or in the upstream bleach stage for pulp dilution – Rest is drained out as wastewater

Vent gases Blower

Vent of washer and seal pit of E/O stage Vent of bleach Decker washer Backwater of E/O stage for spray Foam from seal pits of C/D, D1 and D2 bleach stages Foam tank gases Mist eliminator Scrubber Sump Liquid/ backwater scrubbing solution SO2

Vent gases and fumes of C/D, D1 and D2 stage towers & washers

Cyclone separat or

Seal pit

Effluent to drain

Overflows to drain

Schematic diagram of an active ventilation system

Active ventilation system of a bleach plant for handling fumes, vent gases and foam
• Drum washers are provided with hoods • Fumes and foam from seal pits of different bleach stages are collected into foam tanks • Backwater of extraction stage or water is sprayed in foam tanks for foam breaking • Vent gases from the reaction towers and drum washers are collected through cyclone separators • ClO2 containing gases are scrubbed with SO2 solution • Liquid separated in foam tanks, overflows of the seal pit associated with cyclone separator and scrubbing liquor are discarded as wastewater • Vent gases are ultimately vented out with a blower

Chlorine (and Cl2-ClO2) bleaching
•Usually first stage of bleaching and often chlorine is partially substituted by chlorine dioxide •Carried out at 2.5-3.5% pulp consistency
•For pulp dilution chlorine bleach backwater is preferred (helps in maintaining lower pH, <2) but higher temperature discourages the use •Chlorine bleaching is exothermic and higher temperature in the presence of residual chlorine is destructive to cellulose •pH >2 is destructive to cellulose

•Chlorine dissolved in water is mixed with pulp at MC mixer •If ClO2 used it is dosed ahead of chlorine

Chlorine (and Cl2-ClO2) bleaching
• Contributes organic halides – 10% of applied chlorine is converted into AOX
– ClO2 in place of Cl2 form less of chlorinated organic compounds (80% lesser) – ClO2 is more powerful bleaching agent than Cl2 (2.63 times on mass basis and 2.5 times on mole basis) – ClO2 has lesser chlorine than Cl2 (just 50%) – ClO2 in place of Cl2 (partial substitution) reduces colour discharge and chloroform emission – At 15% substitution chloroform emission is reduced to 0.01 from 0.35 kg/ton

Chlorine (and Cl2-ClO2) Bleaching
• Fumes emanating from bleach tower and rotary vacuum drum washer are hazardous
– needs collection and scrubbing (with sulfurous acid!)

• Cl2 gas (a hazardous gas) is stored on-site and used • ClO2 is unstable and corrosive and potentially explosive
– produced on-site from sodium chlorate – production involves use of methanol, SO2, etc.

• Corrosivity of ClO2 impairs efforts in the direction of chemical recovery, and recycling and reuse of water

A case of Cl2-ClO2 bleaching
• Consistency of brown stock pulp is adjusted with backwater of Cl2-ClO2 bleaching or with process water • Displacement showers of rotary vacuum drum washer use
– Warm water – Backwater of ClO2 bleaching-1 backwater – Backwater of oxidative alkali extraction stage

• Perforated screen plate of the rotary vacuum drum washer is cleaned by hot water

Chlorine dioxide bleaching
• Performed on 11-14% consistency pulp at 70-75C • Sulfuric acid is used to maintain pulp pH at the desired level
– For 1st stage ClO2 bleaching, 3.5-4 pH is desired in pulp from the bleach tower (for subsequent stages 5.5-6.0 pH is desired)

• Pulp coming out from bleach tower may need removal/ neutralization of residual ClO2 vapours and other off gases
– In case of upflow towers pulp is flashed for the removal – In case of down-flow towers the pulp is neutralized by sulfur dioxide and sodium hydroxide solution

ClO2 bleaching
• Backwater from the bleaching is reused usually after neutralization with SO2 • In case of multistage ClO2 bleaching counter current flow of backwater to displacement showers is possible
– otherwise hot water is preferred – in the last stage of ClO2 bleaching hotwater is used

• ClO2 stage backwater can be reused on displacement showers in
– Cl2-ClO2 bleaching stage – extraction stage of bleaching

• Perforated screen plates can be cleaned with compressed air (hot water cleaning is also possible)

Hypochlorite bleaching
• Carried out 35 to 40C and 9 pH
– Caustic is used for maintaining the pH – Some mills use sulfamic acid

• Brightens pulp while preserving lignin through destroying the chromophoric groups of lignin • Associated with degradation of cellulose and emission of chloroform • Handling of calcium hypo is troublesome

Alkali extraction and oxidative alkali extraction
• Meant for removal of chlorinated and oxidized lignin from pulp by solubilization • Performed on medium consistency pulp (12-15%) at 60-80C • Usually follows a bleach stage and there can be more than one extraction stages in a bleach sequence • In one case hot water and backwater of ClO2 bleaching are used in the displacement showers
– Air and process water are used for cleaning the perforated screen

Alkali extraction and oxidative alkali extraction
• Oxidative alkali extraction (use of oxygen along with alkali – oxygen is dosed into hot pulp after alkali dosing) is preferred • Often small amount of hydrogen peroxide is also dosed (Oxidative peroxide extraction) • Oxidative alkali extraction
– Enhances extraction and pulp delignification (thus reduce chlorine dose needed) – Reduces AOX generation and colour discharge

E/O filtrate fumes C/D ClO 2 filtrate C/D filtrate C/D tower Chlorine E/O tower

* Continued in Figure 4.2.3b
fumes Pulp to ClO2-1 washer* D1 filtrate ClO2-1 tower

E/O filtrate E/O pretube

oxygen MC mixer D1 filtrate E/O filtrate Warm water fumes Hot water C/D washer foam filtrate for vat dil. C/D filtrate seal tank Heater mixer NaOH & E/O filtrate steam MC mixer ClO2 D1 filtrate Hot water Stand pipe & pump fumes Process water & air E/O washer filtrate foam for vat dil. E/O filtrate seal tank Stand pipe & pump MC mixer

Stand pipe & pump Process water HDunblea ch pulp tower Washed Brown stock

Heater mixer NaOH steam

C/D filtrate

Schematic process and material flow diagram of a bleach plant

Backwater to drain

E/O filtrate Backwater warm water to drain


D2 filtrate

* Continued from Figure 4.2.3a
Pulp to paper machines

ClO2-2 tower Pulp from ClO2-1 tower*

ClO2 D2 filtrate Hot water fumes air

MC mixer

BD filtrate Process water rejects fumes air 3-step cent. cleaning BD filtrate Stock chest

Bleached HD tower Stand pipe & pump fumes

Stand pipe & pump


ClO2-1 Heater washer mixer filtrate foam steam for vat dil. NaOH ClO21filtrate seal tank D1 filtrate Backwater SO2 to drain D1 filtrate

ClO2-2 Bleach washer decker filtrate filtrate foam BD filtrate for vat dil. for vat dil. ClO2Hot water Filtrate 2filtrate seal tank seal tank BD D2 filtrate filtrate process water Backwater SO2 OH tank to drain BD filtrate for D2 filtrate centricleaning BD filtrate

Schematic process and material flow diagram a bleach plant

Example bleach plant
• Bleach sequence employed is C/D, E/O, D, D • Centricleaning and bleached pulp washing in a decker are also part of the bleach plant • Water is conserved and wastewater generation is minimized • Through extensive recycling and reuse of backwaters • Through use of compressed air for the cleaning of the perforated screen plates of the rotary vacuum drum washers • Separate system comprising of hoods to the rotary vacuum drum washers, ducting, tanks with foam breaking showers, cyclone separators, scrubbers, blowers, etc., is used for handling the fumes, vent gases and foam •

Waste management strategies
• Moving from chlorine bleaching ECF bleaching through C/D bleaching (using ClO2 in place of Cl2)
– Reduces organo chlorine content of wastewaters and colour content – Wastewater (specially extraction stage effluent) can become fit for sending to chemical recovery

• Moving from ECF to TCF
– – – – Using oxygen, ozone, peroxide, etc. Going for bio-bleaching (including enzyme bleaching) No organo chlorines in the wastewaters Wastewaters (specially extraction stage effluent) become fit for sending to chemical recovery

• Better pulp dewatering between successive bleach stages to minimize wastewater and conserve bleaching chemicals • Going for biopulping and enzymatic/bio bleaching for minimizing chemical consumption

Waste management strategies

Wastewaters generated include

• Seal pit overflows (not reused as backwaters) from different bleach stages • Counter flow of backwaters and reuse minimizes generation • Could be segregated into an acidic stream and an alkaline stream • Segregation of extraction stage effluent for pretreatment • Send the wastewater if possible to chemical recovery unit • Wastewater rich in colour, chlorinated organic compounds and organic matter (BOD/COD) • Physico-chemical (including electroflocculation) pretreatment • Biological pretreatment (fungal technology/mycotechnology or bacterial technology) • Mixing the pretreated water with other wastewaters of the pulp and paper mills for treatment and disposal

mill water filtrate Ejector barometric leg into drain H2SO4 H2SO4 tank Filter hotwater Heating tank hotwater Dissolvi ng tank sodium chlorite overflows water Filtrate separat or lights

slurry to recovery Saltcak e filter Hydroclone Generator dump tank MP steam Steam ejector chilled water vent

emergency water clear solution H2SO4 filter Chlorite OH tank LP steam condensate for dissolving chlorite process water

Generator reboiler filter Air ejector system vent gases Methan ol stor. tank white liquor (WL)

WL scrubbe r slurry to recovery

Chlorine dioxide production unit

ejected water and non-condensable gases methanol

off gases

ClO2 solution to bleaching


filtered air cooling water Absorpt Ejector off Cooler ion cooler gases tower off gases chilled water Generator cooling crystallizer water ClO2 Vent barometric scrubbe leg to drain Stor. r tank dilution water Seal pit

Chlorine dioxide unit
• Sodium chlorate, methanol and sulfuric acid supplied to the generator-crystallizer for ClO2 production • Hot water for dissolving sodium chlorate and water for diluting methanol • Steam in the generator reboiler for heating reaction mixer • MP steam in steam ejector associated with ClO2 absorption tower • Cooling water in contact ejector coolers of steam ejector, salt cake filter and generator reboiler • Chilled water for absorbing the off gases
– first used for scrubbing the off gases from ClO2 solution storage tank and then used in the absorption tower

• Circulating hot water for heating the sodium chlorate • Circulating cooling water for cooling the off gases from generator-crystallizer

Chlorine dioxide unit
• Vent gases from
– – – – steam ejector cooler second stage scrubbing of ClO2 solution tank off gases air ejector associated with the sodium sulfate filter air ejector associated with the generator reboiler

• White liquor for the second stage scrubbing of off gases from the ClO2 solution storage tank • Sodium sulfate crystal slurry to the chemical recovery unit • Second stage scrubbing solution to the chemical recovery • Wastewater overflows from the seal pits of
– air ejector associated with the sodium sulfate filter – air ejector associated with the generator reboiler

• Sodium chlorate, ClO2 are hazardous substances

lime Lime bin

condensates Hot water tank excess of MOL Off gases to atmosphere Sniff gases & chlorine line purgings


hot water



a. Calcium hypo plant of Beta Pulp and Paper Mill
Seam for Jacket heating Liquid Chlorine bullet Steam cond. 50% NaOH Process water Alkali tank Caustic to bleaching Chlorine evapora tor Hypo tower Hypo sump


Hypo sump-2


Lime slacker

Classifi er

Grit settling tank

Hypo tower-2

Hypo tower-1

Hypo sump-1

Hypo stor. tank Hypo to bleaching

Hypo stor. tank

Hypo to bleaching

b. Sodium hypo plant of Alpha Pulp Mill

Calcium and sodium Hypochlorite units

Hypochlorite units
• Liquid chlorine or sniff gases and chlorine line purgings and sodium hydroxide or lime consumption • Hot water for lime slacking (and for the screening and classification) of lime or process water for preparing caustic solution • Steam or hot water for the jacket heating of the chlorine evaporator • Grit and stones from the slacking lime degritting/classification • Vent gases from the absoprtion towers

sulfur Sulfur melting tank liquid sulfur Sulfur furnace cooling water Exhaust gases cooler condensate diesel oil smelt & residues

LP steam cooling water Combusti on air blower cooling water

combustion air

cooling water vent gases

process water SO2 abs. tower

SO2 Storage tank SO2 solution to bleaching

Process and material flow diagram of sulfur dioxide unit

Sulfur dioxide unit
• Sulfur dioxide is produced through burning molten sulfur in excess air in a furnace under controlled conditions • Sulfur dioxide of the furnace exhaust is absorbed in water and supplied as sulfurous acid • LP steam is used for the sulfur melting and steam condensate is generated • Diesel oil as fuel in the furnace during startup • Smelt and residues may be generated at the furnace • Cooling water is used for jacket cooling of the furnace and for cooling the furnace exhaust • Process water for absorbing the sulfur dioxide • Vent gases (exaust gases after absorption removal of SO2) from the absorption tower

atmospheric air Air compress or

Air receiver pressurized air Molecular sieve Molecular sieve nitrogen gas release on depressurization

Oxygen compress or

Oxygen storage tank Oxygen to bleaching

Process flow diagram of non-cryogenic oxygen production unit

Non-cryogenic oxygen unit
• Electrical energy intensive process • Compressors are used for producing compressed air • Produced from compressed dry air through adsorption on molecular sieves • Molecular sieves adsorb nitrogen under high pressure leaving behind oxygen • Under low pressure the adsorbed nitrogen is desorbed from the molecular sieves • Cooling water is needed in intercoolers and after coolers for cooling the compressed air • Noise pollution from compressors • Use of lubricating oil and generation of hazardous waste in the form of discarded lubricating oil

Secondary fiber processing

High consistency pulping Detrashing & HD cleaning Coarse pressure screening Fine pressure screening Centricleaning Thickening & dewatering High consistency refining

High consistency pulping Detrashing & HD cleaning Coarse pressure screening Flotation Centricleaning Fine pressure screening Thickening & dewatering Dispersion & oxidative bleaching Flotation Thickening Reductive bleaching

a . Process scheme of the Epsilon Paper Mill Disintegration of waste paper/board into fiber mass/ pulp stock Removal of contaminants including print/ink Bleaching and colour stripping of the pulp b.

Process scheme of the paper mill - 1 of the Delta Paper Mill

Process flow schemes for waste paper pulping and processing

Secondary fiber processing: Activities and operations
• • • • • • • • •

Hydrapulping Screening Cleaning Fractionation Dispersion and kneading Refining Flotation Washing and thickening Bleaching and colour stripping

SGAP-1 to flotation-1 to flotation-2 Na2SiO3

SGAP-1 tank

SGAP-1 dosing tank

wastepaper discarded paper and packaging waste Slat conveyor screenings Hydropulper FW for sealing Warmwa ter tank steam Contami nex FW for sealing clear filtrate from DF-1 clear filtrate from DF-1 rejects stock from start/stop chest

Na2SiO3 tank

Na2SiO3 dosing tank

to disperger NaOH NaOH tank NaOH dosing tank

to disperger to reductive bleaching H2O2 Hydrogen tank peroxide to disperger SGAP-2 SGAP-2 tank

Dump tower FW for flushing bypass HD cleaner

H2O2 dosing tank

SGAP-2 dosing tank

warmwater from hotwater tank

stock to Spectroscreen*

to flotation-1 to flotation-2

Schematic process and material flow diagram of a waste paper pulping and processing unit

pulper-1 pulper-2 Stock* Spectroscr een (primary) LR Rejects tank HR SGAP-1 SGAP-2 Accepts tank

Clrf. Clrf. Flotation-1 (primary) Centriclea ning Stage-1 Stock** accepts Verticle screen (primary) LR Clrf. HR



Clrf. Clrf. Spectroscr een Venting (secondar cyclone y) rejects from flotation-2 HR LR Foam tank Clrf. Clrf. Flotation-1 (secondar y)


Clrf. Centriclea ning Stage-2 Clrf. Centriclea ning Stage-3 Clrf. Centriclea ning Stage-4 Clrf.



Rejects tank

Cldf. – cloudy filtrate from disc filter-1 Clrf. – clear filtrate from disc filter-1 HR – heavier rejects LR – lighter rejects


HR Rejects tank


effluent to sewer

Clrf. Minisorter

Rejects stream

Centriclea ning Stage-5

Rejects stream

Schematic process and material flow diagram for waste paper pulping and processing unit (contd..)


Verticle screen (secondar y) Clrf.

to dump tower of hydro-pulper Clrf.-1 Disc filter-1 FW for sealing Clrf.-1

bypassed bleached stock Start/sto p bypassed thickened stock of DF-2 chest Clrf.-1 for shower steam Heating screw NaOH; H2O2 & Na SiO3 FW for sealing disperger

Stock *

MC pump-1 Screw - stand press tube FW for sealing FW for sealing

Clear filt. tank

Cloudy filt. tank Stock **

Bleaching Clrf.-2 clear filtrate for reuse Cldf.-2 tank on upstream side cloudy filtrate for reuse on upstream side Buffer FW – freshwater to pulper for reuse tank Cldf.-1 – cloudy filtrate from DF-1 Clrf.-1 – clear filtrate from DF-1 Cldf.-2 – cloudy filtrate from DF-2 steam Clrf.-2 – clear filtrate from DF-2 DF-1 – disc filter-1 DF-2 – disc filter-2 Hot water to warm water tank tank of the pulper

Schematic process and material flow diagram for waste paper pulping and processing unit ( contd ..)

to start/stop chest Clrf.-2 Stock* Cldf.-2 SGAP-1

sodium hydrosulfite Hydrosul fite dosing SGAP-2 tank Clrf.-2 Cldf.-2

sodium bisulfite Bisulfite dosing tank silo-2 water Cldf.-2 for flushing of Decker Bleachin g pipe silo-2 water of Decker silo-2 water of Decker Storage tower


Flotation -2

MC Disc pump-2 filter-2 - stand pipe FW for sealing silo-2 water of Decker

rejects to vented cyclone Clear filtr. tank

Cloudy filtr. tank

to start/stop chest stock Cldf.-2 – cloudy filtrate from DF-2 Clrf.-2 – clear filtrate from DF-2 DF-2 – disc filter-2 FW – freash water Silo-2 water of Decker is from paper machine area

clear filtrate for reuse cloudy filtrate for on upstream side reuse on upstream side

Schematic process and material flow diagram for waste paper pulping and processing unit (contd..)

• Meant for disintegration of waste paper/board into fiber mass/pulp stock
– Facilitates removal of contaminants

• High consistency (12%) batch pulpers are used • Involves slushing waste paper at high temperature in the presence of chemicals
– Steam injection for raising temperature – Water is needed for consistency adjustments during slushing and during screening – Caustic for pH adjustment and facilitating slushing – Hydrogen peroxide, peroxide stabilizing chemicals, sodium silicate, etc., for preventing alkali darkening and facilitating deinking – Surfactants for dispersing wax – Electrical energy for powering the rotar of the pulper

• Extraction of fibrous mass through a screen after adjusting consistency – Screening may be done in a detrashing screen • Rejects left behind are washed with water prior to disposal for recovering useful fiber
– Washwater from rejects washing are used adjusting pulp consistency

• Plastics, polyethylene, metal, etc. can be recovered from rejects • Water for gland cooling and sealing of the rotar
– If circulating oil is used for the purpose then the oil is cooled by water
 

unslushed fiber Rejects Manual sorting plastics & polyethylene metal Conveyor system rejects Trommel screen accepts

water drippings backwater filtrate Tridyne pulper steam oil NaOH Oil tank process water

rejected raw-material

Trommel pit HCl slushed pulp to dump chest oil process water


Raw material loading system

packaging waste (metal wire)

circulating Oil cooling tank oil cooling water

Schematic diagram of the tridyne pulper and associated units

Pulp cleaning
• HD cleaners and centricleaners are used • HD cleaners are used to clean higher consistency pulp (2.5%) and remove high density impurities
– Water is used for consistency adjustment and for elutrition – Rejects are drained out along with water – Screening the rejects on a side hill screen recovers the water

• Centrifugal cleaners are used to remove either heavier or lighter contaminants from pulp of 0.7-1.2% consistency
– Fiber is recovered from the rejects stream by multistage centrifugal cleaning – Water is used for consistency adjustment at different levels of centrifugal cleaning – Water is recovered from the rejects by side hill screen

filtrate to CM screen (thin stock) Pri. centricleaner feed Tank filtrate from gravity thickener filtrate pulp screened in CM screen (thin stock) Pri. Centri cleaner s rejects accepts Pri. centricleaner rejects tank stock silo water (backwater) Sec.cen rejects tri cleaner Ter. Centri cleaner stock silo Sec. water centricleaner rejects tank accepts Side hill screen drained out water rejects accepts centricleaned pulp to gravity thickener overflows to Stock silo

Schematic diagram of a 3- stage centri-cleaning system

Pulp screening
•Used to remove larger size contaminants •Trommel screens, pressure screens, screw screens, vibratory screens, side hill screens, etc. are used
–Trommel screens remove contaminants from higher consistency pulp (5%) –Pressure screens for coarse screening pump at higher consistency (2.5%) and for fine screening pulp at lower consistency (1%) –Corse screens are good for fiber flakes removal – heavier coarse material is also removed in tramp metal traps –Fine screens are good for stickies removal –Vibratory screens and screw screens are used as rejects sorter for recovering useful fiber –Side hill screens are used for draining out water from rejects

•Water is consumed in
–Consistency adjustments –Consistency maintenance in pressure screens –Vibratory screens to wash rejects for useful fiber recovery

stock silo water

accepts to dump chest Belcor screen filtrate of gravity thickener Constant level box rejects stock silo water

mill water Vibratory screens (2 numbers) accepts to hydro-pulper screened pulp to centri-cleaning rejects

Belcor feed chest


rejects stock cleaned in HD cleaner CM screen (thick stock) stock silo water

Pri. CM screen (thin stock) accepts rejects

pulp overflows to dump chest Sec. CM screen stock silo water (thin stock) Mill water rejects Vibratory screen (thin stock) accepts rejects to tridyne pulper

Pri. CM screen rejects chest

stock silo water

Schematic diagram of pulp screening systems

Deinking flotation and Dissolved air flotation are employed Deinking flotation

• Energy intensive process carried out at 0.6-1.2% consistency • Carried out under alkaline conditions and involves use of soap, deinking acents, calcium salts, etc. • air requirement is 4:1 to 10:1 ratio (as 0.3–0.5 mm size bubbles)
– Smaller size bubbles carry fines and fiber into the froth/scum and larger size bubbles are less efficient in deinking

• Ink and other contaminants are removed as froth/scum layer that contains useful fiber
– For recovery froth is defoamed and subjected to floatation again

• In one case the pulp is subjected to flotation both before and after the oxidative bleaching • Water is required for both consistency adjustment and maintenance


Dissolved air flotation

• Employed for recovering fines and fiber from wastewater • Part of the output stream is super saturated with compressed air and injected into flotation cell • microscopic air bubbles are produced in the flotation cell • Air bubbles attach to the fines and fiber of wastewater and make them to float • The recovered fiber is obtained as floating scum later which is removed by skimming

very dilute stock (backwater)

flocculating agent Flotatio n unit

relief gases Pressuriz ed mix chamber compressed air

vent gases

Scum tank recovered fiber & fines

clarified backwater

Dissolved air flotation system (Krofta unit) employed for fiber and fines recovery

Pulp washing, thickening and dewatering
• Washing is meant to remove dissolved, colloidal and dispersed contaminants • Multistage washing can enhance the washing efficiency • High temperature, altered pH, and dosing of synthetic surfactants, phosphates, etc. may enhance washing efficiency
– Acid wash improves sticky particles removal – Alakline wash enhances hydrophylic organic materials removal

• Thickening and dewatering are meant to increase the pulp consistency
– Thickening raises consistency to moderate levels (~5%) – Dewatering raises the consistency to higher levels (upto 30%)

• Washing, thickening and dewatering generates wastewater and this can be reused either directly or after desired pretreatment
– Reuse can cause corrsion, deposition, scaling like problems – Can have biological activity and make H2O2 like chemicals ineffective – Can have colloidal and dispersed contaminants

Pulp washing, thickening and dewatering
Gravity thickeners, rotary vacuum drum washers/thickeners, disc filters, belt washers, screw presses, twin roll dewatering presses (TRDP), side hill screens, etc. can be used Gravity thieckeners and rotary vacuum drum washers:

– Similar to rotary vacuum drum washers and raise consistency from <1% to >3.5% – Rotary vacuum drum washers thicken to 10-16% consistency – Can have couch rolls to enhance dewatering and couch off pulp – Drum screen plate requires cleaning by water

Disc filters: can dewater pulp to 10-30% consistency
– Can be assisted by vacuum and/or compressed air – Water is required for cleaning the perforated screen plate – Two types of filtrate cloudy filtrate and clear filtrate are generated

Pulp washing, thickening and dewatering

Belt washer/thickener
– Fed with 0.7-3.0% consistency pulp and thickened to >6% – Nips formed by large diameter rollers and wire or formed between grooved rollers and wire help in dewatering – Water is needed for wire cleaning

Screw press
– Thicken pulp from 2-10% to as high as 30% consistency

Twin roll dewatering press
– Pulp is passed between two rotating rollers pressed against each other hydraulically – Water is used in the hydraulic system for pressing the rollers – Water is needed for cleaning the rollers and doctor blades

 

filtrate to CM screen (thin stock) filtrate to Pri. centri-cleaner Pri. centricleaner feed Tank filtrate

overflows Stock silo stock Silo water for Reuse

mill water Overflows to sewer filtrate optional

shower water to drain

mill water centri-cleaned pulp Gravity Thicken er

stock silo water TRDP feed chest

TRDP High consiste ncy refiner mill water DD refiner feed chest machine backwater oil

mill water mill water Oil cooling system DD refiner feed chest


oil cooling water refined stock to blending chest

vacuum plume water

Schematic diagram of the thickening and dewatering system

Kneading and/or dispersion
• Meant for dispersion of ink particles and stickies and avoiding specky appearance of pulp without their removal
– Helps in the release of print from fiber and in minimizing the need for refining

• Low speed dispersion units (dispergers) are kneaders • Energy intensive process and uses pressurized systems • Carried out at high consistency (>15%) and high temperature (upto 125 and even 150C)
– Considered as appropriate place (because of high temp. and high consistency) for bleach chemical addition

• Kneading/dispersion is usually followed by washing or flotation for the removal of dispersed contaminants

• Pulp is passed radially between two rotating discs • Energy intensive process and done at high consistency • Requires circulating oil for gland cooling
– Circulating cooling water is required for cooling the oil

• Associated with noise and vibration problems • Less used in secondary fiber processing

Overview of concerns and measures for waste minimization

Water use for

• Consistency adjustments at different processes including in the hydrapulper • Washing the pulp stock on washers • Cleaning the perforated screen plates of gravity thickeners and rotary vacuum drum washers • At the twin roll dewatering press (TRDP) for the rollers and doctor blade cleaning • Water use in the hydraulic system of the TRDP • HD cleaner and pressure screens for elutrition and consistency maintenance • At trommel screen and vibratory screens for the wash recovery of useful fiber • Steam use in the hydrapulper and in the washing (if needed)

Overview of concerns and measures for waste minimization
Circulating cooling water for cooling the circulating oil at hydrapulper and refiner Electrical energy

• in hydrapulper, TRDP, refiner, and other machinery • for pumping the stock through various units • for supplying air for flotation

Use of

• Alkali, acid and various other chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, deinking agents, sodium silicate) at the hydrapulper • Acid/alkali, surfactants, phosphates, etc., in the pulp washing • Alkali, hydrogen peroxide and sodium silicate at disperger • Hydrosulfite and bisulfite for reductive bleaching • Deinking agents, soap, calcium salt, etc., at flotation

Overview of concerns and measures for waste minimization
• Wastewater generation from the pulp washing, thickening and dewatering • Reuse the wastewater after necessary pretreatment if needed – the pretreatment may require
– Removal of colloidal and dispersed contaminants – Control of biological activity – Conditioning of water to control corrosion, deposition and scaling – Recover useful fiber prior to discharge as wastewater

• Froth/scum layer from flotation cells
– Recover useful fiber

• Noise and vibration problems from disc refiners etc.

Overview of concerns and measures for waste minimization
•Packaging waste from unbaling waste paper/board •Waste sorted out from the input waste paper/board •Generation of rejects at hydrapulper, pressure screens, HD cleaner and centricleaner
–Useful fiber recovery through washing from the rejects of hydrapulper, pressure screens and centricleaners –Recovery of plastics, polyethylene and metal from hydrapulper rejects –Recovery of metal from the HD cleaner rejects –Volume reduction of the bulky rejects of hydrapulper to facilitate storage, transport and disposal –Backwater recovery from the rejects through screening on side hill screens

Paper Making

Paper Making

Paper making can be considered to include
– Processing of fiber mass to improve its paper formation properties – Addition of different additives and process control chemicals

• Stock preparation (preparation of paper furnish from fiber mass)

• Approach system to paper machine (preparing diluted paper furnish) • Wet-end operations (spreading diluted paper furnish as a thin film, dewatering on paper former and obtaining pulp mat/paper web) • Dry-end operations (drying the paper web to reduce moisture content and processing the dried paper into final paper) • Off machine operations – processing dried paper into finished product

Stock preparation
• Interface between pulp mills and paper machines • Transforms fiber mass into paper furnish run on paper machine to produce paper or paper board
– Virgin fiber or secondary fiber and bleach or unbleached pulp is used – Dried or dewatered pulp or pulp sheets obtained from other mills is also used

• May include hydrapulping, fractionation, beating and refining, cleaning and screening and blending operations • Hydrapulping – use of dried and dewatered pulp and sheet pulp and use of broke involves hydrapulping • Fractionation
– division of low consistency feed stock into 2 or more fiber length classes – uses multistage pressurized fractionators

Stock preparation

Beating and refining

• Meant for imparting optimum paper making properties to pulp Secondary fiber may not require • Practiced in two stages
– Stage-1: to optimize strength development (performed on relatively high consistnecy pulp) – Stage-2 (machine refining): to achieve control over freeness of pulp (performed prior to sending pulp to head box)

• Refining shortens fiber length and forms fines that reduce drainability of pulp • Holander beaters, conical refiners, disc refiners, conical disc refiners, etc. are used

Stock preparation


• Mixing of different stocks in desired proportions • Addition of non-fibrous components – additives and process control chemicals
– Depends on the fiber stock used and the product manufactured

• Performed either in independent blending chests, or in machine chests directly • Additives and chemicals may be added at blending chests, machine chests or ahead of head box or into the white water

Additives and process control chemicals
–Wet-end sizing chemicals - modified rosin, IVAX (dispersed rosin formulation), wax emulsions, synthetic sizing agents, etc. –Dry strength additives - natural and modified starches, gums and non-synthetic polymers, and polyacrylamides –Wet strength additives - urea-formaldehyde, melamineformaldehyde, polyamide resins, etc. –Fillers - clay (kaolin, bentonite), calcium carbonate, titanium oxide, talc (magnesium silicate), etc. –Dyes, pigments and optical brighteners

Process control chemicals
–Alum or polyaluminum chloride –Drainage and retention aids –Pitch dispersants like talc –Defoamers, slimicides, corrosion inhibitors –Silicates and Acids and alkalies (for adjusting pH)

Bamboo pulp (long fiber fraction) Virgin sheet pulp (imported) Partially processed secondary fiber

Pit pulper

HD cleaner

Shark pulper

CM screening


Double disc refiner

Gravity thickening

Twin roll dewatering press

High consistency refiner

Double disc refiner


Stock preparation

Prepared stock to the machine

Broke system
• Collection processing and recycling of paper machine broke
– Fiber recovered from backwaters through clarification, disc filtration, krofta units, etc., is also considered as part

• Two categories of broke (wet and dry broke)
– Wet broke: edge trims of paper mat and pulp web/ paper mat break – Dry broke: threading waste, edge cuttings and paper rejects

• Involves
– – – – Pulping of wet broke in couch pits Pulping of dry broke in under the machine pulper (UTM) Cleaning, deflaking and screening Broke storage and supply for blending into furnish

fiber recovered from machine backwater (Diffused air flotation unit)

knockdowns and trimmings of pulp mat from fourdrinier water dry roke from machine Couch pit

paper reel rejects rewinder broke

Recovered fiber chest fiber draining & overflowing into the sewer

UTM Pulper

water filtrate to backwater tank Gravity thickener

Broke Dump Chest stock silo water pulp draining into sewer Deflaker Broke Chest broke to blending chest


HD Cleaner rejects from dirt tank

Broke system

Approach system to the paper machine
• Operations and activities between the machine chest and the head box
– – – – – Pumping of furnish and white water Metering and diluting the furnish Machine refining Fine screening and centricleaning Dosing of process control chemicals and additives

• Systems used for the preparation, storage and dosing of the chemicals and additives
– Use water and also steam – Generate wastewater from the dumping of residual chemicals and from the cleaning of the system

process water alum Dissolvin g tray Dissolvin g tank sump


PAC stor. tank Alum stor. tank

process processed water pulp Service tank alum Blending chest sol. IVAX Machine chest

broke pulp


steam process water Dissolvin g dye solution tank Service tank Dye holding tank recovered dye drained out dye DK set powder Storage tank

process water

starch Solubilizi ng tank

process water Const. water head tank steam Cooking tray process water rejects Vibratory screen


DD refiner

Stuff box starch soln. Pressure screen

Dissolvin g tank Storage tank

process water

accepts to rejects whitewater

Head box

furnish to fourdrinier overflows to whitewater

Approach system to the paper machine

Wet-end operations
• Meant for
– Formation of the paper web – Gravitational, vacuum assisted and press dewatering of paper web

• Two types of paper web formers (fourdrinier formers and cylinder formers) are used • In fourdrinier formers wire is central part
• A continuous wire belt running from breast roll to couch roll and returning back through wire turning roll and return rolls • Head box is located at the breast roll above the wire • Wire part is divisible into four zones
– – – – Web formation and free draining zome Vacuum assisted web dewatering zone Web transfer zone Wire return zone

furnish from head box process water shower Free draining zone head box overflows

steam X

paper process water web showers in couch roll knock down & HP Mill water shower in Dandy steam trim showers Couch pit/ web transfer zone

Vacuum dewatering zone * Seal Pit-1 wetting showers ** Returning wire zone Wire Pit pickup roll tray water Backwater tank overflows to Sewer X HP & chem. showers

pressure screen accepts defoamer process water for foam breaking showers edge Bleedings to fan pump for furnish dil. process water during startup Whitewater silo

dragouts of knocked down web & trims

Whitewater tray

to couch pit

couch roll tray water


for reuse

Clarified water Tank overflows to sewer

over flows

process water Krofta Unit compressed air

to DDR feed chest

recovered fiber & fines

X Connected to the vacuum system * Water from Twin compartment boxes and from the Dandy Roll trays ** Seal pit-1 overflows are collected into the backwater tank

Fourdrinier former


Paper web formation and free draining zone

• Comprises breast roll, head box, web formation board, hydrofoils, rotating table rollers, stationary deflectors, wet boxes, white water tray and white water silo • Water shower jets behind the sluice opening of flow spreader of head box for generating turbulence and preventing premature flocking of fiber • Sluice jet edges are bled off for avoiding edge fanning • Hydrofoils and rotating table rollers and stationary deflectors assist in draining out water from paper web • Wet boxes (vacuum assisted hydrofoils) with barometric legs into white water tray enhance the web dewatering • White water (rich in fines, fillers and other chemicals) draining from the free draining zone and into wet boxes is collected into white water tray and conveyed to white water silo for reuse • Defoamers are dosed into white water to supress foaming and steam is injected into white water silo heating the latter


Vacuum assisted web dewatering zone

• Has vacuum dry boxes, dandy rolls, seal pit, also wire pit • Vacuum dry boxes are connected to machine’s vacuum system through cyclone separator
– Water separated is conveyed to seal pit through barometric legs

• Dandy roll is provided over the web to assist in dewatering and in making water marks
– High pressure showers to clean the dandy roll – Cleaning water and water carried forward by dandy roll is collected into a tray and conveyed to wire pit

Paper web transfer zone

• Includes couch roll, lump breaker roll, pick up roll, wire turning roll, couch pit and wire pit • Couch roll has stationary high vacuum suction boxes connected to the machines vacuum system
– High pressure water showers clean perforated shell of the roll

Paper web transfer zone • Pickup roll also has stationary high vacuum suction boxes connected to the machine’s vacuum system

– High pressure water showers to clean perforated shell of the roll

• High pressure water jets (squirts) to trim paper web’s sides
– Low volume water showers to slush and wash down trimmings into the couch pit

• High volume water showers to slush and wash down full width web into couch pit in the event of web break
– Handling of wet broke of couch pit by broke system

• Steam showers upstream to couch pit to heat the paper web


Wire return zone

• Includes wire return roll, wire turning rolls, wire cleaning showers, wire pit and backwater tank • Wire turning rolls
– Have doctor blades and debris collection trays – Wettings showers for keeping the rolls and the blades clean

• High pressure needle showers, flood showers, chemical showers and even steam showers for cleaning return wire
– Wastewater from different showers and overflows of 1st compartment of backwater tank into the 2nd compartment – Backwater 2nd compartment to save all units for fiber recovery and reuse of the backwater

• Overflows of seal pits of dry vacuum boxes and of white water silo into backwater tank (1st compartment)
– Pumped to maintain level in white water silo

Cylinder formers
• Used to manufacture package grade paper (multiply web) • Identical to thickener (a rotating drum screen in a vat)
– A soft rubber couch roll or a suction roll on the drum screen picks up and transfers the web to moving felt

• Types of cylinder formers
– Dry vat formers, suction formers and pressure formers – On-top formers or under the felt formers – web formation on a wire wrapped over rotating suction drum – Ultra formers – a type of on-top formers with fiber mat sandwitched between te drum screen/wire and felt – Modified ultra formers – part of web formation on fourdrinier and rest on cylinder former between wire and felt

Press dewatering of paper web
• Has ≥2 mechanical presses, press felts, uhle boxes and seal pits • Press rolls are rotating perforated shells having
– stationary high vacuum suction boxes connected to the vacuum system of the machine – Grooves/blind receptacles to hold the water removed from web – Doctor blades and sprays for cleaning the press roll surface

• Press felts supporting the paper web and acting as receptor for the water squeezed out from paper web
– Non-compressible fabric belt may be supporting the felt – High pressure showers, chemical showers, steam showers and uhle boxes to clean and condition the returning felt and remove water

• Uhle boxes are connected to the machine’s vacuum system through cyclone separators
– Cyclone seprators connected to seal pits through barometric legs

wetting shower warmwater tray water to wire pit mill water showers in the roll chemical shower paper web chemical shower process water HP shower Uhle Boxes (2 numbers) wetting shower warmwater Pickup/ suction Roll X Collect. tray to sewer Bipin Press chemical shower Uhle Box process water HP shower Collect. tray to sewer 3rd Press paper web to drier section

process water HP shower Uhle Box

Collect. tray to sewer


Seal Pit-2 to sewer

wetting shower warmwater


Connected to the vacuum system Press Felt

Press dewatering of paper web

Vacuum system of the paper machine
• Includes a vacuum header connected to
– Stationary suction boxes of couch roll and suction rolls of presses – Vacuum assisted dry and wet boxes of fourdriniers and Uhle boxes of press dewatering section

• Vacuum pumps, discharge trench and vacuum plume sump

• Vacuum pumps requires electrical energy for driving and water for sealing • Vacuum pumps are associated with noise and vibration problems • Water overflowing the vacuum plume sump carry waste heat and is contaminated with entrained materials and water of the vacuum system

wet vacuum boxes of forudrinier

dry vacuum boxes of fourdrinier

Cyclone separat ors

Water for Cooling & sealing Vacuum pumps

suction boxes of couch rolls

Seal pi1 overflows

vacuum pump discharge trench vent

suction boxes of suction rolls of presses

Cyclone separat ors

Sump of vacuum plume vacuum plume water

Uhle boxes

Seal pit2 overflows

Vacuum system of the paper machine

Dry end operations

Dry end operations include
– – – – – Paper web drying Surface sizing Surface coating Calendering Reeling, sheeting and baling

Paper web drying
– Meant to reduce moisture to <10% – Uses cylinder dryers or air float dryers – Drying may be twice or more times (drying - surface sizing/surface coating - again drying)

Cylinder dryers

Multiple rotating cylinders heated internally through injecting steam are used.
– Felts may be used as multiple pairs (of top and bottom felts) – In case of sheet fluttering and breaking problems single surpentine felt continuously supporting moving web is used

• Dryer felts are used to support and tightly hold the paper web against the cylinder dryer surface

• Condensate together with 15-20% of injected steam is siphoned out from dryer (to avoid accumulation of non-condensable gases) –separate entrained steam and reuse
– Reused as input steam in cylinders operated at lower pressure (cylinders divided into groups operating at different pressures) – Taken into thermo-compressor, mixed with higher pressure superheated steam and again used as input steam

Cylinder dryers
• Entrained steam separated from the group of cylinders operated at lowest pressure is condensed in either a surface condenser or in a direct contact condenser
– Circulating cooling water is required – Condensate generated at surface condenser or at the condensate separators of cylinder dryers is reused as boiler feed water – Consumptive use of water in the direct contact condenser – Warm water is generated at the direct contact condenser

• Non-condensable gases of the condensers are vented out by a vacuum pump which uses cooling water for gland sealing

6 kg/cm2 steam Thermo compre ssor Driers1 to 3 # vent water Heat exchange r Vacuum pump Condens ate rec.- S2 Condens ate rec.- S3 Driers4 to 7 Driers8 to 15 # Condens ate rec.- S1 Driers16

12 kg/cm2 steam

X Clu Pack


Driers – 17 to23 # Condens ate rec.- S4

hot water

to sewer

Condens ate separator Warm water tank

Condens ate rec.- S1A Condens er mill water

Condens ate rec.- S5 condensate to boiler

warmwater for reuse overflows to sewer

# Dry broke is usually generated at these points

X Paper mat from press section for drying Y Dried paper to pope reel Paper moving through Condensate Non-condensables Steam & Flashed steam Water

Cylinder dryers

Auxiliary operations/activities associated with the cylinder drying
• Hot dry air supply system
– Used for improving pocket ventilation – Blowers and radiator heaters are used to supply hot air – Steam is used in the radiator heater and steam condensate is generated

• Hot humid air ventilation system
– Needed for driving out hot humid air and improve steam economy – Heat recovery and heating air of hot dry air system is possible

• Circulating oil lubrication & cooling system
– Rollers of cylinder dryers need lubrication and cooling by circulating oil – Circulating cooling water is needed for the cooling of the circulating oil

• Air cooling system of machine drives: air blowers are used

ambient air steam Air heating unit Hot air blower condensate

slushed pulp to broke dump chest ambient air UTM pulper machine backwater

Air blower cool air Rollers of machine drives

dry broke hot air Dryers area Oil stor. tank cooling water Oil cooling system cooling water vent water Heat exchan ger hot water Rollers of cylinder dryers Conden sate separat or Vacuum pump overflows

hot humid air exhaust gases non-condensibles Blowers Direct contact condenser Warm water tank


process water vented out hot humid air warm water for reuse

Auxilliary operations/activities of cylinder dryers

Air float drier
• Alternative to cylinder dryers and used for pulp sheet or paper board drying! • Pulp sheet is made to make a number of passes within the dryer chamber for drying with hot air • With blowers air of the chamber is repeatedly passed through radiator heaters and pumped back into the chamber through horizontal blow boxes
– Steam is used in radiator heaters and steam condensate is generated – The hot air jets are issued from the boxes on both top and bottom sides of the moving pulp sheet

• From the drier chamber hot humid air driven out to achive better steam economy • Fresh air after preheating with the out going hot humid air is supplied to the drier chmaber

fresh dry air hot humid air Heat exchanger

exhaust air

sheet pulp air for drying & from drying steam or condensate Blower

hot dry air

Blower Heater steam Heater cond. Blower Heater steam Heater cond. Blower Blower Blower





hot air

Air float drier

Surface sizing
• Meant to provide resistance against aqueous solution penetration and to improve surface strength • Cooked starch (sometimes added with wax emulsions, special resins, etc.) is applied on one side or both the sides
– 4-10% starch cooked at 88-93C (direct steam injection or heating in heat exchanger) is used

• Done at size press located between last two groups of cylinder driers – can also be done at the calender stack
– Entry nip of the size press is flooded – Cooked starch is taken in a water box and applied by a rubber nip on the calender roll

• Sized paper web needs drying • System used for surface sizing requires frequent cleaning using water and generating wastewater • Splashing of size solution is a common problem

paper web

3rd group of dryers

Size press

Last group of dryers

paper web

Starch service tank

starch screen washings and rejects


Starch cooking

process water

maize starch

Surface sizing

Surface coating
• Sized paper web is coated either on both sides or only one side
– Coated sheet requires drying and calendering – Coating on both sides require two separate coating stations

• Usually off-machine operation – on-machine operation for light to moderate coats • Could be either pigment coating or functional coating
– Functional coating - application of lacquer, varnish, waxes, resins. – Pigment coating - application of fillers (mineral and/or plastic pigments) and binders (adhesives) – Mineral pigments – china clay, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, synthetic silicates, titanium oxide, satin white – Binders – starches, potiens and synthetics

Surface coating
• Coating dispersions are prepared in coating kitchen • Suspensions of individual ingradiants are mixed in specified order, stained and supplied for application • Roll coaters, air knife coaters, rod coaters, blade coaters, etc., are used for coating application • Coated sheet may be dried in tunnel driers - Impingment drying or infrared drying may be used

• Meant to obtain smooth surface, to achieve web compaction and cross-direction uniformity • Usually the last operation on the paper machine (in some done between the last two groups of cylinder dryers) • Done on a calendar stack by passing the web through roll nips • Prior to calendaring, web is passed over a cooled sweat roll or steam shower or moist shower to ensure enough moisture • Some calendar rolls are heat transfer rolls (heated by hot water) • After calendaring, web is passed over a pope reel and collected on a drum reel
– Pope reel applies needed tention on the web and cools the web (pope reel is water cooled)

Off-machine operations
• Tub sizing:
– Web is passed through a tub of sizing solution – Excess sizing solution is removed in a light nip – Sized web is initially dried by hot air impingement

• Calendaring and super-calendaring
– Super calendaring uses iron roll against water cooled compressed fiber roll

• Rewinding
– Meant to cut and wind into suitable size rolls – Generates edge trimmings of the web

• Sheeting and baling
– Hydraulic press and packing material may be used – Trimmings may be generated

• Roll finishing and packaging
– Involves roll sealing, wrapping, crimping and labeling – Uses paper board core and packaging materials

Waste management systems

Wastewaters of pulp and paper mills

Trade effluents

Domestic effluents

Non-process effluents

Process effluents

High strength effluents

Medium strength effluents

Low strength effluents

Bleach plant effluents

Other medium strength effluents

Wastewaters from pulp and paper mills

high strength effluent

Equalizati on tanks

Homozenization tank

milk of lime emissions

Neutrali zation tank

Flare biogas to limekiln Biogas holder nutrient solution biogas



recycled effluent
Sludge lagoons sludge for disposal

Biopaq reactors

Anaerobic lagoon

Aerated lagoon

to secondary clarifier of the low strength ETP

ETP of a rayon grade pulp mill – prehydrolysate liquor

screened raw effluent Equalizati on tank filtrate & supernantant underflow sludge Primary clarifier

process water DAP-Urea tank DAP urea

air Sludge thickener

Compress or wasted sludge Aeration tank

recycled sludge

treated prehydrolysate from aerated lagoon Secondar y clarifier treated effluent

process water

Press filter dewatered sludge for disposal by sale

ETP of a rayon grade pulp mill

polyelectrolyte raweffluent alum Bar screen screenings Lime stalibilizati on

supernatant Vibratory screen Primary clarifier underflow screenings DAP process water urea process water

filtrate Sludge thickener poly electrolyte Sludge Belt press

milk of lime


DAP tank Aeration tank poly electrolyte Secondary clarifier Urea tank

waste sludge

secondary sludge

Sludge thickener

Dewatered Sludge for sale

Clariflocculator overflows Flow measurem ent treated effluent

ETP of an integrated pulp and paper mill

process water process water alum combined effluent of the mill Screen (manu al) screenings process water PWG Screen (mech. ) screenings Alum tank PWG tank Screen (manu al) removed scum Scu m tank Primary settling tank


vent Vacuum pump Cyclone separat or

screenings process water Primary process water sludge tank treated Effluent Cyclone separat or Cyclone separat or Seal pit

treated effluent for disposal urea treated effluent for reuse Urea PWG tank P Effluen W DAP t G tank pit dru DAP m Secondar Aeration y tank settling tank alum effluent bypass sludge recycle process water

wasted sludge to mill for reuse bypass for sludge

vacuum plume

Vacuum drum filter dewater sludge treated effluent Wate r tank process water

overflows to aeration tank

ETP of waste paper based industrial paper manufacturing mill

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