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What is Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to


"nanotech") is the study of manipulating
matter on an atomic and molecular scale.
Generally, nanotechnology deals with
developing materials, devices, or other
structures possessing at least one
dimension sized from 1 to 100
nanometres. Quantum mechanical effects
are important at this quantum-realm scale.

how to change
Centimeter:Mass,Friction
Milimeter:Mass,Friction,electrostatic
Micrometer:Electrostatic,van der
Walls,Brownian motions
Quantum Angstrom:quantum
mechanic

How will vary depending on nanoscale


silver and gold?
Optical properties of metal
nanoparticles depends on their
shapes and size.
Visible optical changes appear with
metal nanoparticles.Aspect
ratio=length/with
As aspect ratio
changes,chemical,physical,magnetic,
optico properties changes

No matter the size of the impact of


nano-films Photographic how
change?
Photopraphic films is an emulsion, a
thin layer of gelatin containing silver
halides, and base of transparent
cellulose acetate.The light
decomposes the silver
halides,produce nanoparticles of
silver,which are the pixels of the
image

What classes of nanomaterials?


2d structure:thin films,quantum wells
(sonde cuantice) , superlattice
1d structure:nanowires
( nanoclabluri) ,quantum
wires,nanorodes,nanotubes
0-d structure: nanoparticles,quantum
dots,nanocrystal
films,nanocomposites

What are carbon nano structures?


Types:
1-Fullerence(c60):
- single molecule=60c atoms
- 7-15 dimension
- Thermally and chemically stable
- properties change
- sensitive to light
- potential applications:tribology,drug release,solar cells
2-carbon nanotubes
3-carbon onions
C60 nucleus are surrounded by carbon atoms ,2530nm dimension.Ligth obsorption looks like cosmic
porwder particles.

Why is inter-disciplinary science and


nanotechnology?
Work in nanotechnolojy can be found
in university departments of
phsics,chemistry and environmental
science, as well as
electrical,mechanical and chemical
engineering

Size varies depending on how the property?


At the macro or large scale range studied in
traditional fields of physics such as
mechanics,eletrically and magnetism,otics,the
sizes of the objects under study range is from
milimeters to kilometers.
The properties that we associate with these
materials are averaged properties such as
density,resistivity.
When measurements are made in micrometerse
and nanometers many properties of materials
change such as mechanical,ferroelectric and
ferromagnetic properties.

Atoms vibration
n reality,atoms in a crystal suffer continuous
fluctuations in the neighborhood of their
regular positions in the lattice ( structura) .
These fluctuations arise from heat or thermal
energy in the lattice,and atoms are bounded
together with chemical bond,
The movement of one atom about its size
results other atoms to respond this motion.
The results is that many atoms vibrate in
unison and this collective motion spreads
througout the crystal.
These vibrations are called lattice vibrations.

Principles of semiconductor?
n the case of semiconductors,the
gap between the valence and the
conduction bands is much less
can bring the thermal excitation of
same electtons from the balance
band to the conduction band
the desity of electrons is low,
electrical conductivity is small, so the
the term is semiconducting.

Sort materials according to their


energy bands?
2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein
under license.

The simplified
band structure
for sodium. The
energy levels
broaden into
bands. The 3s
band, which is
only half filled
with electrons, is
responsible for
conduction in
sodium.

Describe the function?


XRD:the beam is fixed on the direction and the
crytstal is moved by a broad of angles in order to
record the difractometer
STM: includes a piezoelectric tripod scanner.
From a quantum-mechanical point of view, the
current depends on :
-the dangling bond state of the tip apex atom
-the orbital states of the surface atoms.
AFM: The AFM can operate in a close contact
mode in which the force is the gradient of the van
del Waals potential
RAMAN spectroscopy:a vibrational trasition is
induced when an incident optical photon of
frequency hv(inc) is absorbed and another optical
photon hv(emit),is emitted:En=|hv(inc)-hv(emit)|

BandGap:refers to the energy difference between the top


of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction of
the conduction band.
LargeScale:physics(mechanic,electricity&optics
properties)-nm to km
NanoScale:ferromagnetic&ferroelectrical propertiesmicro
to nanometer
Latice vibration:since the atoms are bounded together
with chemical bounds,the movement of one atom about its
side results other atoms to respond this
motions.Collectively movements of atoms throughout the
crystal named latice vibration.
Fermi level:is the highest occupied energy level at
absolute zero,that is all energy levels up to the fermi level
are occupied by electrons.
We can determinate :
- the current (I)
- voltage (V)
Mass spectrometry(ms):is an analytical technique that can
be used to:
-determine the chemical composition of a sample

Magic Numbers:any of the numbers 2,8,20,28,50,82,or 126 that


represent the number of neutrons or protons in strongly bound and
exceptionally stable atomic nuclei.The magic numbers have a very
simple interpretation (works best for the free electron metals such
as alkali)
GeometricStructure: We can form larger geometric structure from
metal ligand compounds. For this, we should remove the ligands
easy to change , from saturated metals , that are in the solution.
ElektronikStructure: new advances in:
- favrication and demostration of melcular electronic wires and of
moecular elecronic diodes.
- techniwues for making reliable electrical contact with such
electircally conducting
Reactivity: in nanostructure design the important concerns include
chemical reacticity.
Chemical environements and ambient conditions limit:
- the feasibility of certain nanostructures
- the choise of molecular subunits.
This same issues are key to synhetic chemistry.

What are the effects of nanosilver using in taking high quality


photographs?photography depends on production of silver
nanoparticles. The light decomposes the silver halides of photografy
emulsion,produce nanoparticles of silver,which are the pixels of the image
What is carbon nanotube?Explain their Properties? cnt is a
tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1nm.
the strongest and most flexible molecular material because:
- c-c covalent bonding
- hexagonal network architecture.
Why is nanotechnology is the recognition that nanostructred
materials work ? in nanotechnology can be found in university
departments of phtsics chemistry and environmental science as
well as electrical mechanical and chemical engineering.
Nanowire:a wire made from nanotubes.a nanowire allows a muvh
lower current to flow compared to metal wire.
Quantum Dots:a quantized electronic structure in which electrons
are limit about respecting the motion in all three dimesions.
Roraxane:is a detector material which depends on temperature
,electrical / chemical activities and light .

Nanorobot:a nanoscale robot.


- autonomousnanorobots have their own nanoscale computers built in
- insect nanorobots are deployed in groups and are controlled by a
central computer.
FTIR:
-a spectroscopic technique
- all pertinent wavelengths simultaneously irradiate the sample for a
short period of time
- the absorption spectrum is found by mathematical manipulation of the
fourier transform
SEM:
- an electron microscope
- forms a three-dimensional image on a cathode-ray tube
- moving a deam of focused electrons across an object
- reading both the electrons scattered by the object and the secondary
electrons produced by it.
Lithography:is a technique used to creat the circuitry on the wafers.
represents one of the successes of quantum devices for practical
applications.
Mobility:
-important paramater of a semiconductor
-charge carrier drift velocity v per unit electric field E given by the
expression u=|v|/E.
- positive for both electrons and holes.

MATERIALS AND PACKING:


Crystalline materials...
- atoms pack in periodic
- 3D arrays long range order over large atomic distances
- typical of:metals,many ceramics some polymers and organic
molecules.
Noncrystalline materials...
- atoms have no periodic packing
- occurs for:complex structures ,rapid cooling.Example Amorphous
Crystal structures:
Most solids are crystalline . The atoms are arranged in a regular manner by
long-range order
Amorphous materials such as glass have short-range order so the local
environment of each atom is similar to that of other equivalent atoms,
This regularity does not persist over distances.
Liquids also have short-range order, but lack long-range order. Gases lack
both long-range and short-range order.

Self assembly
Self-assemblyis a term used to
describe processes :
-a disordered system of pre-existing
components forms is organized in a
structure
-Organizing by consequence of local
interactions among the components
themselves
- without external direction.
When the constitutive components are
molecules, the process is termed
molecular self-assembly.

Molecular electronics and molecular comp


work:
Molecular electronics
- involves the study of molecular building blocks
for the fabrication of electronic components.
- This includes applications of
conductive polymersand
single-molecule electronic components for
nanotechnology.
- 300 molecules in the system interact together
like a massively parallel computer, each
changing states when data is written into the
system.

SPINCTRONIC:

Spintronics
-is a nascent form of electronics
-uses the magnetic state (spin) of electrons ,
to process data, rather than using electric
charge.
-spin is a quantum property, closely related
to but not exactly the same thing as
magnetism.
-exploiting quantum effects.
The magnetism of ferroelectric materials,
nonconductors which become polarized
when exposed to an electric field, exists
because many of the electrons all have the
same spin.

Pipeline
A pipeline processor integrates a
sequence of i data-processing
nanoICs (nanostages)
perform a single operation on a
stream of data operands passing
through them.
Nanocomputers must be designed by
using pipelining.
Four basic steps (fetch Fi, decode Di,
operate Oi, and write Wi)

Nanocomputer architectronics
- theory of nanocomputers
- devised and designed using
fundamental theory and applying
nanoICs.
- is a computer science and
engineering frontier
- will allow one to solve a wide
spectrum of problems.

Fundamental problems in
nanocomputer architecture ;
Designing,
Applying three-dimensional
organization,
Application of nanoICs,
Multithreading,
Parallel computing organization,
Shared memory parallelism,
Message passing parallelism,

What is the molecular computer?


A molecular computer is made of
organic molecules instead of silicon.
Dendrimer
globular nanostructures
precisely engineered to carry
molecules encapsulated in their
interior spaces or attached to the
surface.

Moore law?
Moore slightly altered the formulation
of the law
in 1975, Moore altered his projection
to a doubling every two years.
he was sure that he did not predict a
doubling "every 18 months".
However, David House concluded
that integrated circuits would double
in performance every 18 months.

Difference Between SRAM and DRAM;


1. SRAM is static while DRAM is dynamic
2. SRAM is faster compared to DRAM
3. SRAM consumes less power than
DRAM
4. SRAM uses more transistors than
DRAM
5. SRAM is more expensive than DRAM
6. Cheaper DRAM is used in main
memory while SRAM is commonly
used in cache memory

A quantum well infrared photodetector


(QWIP),
- made from semiconductor materials
- contain one or more quantum wells.
- can be integrated together with
electronics and optics to make
infrared cameras for thermography.

Difference betweem DNA computer and quantum computer?


DNA increases parallelism at the expense of additional
volume (the contents of a test tube) while the quantum
register allows these parallel computations to be performed
in a fixed physical area.
they afford different levels of assurance.
DNA computing generates solutions in a probabilistic
manner, where any particular solution is generated with
some probability based on the complex dynamics of the
bonding process. By increasing the number of each strand in
the initial solution, one can assume with reasonable certainty
that all possible solutions will be constructed in the initial
solution set.
In quantum computing, by contrast, all solutions are
guaranteed to be generated and we neednt concern
ourselves with the possibility of missing potential solutions.