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# HYPOTHESIS

MEANING

## Hypothesis can be defined as logically conjectured

relationship between two or more variables
expressed in the form of a testable statement.
Hypothesis is a tentative statement asserting a
relationship between two variables.
It contains variables that are measurable / testable.

PROBLEM / HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis is an assumption that can be tested and
can be proved to be right or wrong.
Example:Hostlers use more alcohol than non-hostlers.

## A problem is a broad question which cannot be

directly tested. A problem can be scientifically
investigated after converting it into a form of
hypothesis.

Example:
Child Abuse, Poverty, Child Labour, Population,
Drug addiction, Crime

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS

Descriptive
hypothesis

Relational
hypothesis

Null
Hypothesis

Alternative
Hypothesis

DESCRIPTIVE HYPOTHESIS
Also called uni-variate hypothesis: Proposition that
typically states the existence, size, form or distribution
of some variable.
These are assumptions that describe the characteristics
( such as size, form or distribution) of a variable.

## The variable may be an object, person, organization,

situation or event.

## Example: Majority of the students registered in BRM class are

highly motivated.
Public enterprises are more open for centralized
planning.

RELATIONAL HYPOTHESIS
These are assumptions that describe the
relationship between two variables.
It is bivariate assumption becoz it consider two
variables at a time.
Relationship can be non-directional or directional

## Example:Families with higher income spend more for

recreation.
If I play Lottery then I will get rich.

TYPES OF RELATIONAL
HYPOTHESIS
Directional Hypothesis
Non- Directional Hypothesis
Co-relational Hypothesis
Explanatory Hypothesis

DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP
Hypotheses are both relational and directional
Direction of relationship specified. Use of words like
positive, negative, more than, less than.
Hypotheses can be correlational or causal

## Example: Level of job commitment of the Officers is positively

associated with their level of efficiency.

NON-DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP

## Examples: Job satisfaction and motivation are related.

Level of job commitment of the Officers is associated
with their level of efficiency.

CORRELATIONAL HYPOTHESIS

## Variables occur in some specified manner without

implying that one causes the other.
It is Direction. Not causal

Example:
Level of job commitment of Officers is positively
associated with their level of efficiency.

EXPLANATORY HYPOTHESIS
Also called causal hypothesis.
X and Y specified.
X causes change in Y.
Casual hypothesis state that the existence of or change
in one variable causes or lead to an effect on another
variable.

## Example: High motivation causes high efficiency.

The higher the level of job commitment of
Officers the lower their level of absenteeism.

NULL HYPOTHESIS
No relationship between the variables
The relationship between the variables is zero
Null hypothesis is denoted as H0

## H0 = X and Y are independent of each other.

H0 is non directional.

## Example:Ho : there is no relationship between a familys income and

expenditure on recreation.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

It is alternative to H0.

## There is a perfect relationship between X and Y .

It is hypothesis that describes the researchers
prediction that, there exist a relationship between
two variables or
it is the opposite of null hypothesis.

It is represented as Ha.

## Example :Ha : There is a definite relationship between familys

income & expenditure on recreation.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This is the hypothesis formulated by the researcher.
Tells not only the relationship but also the nature of
relationship between X and Y.

## Research hypothesis is a predictive statement that

relates an independent variable to a dependent variable.
A hypotheses is a hunch, assumption, suspicion, assertion
or an idea about a phenomenon, relationship or situation,
the reality or truth of which you do not know.
A researcher calls these assumptions/ hunches
hypotheses and they become the basis of an enquiry.

EXAMPLES :

## Lower class men commit more crime than middleclass men.

Educated women have more adjustment problems
after marriage than illiterate women.
Job satisfaction decreases as working hours
increases.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS

## Hypothesis is an assumption about the population

of the study.
It limits the area of research and keeps the
researcher on the right track.
Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to
the solution of the problem.
Hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It
describes in concrete terms what you expect to
happen in the study.

CONSTRUCTION

## It should be empirically testable, whether it is right

or wrong.
It should be specific and precise.
It should be specify variables between which the
relationship is to be established.
It should describe one issue only.

Thank You