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BUSINESS

COMMUNICATION
Session
Objectives
By the end of the
session, you will be
able to:
Understand what
Communication is and
how it works
List and overcome
the filters/barriers in
a communication
process
• List the functions of
communication
Tips to improve
verbal and non verbal
communication
Overview

• Functions of Communication
• The Communication Process
• Communication Fundamentals
• Key Communication Skills
THE İMPORTANCE OF
BUSİNESS COMMUNİCATİON
• Time is money&time has a cost
• Businesspeople are not our family or friends
• Business is not a game or joke but serious
• It is a half-diplomatic environment
• We may need any person in our career path
with the nice memories about us.

4
BUSİNESS
COMMUNICATION MUST
BE
• Brief
• Well-designed
• Precise
• Specific
• Short
• Neat & clear
• Understandable & comprehensive

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“Have something to say and
say it as clearly as you
can, that is the only secret
of style”.
- Matthew
Arnold
Why is Communication
Important?
If you have ever struggled for the
right words

Do you have to work twice as hard to get


half the respect and success?

Have you watched other people- less


experienced people- get promoted around
you?
If Yes then Move
Ahead and Watch
the Presentation:
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?
COMMUNICATION IS THE ART OF
TRANSMITTING.
• INFORMATION, IDEAS AND ATTITUDES
FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.
• COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS
OF MEANINGFUL INTERACTION
AMONG HUMAN BEINGS.
Common Problem Areas
Sending:
Lack of gestures, tone of voice, ambiguous words!:
Convey the importance of the message.
Environment:
Noise.Physical obstacles, inadequacy of the channels,
Receiving:
Misinterpretion of any word or behaviour, perceptual filter
which reflect all our past experiences and learning

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COMMUNICATION GOALS
TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR

TO GET AND GIVE TO GET


INFORMATION ACTION

To persuade

To ensure understanding
STAGES OF
COMMUNICATION
• Ideation
• Encoding
• Transmitting
• Decoding
• Feedback and response
INTERACTION OF VERBAL
AND NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
When communicating, nonverbal messages can
interact with verbal messages in six ways:
-Repeating,
-Conflicting,
-Complementing,
-Substituting,
-Regulating and
- Accenting/moderating.
What are the most common
ways
we communicate?

a g es
o rd is ual Im
e n W V
Spok

Bod
Written Word y La n
gua
ge
COMMUNICATION OF
CONTENT
• Channel choices
– In person
– Telephone
– Email
– Written
– Third party

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KEY COMMUNICATION
SKILLS
•Listening Skills
•Feedback Skills
•Presentation skills
HOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE
LISTENER

WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT LISTENING ?

UNDERSTAND THE COMPLEXITIES OF LISTENING


PREPARE TO LISTEN
ADJUST TO THE SITUATION
FOCUS ON IDEAS OR KEY POINTS
CAPITALIZE ON THE SPEED DIFFERENTIAL
ORGANIZE MATERIAL FOR LEARNING
How to Be an Effective Listener
(cont.)

 WHAT YOU FEEL ABOUT LISTENING ?

Want to listen
Delay judgement
Admit your biases
Don’t tune out “dry” subjects
Accept responsibility for understanding
Encourage others to talk
How to Be an Effective Listener
(cont.)

 WHAT YOU DO ABOUT LISTENING ?

Establish eye contact with the speaker


Take notes effectively
Be a physically involved listener
Avoid negative mannerisms
Exercise your listening muscles
Follow the Golden Rule
PRESENTATION SKILLS
Ideas, concepts or issues talked about or spoken
to a group or audience

Public speaking is one of the most feared things


“I could make such a fool of myself”

Skills required to give a good presentation can be


developed
Preparation is the Key
Presentation Skills
Preparation/ Planning is the first step on the
ladder to success

Aspects in the development of a good


presentation
 Self Centered (Self)
 Audience Centered (Audience)
 Subject Centered (Material)

“I want (who) to (what) (where, when and how)


because (why)”
Presentation Skills
• Preparation: Audience Analysis

What is the audience interested in


What does the audience want
What does the audience already know and
needs to know
What are their needs, expectations from this
presentation
How will the audience benefit from this
presentation
Presentation Skills
• Structure the content in line with the audience’s needs
• What do you want to tell the audience?
• What is your objective?
• Prepare keeping in mind the time allotted
• Anticipate the questions and prepare
• Collect material from a variety of sources
• Arrange points logically and sequentially
• Prepare handouts as well
Presentation Skills

•Structuring the presentation


2 to 2.5 mins--- opening/beginning
20 to 21 mins--- middle section
2 to 3 mins --- closing/end
5 mins --- questions
• ITS ESSENCE :
PERSONAL PROCESS
OCCURS BETWEEN PEOPLE
INVOLVES CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR
MEANS TO INFLUENCE OTHERS
EXPRESSION OF THOUGHTS AND
EMOTIONS THROUGH WORDS & ACTIONS.
TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING AND MOTIVATING
PEOPLE.
IT IS A SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PROCESS.
7C’S OF
COMMUNICATION
Courtesy
Clear
Correctness
Concrete
Complete
Concise
Consideration
7 ’s of Communication Skills:
Clear: Your messages need to be
clear if they are to be effective.
Concise: If you want your messages
to be read by busy people, make them
brief. Say what you need to say, and
say no more (while maintaining
goodwill, of course). Remove all words
phrases and sentences that serve no
purpose. You can also eliminate
wordiness by substituting one word for
wordy, overused expressions.
Concrete: You have a choice in your writing to use concrete
(specific) or abstract (vague) words. They both have a place in
business writing. However, concrete terms are typically more
accurate and, in some cases, more believable.

Correct: Correctness in business writing includes spelling,


grammar, punctuation, and format. For spelling, punctuation,
and grammar, you should keep a dictionary and a writer's
guide at your desk.

Coherent: Messages need to "hang together." Ideas need to


flow from one to the next through smooth transitions. You can
achieve this by outlining your messages, writing simple
sentences and focusing each paragraph on one idea. You can
also improve the coherence of your message through parallel
structure, connecting words and phrases, and guide posts.
Complete: Check to be sure that your
message is complete. Have you included all
the information you need to ensure that the
other person can do a complete job or make
a reasonable decision?

Courteous: Your message should be


positive-building goodwill and focused
upon the reader. Watch gender specific
language and always use proper titles
Many people think that communicating
is easy.

It is after all something we've done all


our lives.
There is some truth in this simplistic
view.

Communicating is straightforward.
What makes it complex, difficult, and
frustrating are the barriers we put in
the way.

Here are the 7 top barriers:


DANGERS OF
MISCOMMUNICATION
- An important cause of business foul-ups
- The other person/client did not understand what
you thought was clear and accurate
you thought was clear and accurate
- The work product does not meet your expectations
- Where did it go wrong?
- How can you prevent it from happening again?
BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION
• Noise
• Inappropriate medium
• Assumptions/Misconce
ptions
• Emotions
• Language differences
• Poor listening skills
• Distractions
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
No matter how good the
communication system in an
organization is, unfortunately barriers
can and do often occur. This may be
caused by a number of factors which
can usually be summarized as being
due to physical barriers, system
design faults or additional barriers.
PHYSICAL BARRIERS  
• Physical barriers  are often due to the nature
of the environment. Thus, for example, the
natural barrier which exists, if staff are located
in different buildings or on different sites.
• Likewise, poor or outdated equipment,
particularly the failure of management to
introduce new technology, may also cause
problems.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
FACTORS  
• Psychological factors such as people's state
of mind. We all tend to feel happier and more
receptive to information when the sun shines.
• Equally, if someone has personal problems
like worries about their health or marriage,
then this will probably affect them.
OTHER COMMON
BARRIERS TO
EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
INCLUDE:
EMOTIONAL BARRIERS

It one of the chief barriers to open and


free communications is the emotional
barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear,
mistrust and suspicion.
• CULTURAL BARRIERS

When we join a group and wish to remain in it,


sooner or later we need to adopt the behaviour
patterns of the group. These are the behaviours
that the groups accept as signs of belonging.
DIFFERENT LANGUAGES  

Different languages  and cultures


represent a national barrier which is
particularly important for
organisations involved in overseas
business.
3 V OF COMMUNİCATİON
• Verbal:What you say:the message
• Vocal: How you say: music of your voice
• Visual: How you seem & who you are

Most powerful element of communication is:


VİSUAL
Give importance to visual self, as much as
the knowledge and experience.

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•Formal communication

• is that which is connected with the


formal organizational arrangement
and the official status or the place
of the communicator and the
receiver. It moves through the
formal channels authoritatively
accepted positions in the
organization chart.
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION

• arises out of all those channels that


fall outside the formal channels and it
is also known as grapevine. It is
established around the societal
affiliation of members of the
organization. Informal communication
does not follow authority lines as in
the case of formal communication.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION
‘Do’s’
Always think ahead about what you are going to
say.
Use simple words and phrases that are
understood by every body.
Speak clearly and audibly.
Check twice with the listener whether you have
been understood accurately or not
While listening, always make notes of important
points.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION
DON’Ts

Do not instantly react and mutter something in

anger.
Do not use technical terms & terminologies.
Do not speak too fast or too slow.
 Do not interrupt the speaker.
Do not jump to the conclusion.
IN MANAGEMENT

Communication is a core process in


any organization and as such is an
essential element of operations. As
such it needs to be planned,
monitored and adjusted like any
other business process.
HOW TO IMPROVE EXISTING LEVEL OF
COMMUNICATION?

IMPROVE LANGUAGE AND PRONUNCIATION


WORK ON VOICE MODULATION AND BODY
LANGUAGE.
READ MORE AND USE SIMPLE VOCABULARY..
INTERACT WITH QUALITATIVE PEOPLE AND
LISTEN MORE
LOOK PRESENTABLE AND CONFIDENT.
Effective communication
leads to a better
understanding of and better
interaction with your
fellowmen. Though this may
get difficult and take a little
more of your extra time, you
will benefit from it
eventually.
Instead of trying to win every
argument, try to find solutions
to meet the needs of all. You
could compromise with others
or find new solutions that will
give everyone what they want
in the end. Eventually, people
will follow your way of thinking
if it is the right one.
SUMMING IT UP
• Communicating your ideas clearly is
an important skill.
• This skill needs to be worked at – and
it is often uncomfortable to work at it!
• The more you do it, the easier it
becomes – but that fear really doesn’t
ever go away!
• Keep up the confidence and
enthusiasm!
Success for
YOU…
… the new global and
diverse workplace
requires
excellent communication
skills!
OBJECTIVES

To understand the kinds of non-verbal


communication.
To understand the importance and
functions of non-verbal communication.
To get tips of improving non verbal
communication
Nonverbal communication (NVC) is
usually understood as the process of
communication through sending and
receiving wordless messages.

NVC can be communicated :


Gesture
Body language or posture
Facial expression
Eye contact
IMPORTANCE OF
NON-VERBAL MESSAGE

• How would you like to


sound?
• How would you like to
look?
Projecting an image that is
consistent with the person
you want to be significantly
improves your ability to
develop trust & rapport
FİRST IMPRESSİON
First impression
includes:
• Dress & grooming
• Voice
• Handshake
• Eye contact
• Body posture
• Tone of Voice
POWERFUL IMAGE
Total image consists of:
• The first impressions
you project
• The depth of your
knowledge
• The breadth of your
knowledge
• Your enthusiasm.
LANGUAGE OF
GESTURES
Body language and
nonverbal
communication are
transmitted through
eyes, face, hands and
arms, posture (sitting
and walking)
EYES
• Windows of the soul,
are excellent indicators
of feelings.
• Shifty eyes, beady
eyes and look of
steel demonstrate
awareness.
• Honest person has a
tendency to look
you straight in the eye
when speaking.
• People avoid eye contact with
other person when an
uncomfortable question is asked.
• Try to reduce tension and build
trust rather than increase tension.
• The raising of one eyebrow
shows disbelief and two shows
surprise.
THE FACE

• Face is the 2 nd
most important after eyes.
• Smile and an eyebrow flash is the best way to
welcome anybody.
• It is the most expressive part of the body.
• Should always be lively and interested, and not
controlled or restricted.
THE HANDS
• Tightly clenched hands
usually indicate that the
person is experiencing
undue pressure.
• It may be difficult to
relate to this person
because of his tension
and disagreement.
• Superiority and
authority are usually
indicated when you are
standing and joining
your hands behind your
back.
Posture: Sitting and
Walking
• Sitting with your legs
crossed and elevated
foot moving in a
slight circular motion
indicates boredom or
impatience.
• Interest and
involvement are
usually projected by
sitting on the edge of
the chair and leaning
slightly forward.
• People who walk
with their shoulders
hunched and hands
in their pockets
tend to be secretive
and critical.
• Dejected people
usually scuffle
along with their
hands in pockets,
heads down, and
shoulders hunched
over.
Common Gesture Clusters
Openness:
Several gestures indicate
openness and sincerity
• Open hands,
• leaning slightly forward
in the chair,
• removing coat or
jacket,
• uncrossing arms and
legs,
• moving closer.
Common Gesture Clusters
Defensiveness:
People who are defensive usually have
• a rigid body,
• arms or legs tightly crossed,
• eyes glancing sideways or darting
occasionally.
• minimal eye contact
• lips pursed, fists clenched and
downcast head
THE HANDSHAKE
• Most
meetings/interactions
begin and end with a
handshake.
• There is no gender
distinction
• Make sure you make
eye contact
• Firm but painless
• Gentle and very brief
PARALANGUAGE
Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of
nonverbal cues of the voice. The linguist George L.
Trager developed a classification system which consists
of the voice set, voice qualities, and vocalization.

-The voice set is the context in which the speaker is


speaking.
-The voice qualities are volume, pitch, tempo, rhythm,
articulation, resonance, nasality, and accent.
-Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers,
qualifiers and segregates.
SPACE AND DISTANCE, OR PROXEMIC
FACTORS
• ♦ Proxemic cues, including the treatment of space
and territory influence interaction and help define
the communication experience.
♦Edward Hall says there are four different
distances that we keep between ourselves and
other people:
• Intimate Distance- 0 to 18 inches;
• Personal distance- 18 inches to 4 feet;
• Social distance- 4 to 12 feet; and
• Public Distance- 12 feet to the limit of
sight.
MOVEMENT AND BODY
POSITION
-KINESICS : Kinesics is the study of body movements, facial
expressions, and gestures.
-POSTURE : Posture can be used to determine a
participant’s degree of attention or involvement.
-GESTURE : A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement
intended to express meaning.
-HAP TICS : Hap tics is the study of touching as nonverbal
communication.
-EYE GAZE : The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal
communication is sometimes referred to as "oculesics".
FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
-Express emotions
-Express interpersonal attitudes
-To accompany speech in managing the
cues of interaction between speakers
and listeners
-Self-presentation of one’s personality
-Rituals (greetings)
SUMMARY

• Communication process is only


completed when intended message
is received
• We need to overcome barriers
• Listening is a big part of our lives,
but we have to
• Train ourselves to actively listen
THE COMMANDMENTS – KEITH
DAVIS
• Stop Talking.
• Put The Talker At Ease.
• Show Him That You Want To
Listen.
• Remove Distractions.
• Empathize With Him.
• Be Patient.
• Hold Your Temper.
• Go Easy On Arguments And
Criticism.
• Ask Questions.
“Perhaps you will forget
tomorrow the kind words
you say today, but the
recipient may cherish
them over a lifetime."
-- Dale Carnegie
THANK YOU
Prof. Dr. Madhulika Jha
Director
Amity Institute Of English & Business
Communication
Contact: 9810362914
E-mail: madhulikaj@amity.edu