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# FOUNDATION ENGINEERING -I

Settlement Analysis

Course Instructor :

Syed Zishan Ashiq
Lecture 05
August 2015

Mirpur University of Science & Technology Mirpur
AJK

What is a Settlement?
Definition

The total vertical deformation at the surface resulting from :
2. Dewatering
Settlement Components
1. Immediate Settlement ; Se elastic
2.

Primary Consolidation Settlement ; Sc

3.

Secondary Settlement (Creep) ; Ss

S  Se  Sc  S s
2

IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT
Defined as settlement which occurred

directly after the application of a load,
without a change in the moisture content.
Caused by soil elasticity behavior
The magnitude of the contact settlement
will depend on the flexibility of the
foundation and the type of material on
which it is resting.
For clay, the immediate settlement
generally very small comparing to the
consolidation settlement, therefore this
immediate settlement mostly ignored.
Usually considered at sand or sandy soil.

1966) General Equation (Bowles. 1982) .IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT General Equation (Harr.

General Equation (Harr. 1966) 1. m B L .qo 2 S  1   e s At corner  Es B.qo Se  1   s2  Es  At center 2.q 2 Se  o Es  B. H= Es = Elasticity modulus of soil r B = Foundation width L = Foundation Length . Flexible Foundation B.qo  Se  1   s2  av Es Average 1      ln      2 1    s . 1  m 2  m  1  m  m  2   m. ln    1  m 2  1    2  1  m  1   Rigid Foundation B.

Immediate Settlement .

1982) 1   s2 S e  q o .F1 Es     1 1  M2  1 M2  N2 M  M2  1 1  N2  F1   M . . ln  ln  2 2 2 2   M 1 M  N 1 M  M  N  1    M L' B' N H B' Es = Elasticity modulus of soil H = Effective thickness of soil layer. e.g.General Equation (Bowles.B'. 2 to 4B under foundation L 2 At the center L'  At the corner L'  L B'  B 2 B'  B and F1 is multiplied by 4 and F1 is multiplied by 1 .

Immediate Settlement Saturated Clay 8 q o .B S e  A 1 .A 2 Es .

1 z = z1 = 0.0 .5 z = z2 = 4B  Iz = 0.5 B  Iz = 0.5 z = z2 = 2B  Iz = 0.0 Foundation with L/B ≥ 10 z=0  Iz = 0.Immediate Settlement (Layered Soil) Young’s Modulus Circular Foundation or L/B =1 z=0  Iz = 0.2 z = z1 = B  Iz = 0.

Example .

0 2.Depth (m) z (m) Es (kN/m2) Iz (average) (m3/kN) 0.233 0.5 0.5 10000 0.0 1. q  q  2B 0 Iz .9)(1.0 – 1. 1 0 .361 0.5 10000 0.0 – 6. 8 x 1 . 5         qq  S e  C1 .5   0.0 8000 0.433 0.34)(160  17. 1 160   17 .2.z Es S e  (0.0 16000 0. log    1.8 x1. log    1  0.8 mm .C 2 .5)(1.0 – 1.217 x 10-4 1.9 C2  1  0.5 0 .34 C1  1  0.2.5 – 4.139 x 10-4  1.5   1  0.55 x 10-4  q     t   5  17.291 x 10-4 1.903 x 10-4 4.8 x1.0 2.111 0.55 x10  4 ) S e  24.

Note: Dissipation of pore water pressure occurs simultaneously with the squeezing out of the pore water. it will take some time for the excess pore water pressure to dissipate and the stress increase to be transferred to the soil skeleton gradually. the pore water pressure in the clay will increase. The coefficient of permeability of soft soil . Therefore. The distance of pore water to be squeezed out 2. the consolidation time depend on: 1.  Consolidation is the process of dissipation of excess pore water pressure in a row of time.Consolidation Settlement  When the stress on a saturated clay layer in the field is increased.  Because the coefficients of permeability of clays are very low.

S s ) a c a s A l l l o a d is b o rn e b y s p r in g H y d ro s t a t i c p re s s u re ( z e ro e x c e s s p o re w a t e r p re s s u re ) D R A IN E D C R E E P LO A D Ss .S i .S i .Consolidation Philosophy a o V a lv e ( s o il ’s p e rm e a b ilit y ) a Ho S p rin g o a i Si ( s o il p a r t ic le s ) ( H o .S c .S c ) SEC O N D A R Y S E TTL E M E N T (S s ) a c S p ri n g c o m p r e s s e d W a t e r p re s s u re re d u c e d C O N S O L ID A T IO N N o w a t e r fl o w (H o .S i) W a t e r fi lle d c h a m b e r ( w a t e r s a t u ra t e d s o i l ’s p o r e s ) I D E A L IS A S I P r e s s u re i s b o r n e b y p o re w a t e r U N D R A IN E D S E T TL E M E N T C U R V E L a te ra l d e f o rm a t io n IM M E D IA T E S E T T L E M E N T ( S i) S E TTL E M E N T P R IM A R Y O R C O N S O L I D A TIO N S E TTL E M E N T (S c ) W a t e r i s e x p e ll e d a i Sc L O G T IM E H Y D R O S TA T IC P R E SS U R E (H o .

suggested by Terzaghi (1920-1924) with several assumption : 1 dimensional Saturation is complete Compressibility of water is negligible Compressibility of soil grains is negligible (but soil grains rearrange) Darcy’s Law is valid Soil deformation is small Soil permeability is constant Soil skeleton of each layer is homogeneous. so isotropic linier elastic constitutive law is valid .Consolidation First time.

H c . log o 1  eo po 1  eo pc . log o 1  eo po Over consolidation pc  po OR po + p < pc po < pc < po+p pc 1 po Sc  p  p Cr .1.H c . log o 1  eo po Sc  p p  p Cr Cc . log c  . OR pc 1 po Sc  Cc p  p . Normal Consolidation pc  po 2.H c .H c .

Consolidation Parameters .

The pressure that corresponds to the point p is the pre-consolidation pressure. Draw a horizontal line OA 3.Determination of Consolidation Properties Procedures : 1. Determine the point O on the e-lop p curve that has the sharpest curvature (that is. . Produce the straight line portion of the e-log p curve backward to intersect OC. This is point D. the smallest radius of curvature) 2. p c. Draw a line OB that is tangent to the e-log p curve at O 4. Draw a line OC that bisects the angle AOB 5.

Determination of Consolidation Properties .

Determination of Compressive Parameters .

Consolidation Settlement e1  e 2 av  ' ' p 2  p1 S c  m v . p av mv  1  eo Where : mv = Compression Index Hc = Thickness of soft soil layer p = The stress increment due to the external load Bina Nusantara .H c .

get from consolidation test . log  100  U% U = consolidation degree in percent.H t Cv 2 Where : t = consolidation time Tv = consolidation factor depended on consolidation degree (U) 2 U = 0 – 60%   U%  Tv    4  100  U > 60% Tv  1.781  0. descript as ratio of design settlement to total settlement S c .Consolidation Time Tv .933.i U x100% Sc Cv = coefficient of consolidation.

5Hc .Consolidation Settlement Tv .H t Cv 2 Where : H = length of water path Porous Layer Porous Layer Hc Impermeable layer Hc Porous Layer H = Hc H = 0.

2 2  Cv2 t3  Hc.1 2  Cv 1 Tv . 3  Cv 3 = 5. H c . H c . H c .2 Tv .Consolidation Time of Layered Soils Hc.1 Design .2 years 2 = 6.1 Cv1 t1  t2  Hc.3 2 2 = 3.4 years Cv 2 Tv .1 years Cv3 t = 6.

3 Cv3  H  .1 Cv1 H c' .Consolidation Time of Layered Soils .Determine the equivalent of Hc of each layer Hc.i  H c.  ' 2 c Hc 2  -Determine the consolidation time t  Tv .2 Cv2 -Determine the equivalent of Cv Cvek  Cvref Hc.i Cvi Cvref -Determine the sum of equivalent Hc Hc.  H c Cv ek  2 .

1st Layer : thickness 5 m. Cv = 7 x 10-3 cm2/s . Cv = 6 x 10-3 cm2/s 3rd Layer : thickness 8 m. which have different value of coefficient of consolidation and thickness for 90% degree of consolidation. Cv = 5 x 10-3 cm2/s 2nd Layer : thickness 3 m.EXAMPLE Determine the total consolidation time of 3 layer of clay.

00 m 2 3m 6 x 10-7 3.29 m 3 8m 7 x 10 Total Cvref is Cv1 -7 9.18 7 .16 x 10- 11.Solution Layer Thickness (Hc) Cv (m2/s) Equivalent Thickness (Hc’) 1 5m 5 x 10-7 5.47 m 17.76 m Cvek (m2/s) T (years) 6.

Repeated no.4 mm and drained on both sides.EXAMPLE A laboratory consolidation test on a normally clay showed the following result : Load. Determine the following : 1.8 m thick and drained on both sides. p (kN/m2) Void ratio at the end of consolidation.92 212 0. A similar clay layer in the field. e 140 0. The expected maximum consolidation settlement in the field 2. 2. is subjected to similar average pressure increase that is p o = 140 kN/m2 and po+p = 212 kN/m2. The time required for the specimen to reach 50% consolidation was 4.86 The specimen thickness was 25.2 problem in case of drained on one side . The length of time it will take for the total settlement in the field to reach 40 mm 3.5 min.

92 140 .92  0.86 Cc   0.333  212  log    140  p o  p Cc Sc  .333 212 Sc  .5mm 1  0.8 . log 1  eo po 0.H c . 2.EXAMPLE Requirement 1 e1  e2 Cc   p2 log   p1    0. log  87.

4 m = 1400 mm Cv = 7.H 2 t Cv Tv = /4 (U2) = 0.5 Tv .061 .6 days t 7.164 x1400 2 = 45523 min = 31.i Sc x100%   Calculate consolidation time Where : U = 45.7%) H = Hc/2 = 1.EXAMPLE Requirement 2  Determine field consolidation coefficient U S c .061 mm2/min We got 0.7% 40 x100%  45.164 (U = 45.7% 87.

7%) H = Hc = 2.061 mm2/min Hence 0.8 m = 2800 mm Cv = 7.5 days .EXAMPLE Requirement 3 Calculate consolidation time Where: Tv .061 = 182093 min = 126.164 (U = 45.H 2 t Cv U = 45.7% Tv = /4 (U2) = 0.164 x 2800 2 t 7.

Influence of Pore Water Pressure Two influences of pore water pressure to the settlement are : Initial average overburden pressure (po)  should be in effective condition (po’) ii. the uplift of water pressure will reduce the increase of vertical pressure by external load i. . External Load.

Defined as an adjustment of soil skeleton after the excess pore water dissipated. Difficult to be evaluated i. Depend on time and will be occurred in a long time iv. iii. .Secondary Consolidation (Creep) Occur after primary consolidation process finished ii.

Void Ratio Secondary Consolidation (Creep) Time (Min) .

4 mm is carried out to determine the secondary settlement.Example A laboratory testing of consolidation for specimen thickness 25. with the result as shown in the following table : .

and the initial dial reading is 12.855.Example Assume the thickness of the compressible layer is 10 m and the consolidation settlement is 30 cm which occurs after 25 years. The initial void ratio eo is 2. Assume the time rate of deformation for the load range in the test approximates that .700 mm Required : Compute the amount of secondary compression that would occur from 25 to 50 years after construction.

Example .

H c .6 cm . log   1  2.372  25  Ss = 4.Example t p  t C Ss  . log 1  ep tp 0.052  50  Ss  .10.

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