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DC Choppers

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

Introduction
Chopper is a static device.
A variable dc voltage is obtained from a
constant dc voltage source.
Also known as dc-to-dc converter.
Widely used for motor control.
Also used in regenerative braking.
Thyristor converter offers greater efficiency,
faster response, lower maintenance, smaller
size and smooth control.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

Choppers are of Two Types


Step-down choppers.
Step-up choppers.
In step down chopper output voltage is less
than input voltage.
In step up chopper output voltage is more
than input voltage.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

Principle Of
Step-down Chopper
C hopper
i0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

A step-down chopper with resistive load.


The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch.
When thyristor is ON, supply voltage appears
across the load
When thyristor is OFF, the voltage across the
load will be zero.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

v0
V
V
tON

dc

tOFF

i0
V /R
Idc
T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

t
6

Vdc Average value of output or load voltage.


I dc Average value of output or load current.
tON Time interval for which SCR conducts.
tOFF Time interval for which SCR is OFF.
T tON tOFF Period of switching or chopping period.
1
f Freq. of chopper switching or chopping freq.
T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

Average Output Voltage

tON
Vdc V

tON tOFF
tON
Vdc V
V .d
T
tON
but
d duty cycle
t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

Average Output Current


Vdc
I dc
R
V tON
V
I dc
d
R T
R
RMS value of output voltage
1
VO
T

tON

v dt
2
o

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

But during tON , vo V


Therefore RMS output voltage
1
VO
T

tON

V
dt

tON
V
VO
tON
.V
T
T
VO d .V
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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10

Output power PO VO I O
VO
But
IO
R
Output power
2
O

V
PO
R
2
dV
PO
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Effective input resistance of chopper


V
Ri
I dc
R
Ri
d
The output voltage can be varied by
varying the duty cycle.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Methods Of Control
The output dc voltage can be varied by the
following methods.
Pulse width modulation control or constant
frequency operation.
Variable frequency control.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Pulse Width Modulation


tON is varied keeping chopping frequency f &
chopping period T constant.
Output voltage is varied by varying the ON
time tON

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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V
tON

tOFF
t

T
V

tO N

tOFF

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

t
15
15

Variable Frequency Control


Chopping frequency f is varied keeping
either tON or tOFF constant.
To obtain full output voltage range, frequency
has to be varied over a wide range.
This method produces harmonics in the output
and for large tOFF load current may become
discontinuous
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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v0
V
tON

tOFF

T
v0
V
tO N

tO FF
t
T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Step-down Chopper
With R-L Load
C hopper

i0

+
R

FW D

L
E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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When chopper is ON, supply is connected


across load.
Current flows from supply to load.
When chopper is OFF, load current continues
to flow in the same direction through FWD due
to energy stored in inductor L.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Load current can be continuous or


discontinuous depending on the values of L
and duty cycle d
For a continuous current operation, load current
varies between two limits Imax and Imin
When current becomes equal to Imax the chopper
is turned-off and it is turned-on when current
reduces to Imin.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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v0

O u tp u t
v o lta g e

V
tO N
i0

tO FF

Im ax

O u tp u t
c u rre n t

I m in

C o n tin u o u s
c u rre n t
t

i0

O u tp u t
c u rre n t
D is c o n tin u o u s
c u rre n t
t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Expressions For
Load Current
iO For Continuous Current Operation
When
Chopper Is ON (0 t tON)

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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i0

+
R

E
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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diO
V iO R L
E
dt
Taking Laplace Transform
V
E

RI O S L S .I O S iO 0
S
S
At t 0, initial current iO 0 I min
I min
V E
IO S

R
R

LS S S
L
L

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Taking Inverse Laplace Transform

V E

iO t
1 e
R

R
t
L

R
t
L

I min e

This expression is valid for 0 t tON ,


i.e., during the period chopper is ON.
At the instant the chopper is turned off,
load current is iO tON I max
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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When Chopper is OFF


i0
R
L
E
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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When Chopper is OFF 0 t tOFF


diO
0 RiO L
E
dt
Talking Laplace transform
E
0 RI O S L SI O S iO 0
S
Redefining time origin we have at t 0,

initial current iO 0

max

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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I max
E
IO S

R
R

S
LS S
L
L

Taking Inverse Laplace Transform


iO t I max e

R
t
L

E
1 e
R

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

R
t
L

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The expression is valid for 0 t tOFF ,


i.e., during the period chopper is OFF
At the instant the chopper is turned ON or at
the end of the off period, the load current is
iO tOFF I min
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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To Find I max & I min


From equation

V E

iO t
1

At

R
t
L

R
t
L

I min e

t tON dT , iO t I max
I max

V E

1 e
R

dRT

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

I min e

dRT

30
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From equation

E
iO t I max e 1 e
R

t tOFF T tON , iO t I min


R
t
L

At

R
t
L

t tOFF 1 d T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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I min I max e

1 d RT

1 e

1 d RT

Substituting for I min in equation


I max

V E

1 e
R

dRT
L

I min e

dRT
L

we get,

I max

dRT
L

V 1 e
E

RT

R
R
L
1 e

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Substituting for I max in equation


I min I max e

1 d RT
L

1 e

1 d RT

we get,

V e 1
E
I min

RT
R L
R
e 1
I max I min is known as the steady state ripple.
dRT
L

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Therefore peak-to-peak ripple current


I I max I min
Average output voltage
Vdc d .V
Average output current
I max I min
I dc approx
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Assuming load current varies linearly


from I min to I max instantaneous
load current is given by
iO I min

I .t

iO I min

for 0 t tON dT

dT
I max I min
t
dT

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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RMS value of load current


I O RMS
I O RMS
I O RMS

dT

dT

dT

dT

dT

dT

2
i
0 dt
0

I min

dT

dt

2 I min I max I min t


I max I min
2

t
dt

dT
dT

I max I min t

2
min

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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RMS value of output current

I max I min

I O RMS I
3

RMS chopper current


I CH
I CH

2
min

dT

dT

I min I max I min

1
2

i dt
2
0

I max I min

I min
dT

0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

dt
37
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I CH d I

2
min

I max I min

I min I max I min

I CH d I O RMS
Effective input resistance is
V
Ri
IS
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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1
2

Where
I S Average source current
I S dI dc

V
Ri
dI dc

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Principle Of Step-up Chopper


I

L
+

D
+

V
C hopper

L
O
A
D

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Step-up chopper is used to obtain a load voltage


higher than the input voltage V.
The values of L and C are chosen depending
upon the requirement of output voltage and
current.
When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is
connected across the supply.
The inductor current I rises and the inductor
stores energy during the ON time of the
chopper, tON.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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When the chopper is off, the inductor current I


is forced to flow through the diode D and load
for a period, tOFF.
The current tends to decrease resulting in
reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L.
Therefore voltage across load is given by

dI
VO V L
i.e., VO V
dt
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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A large capacitor C connected across the load,


will provide a continuous output voltage .
Diode D prevents any current flow from
capacitor to the source.
Step up choppers are used for regenerative
braking of dc motors.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Expression For Output Voltage


Assume the average inductor current to be
I during ON and OFF time of Chopper.
When Chopper is ON
Voltage across inductor L V
Therefore energy stored in inductor
= V .I .tON
Where tON ON period of chopper.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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When Chopper is OFF


(energy is supplied by inductor to load)
Voltage across L VO V

Energy supplied by inductor L VO V ItOFF


where tOFF OFF period of Chopper.
Neglecting losses, energy stored in inductor
L = energy supplied by inductor L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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VItON VO V ItOFF
VO

V tON tOFF
tOFF

T
VO V

T tON
Where
T = Chopping period or period
of switching.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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T tON tOFF

VO V

VO V

tON
1
T
1

1 d

tON
Where d
duty cyle
T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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For variation of duty cycle ' d ' in the


range of 0 d 1 the output voltage VO
will vary in the range V VO

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Performance Parameters
The thyristor requires a certain minimum time
to turn ON and turn OFF.
Duty cycle d can be varied only between a min.
& max. value, limiting the min. and max. value
of the output voltage.
Ripple in the load current depends inversely on
the chopping frequency, f.
To reduce the load ripple current, frequency
should be as high as possible.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
A Chopper circuit is operating on TRC at a
frequency of 2 kHz on a 460 V supply. If the
load voltage is 350 volts, calculate the
conduction period of the thyristor in each
cycle.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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V 460 V, Vdc = 350 V, f = 2 kHz


Chopping period

Output voltage

1
T
f
1
T
0.5 m sec
3
2 10
tON
Vdc
V

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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51

Conduction period of thyristor


T Vdc
tON
V
3
0.5 10 350
tON
460
tON 0.38 msec
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
Input to the step up chopper is 200 V. The
output required is 600 V. If the conducting time
of thyristor is 200 sec. Compute
Chopping frequency,
If the pulse width is halved for constant
frequency of operation, find the new output
voltage.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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V 200 V , tON 200 s, Vdc 600V

T
Vdc V

T tON

600 200
6
T 200 10
Solving for T
T 300 s
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Chopping frequency
1
f
T
1
f
3.33KHz
6
300 10
Pulse width is halved

tON

200 10

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

100 s
55
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Frequency is constant

f 3.33KHz
1
T 300 s
f

T
Output voltage = V

T tON

300 10

300
Volts
6
300 100 10

200

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
A dc chopper has a resistive load of 20 and
input voltage VS = 220V. When chopper is ON,
its voltage drop is 1.5 volts and chopping
frequency is 10 kHz. If the duty cycle is 80%,
determine the average output voltage and the
chopper on time.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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VS 220V , R 20, f 10 kHz


tON
d
0.80
T
Vch = Voltage drop across chopper = 1.5 volts
Average output voltage
tON
Vdc
VS Vch
T

Vdc 0.80 220 1.5 174.8 Volts


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Chopper ON time,

tON dT

Chopping period,

1
T
f

1
3
T
0.110 secs 100 secs
3
10 10
Chopper ON time,
tON dT
tON 0.80 0.110

tON 0.08 10 80 secs


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
In a dc chopper, the average load current is 30
Amps, chopping frequency is 250 Hz, supply
voltage is 110 volts. Calculate the ON and
OFF periods of the chopper if the load
resistance is 2 ohms.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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I dc 30 Amps, f 250 Hz, V 110 V , R 2


1
1
Chopping period, T
4 10 3 4 msecs
f 250
Vdc
I dc
& Vdc dV
R
dV

I dc
R
I dc R 30 2
d

0.545
V
110
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Chopper ON period,
3

tON dT 0.545 4 10 2.18 msecs


Chopper OFF period,
tOFF T tON
tOFF 4 103 2.18 103
3

tOFF 1.82 10 1.82 msec


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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A dc chopper in figure has a resistive load of R


= 10 and input voltage of V = 200 V. When
chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 2 V and the
chopping frequency is 1 kHz. If the duty cycle
is 60%, determine
Average output voltage
RMS value of output voltage
Effective input resistance of chopper
Chopper efficiency.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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C hopper

i0

v0

V 200 V , R 10, Chopper voltage drop Vch 2V


d 0.60, f 1 kHz.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Average output voltage


Vdc d V Vch

Vdc 0.60 200 2 118.8 Volts


RMS value of output voltage
VO d V Vch
VO 0.6 200 2 153.37 Volts
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Effective input resistance of chopper is


V
V
Ri
I S I dc
Vdc 118.8
I dc

11.88 Amps
R
10
V
V
200
Ri

16.83
I S I dc 11.88
Output power is
1
PO
T

dT

2
0

v
1
dt
R
T

dT

0
0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

V Vch
R

dt
66
66

d V Vch
PO
R
PO

0.6 200 2
10

2352.24 watts

Input power,
1
Pi
T
1
PO
T

dT

Vi dt
O

V V Vch
0 R dt

dT

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

67
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dV V Vch
PO
R
0.6 200 200 2
PO
2376 watts
10
Chopper efficiency,
PO
100
Pi
2352.24

100 99%
2376
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
A chopper is supplying an inductive load with a
free-wheeling diode. The load inductance is 5 H
and resistance is 10.. The input voltage to the
chopper is 200 volts and the chopper is operating
at a frequency of 1000 Hz. If the ON/OFF time
ratio is 2:3. Calculate
Maximum and minimum values of load current
in one cycle of chopper operation.
Average load current
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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L 5 H , R 10, f 1000 Hz,


V 200 V , tON : tOFF 2 : 3
Chopping period,
1
1
T
1 msecs
f 1000
tON 2

tOFF 3
tON

2
tOFF
3

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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70

T tON tOFF
2
T tOFF tOFF
3
5
T tOFF
3
tOFF

3
T
5

3
3
T 1 10 0.6 msec
5

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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tON T tOFF
tON 1 0.6 103 0.4 msec
Duty cycle,
3

tON 0.4 10
d

0.4
3
T
110
Maximum value of load current is given by

I max

dRT
L

V 1 e
E

RT

R
R
L
1 e

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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72

Since there is no voltage source in


the load circuit, E = 0

I max

I max

dRT
L

V 1 e

RT

R
1 e L
3
0.4

10

10

5
200 1 e

101103
10

1 e 5

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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1 e

I max 20

0.8103

1 e

2103

I max 8.0047A
Minimum value of load current with E = 0
is given by

I min

dRT
L

V e

RT

R
e L

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

74
74

7.995
A

0.4101103
5

200 e
I min

101103
10
e 5
Average load current
I max I min
I dc
2
8.0047 7.995
I dc
8 A
2
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

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Problem
A chopper feeding on RL load is shown in
figure, with V = 200 V, R = 5, L = 5 mH,
f = 1 kHz, d = 0.5 and E = 0 V. Calculate
Maximum and minimum values of load
current.
Average value of load current.
RMS load current.
Effective input resistance as seen by source.
RMS chopper current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

76
76

V = 200 V, R = 5 , L = 5 mH,
f = 1kHz, d = 0.5, E = 0
Chopping period is
1
1
3
T
1 10 secs
3
f 110
C hopper

i0

+
R

FW D

L
E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

v0

77
77

Maximum value of load current is given by

I max

I max

I max

dRT
L

V 1 e
E

RT

R
R
L
1 e
3
0.5

10

3
200 1 e 510

51103
5

1 e 5103

1 e 0.5
40
24.9 A
1
1 e

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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78
78

Minimum value of load current is given by

I min

dRT
L

V e

RT

R
e L

I min

I min

1
E

R
1

1
0
1

0.551103
3

200 e 510

51103
5
e 5103

e0.5 1
40 1 15.1 A
e 1

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

79
79

Average value of load current is


I1 I 2
I dc
2
for linear variation of currents
24.9 15.1

I dc
20 A
2
RMS load current is given by

I max I min

1
2

2
I O RMS I min
I min I max I min
3

80
80
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

I O RMS 15.1

24.9 15.1

15.1 24.9 15.1

96.04

I O RMS 228.01
147.98
3

RMS chopper current is given by

1
2

20.2 A

I ch d I O RMS 0.5 20.2 14.28 A


Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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81
81

1
2

Effective input resistance is


V
Ri
IS
I S = Average source current
I S dI dc
I S 0.5 20 10 A
Therefore effective input resistance is
V 200
Ri
20
IS
10
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

82
82

Classification Of Choppers
Choppers are classified as

Class A Chopper
Class B Chopper
Class C Chopper
Class D Chopper
Class E Chopper

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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83
83

Class A Chopper
i0
C hopper
V

FW D

+
L
O
A
D

v0

v0 V

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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i0

84
84

When chopper is ON, supply voltage V is


connected across the load.
When chopper is OFF, vO = 0 and the load
current continues to flow in the same direction
through the FWD.
The average values of output voltage and
current are always positive.
Class A Chopper is a first quadrant chopper .
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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85
85

Class A Chopper is a step-down chopper in


which power always flows form source to load.
It is used to control the speed of dc motor.
The output current equations obtained in step
down chopper with R-L load can be used to
study the performance of Class A Chopper.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

86
86

ig

T h y r is to r
g a te p u ls e
t

i0

O u tp u t c u rre n t
CH O N
t
F W D C o n d u c ts

v0

tO N

O u tp u t v o lta g e

t
T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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87
87

Class B Chopper
D

i0

v0

+
R
L

v0

C hopper
E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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i0
88
88

When chopper is ON, E drives a current


through L and R in a direction opposite to that
shown in figure.
During the ON period of the chopper, the
inductance L stores energy.
When Chopper is OFF, diode D conducts, and
part of the energy stored in inductor L is
returned to the supply.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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89
89

Average output voltage is positive.


Average output current is negative.
Therefore Class B Chopper operates in second
quadrant.
In this chopper, power flows from load to source.
Class B Chopper is used for regenerative braking
of dc motor.
Class B Chopper is a step-up chopper.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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90
90

ig

T h y r is to r
g a te p u ls e
t

i0

tO F F

tO N
T

t
O u tp u t c u rre n t

Im

ax

Im

in

v0

D
c o n d u c ts C h o p p e r
c o n d u c ts

O u tp u t v o lta g e

t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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91
91

Expression for Output Current

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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92

During the interval diode 'D' conducts


voltage equation is given by
LdiO
V
RiO E
dt
For the initial condition i.e.,
iO t I min at t 0
The solution of the above equation is obtained
along similar lines as in step-down chopper
with R-L load
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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93
93


V E
iO t
1 e I min e
R

At t tOFF
i O t I max
R
t
L

I max

R
t
L

0 t tOFF

R
R

tOFF

V E
OFF
L
L

I
e

min
R

During the interval chopper is ON voltage


equation is given by
LdiO
0
RiO E
dt
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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94
94

Redefining the time origin, at t 0 iO t I max


The solution for the stated initial condition is
iO t I max e

R
t
L

E
L
1 e
R

iO t I min

At t tON
I min I max e

0 t tON

R
tON
L

tON

E
1 e L
R

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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95
95

Class C Chopper
CH

i0

v0

V
CH

v0

C hopper
E
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

i0

96
96

Class C Chopper is a combination of Class A and


Class B Choppers.
For first quadrant operation, CH1 is ON or D2
conducts.
For second quadrant operation, CH2 is ON or D1
conducts.
When CH1 is ON, the load current is positive.
The output voltage is equal to V & the load
receives power from the source.
When CH1 is turned OFF, energy stored in
inductance L forces current to flow through the
diode D2 and the output voltage is zero.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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97
97

Current continues to flow in positive direction.


When CH2 is triggered, the voltage E forces
current to flow in opposite direction through L
and CH2 .
The output voltage is zero.
On turning OFF CH2 , the energy stored in the
inductance drives current through diode D1 and
the supply
Output voltage is V, the input current becomes
negative and power flows from load to source.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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98
98

Average output voltage is positive


Average output current can take both positive
and negative values.
Choppers CH1 & CH2 should not be turned
ON simultaneously as it would result in short
circuiting the supply.
Class C Chopper can be used both for dc motor
control and regenerative braking of dc motor.
Class C Chopper can be used as a step-up or
step-down chopper.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

99
99

ig1

G a te p u ls e
of C H 1
t

ig2

G a te p u ls e
of C H 2
t

i0
O u tp u t c u rre n t
t
D

CH 1
O N

CH 2
O N

CH 1
O N

CH 2
O N

O u tp u t v o lta g e
t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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100
100

Class D Chopper
v0
CH

R
V

+
D

i0

v0
CH

i0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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101
101

Class D is a two quadrant chopper.


When both CH1 and CH2 are triggered
simultaneously, the output voltage vO = V and
output current flows through the load.
When CH1 and CH2 are turned OFF, the load
current continues to flow in the same direction
through load, D1 and D2 , due to the energy
stored in the inductor L.
Output voltage vO = - V .
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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102
102

Average load voltage is positive if chopper


ON time is more than the OFF time
Average output voltage becomes negative if
tON < tOFF .
Hence the direction of load current is always
positive but load voltage can be positive or
negative.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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103
103

ig 1

G a te p u ls e
of C H 1
t

ig 2

G a te p u ls e
of C H 2
t

i0
O u tp u t c u rre n t

v0

C H 1,C H
O N

D 1 ,D 2 C o n d u c tin g
O u tp u t v o lta g e

V
A v era g e v0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

t
104
104

ig1

G a te p u ls e
of C H 1
t

ig2

G a te p u ls e
of C H 2
t

i0
O u tp u t c u rre n t
CH
CH

1
2

t
D 1, D

v0

O u tp u t v o lta g e

V
A v era g e v0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

t
105
105

Class E Chopper
CH

CH

i0

V
+
CH

L
v0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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CH

106
106

Four Quadrant Operation


v0

CH
D

2
1

- D
- D

4
4

C o n d u c ts
C o n d u c ts

CH
CH

1
4

- CH 4 O N
- D 2 C o n d u c ts
i0

CH 3 - CH 2 O N
C H 2 - D 4 C o n d u c ts

D 2 - D 3 C o n d u c ts
C H 4 - D 2 C o n d u c ts

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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107
107

Class E is a four quadrant chopper


When CH1 and CH4 are triggered, output
current iO flows in positive direction through
CH1 and CH4, and with output voltage vO = V.
This gives the first quadrant operation.
When both CH1 and CH4 are OFF, the energy
stored in the inductor L drives iO through D2
and D3 in the same direction, but output
voltage vO = -V.
108
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

108

Therefore the chopper operates in the


fourth quadrant.
When CH2 and CH3 are triggered, the load
current iO flows in opposite direction & output
voltage vO = -V.
Since both iO and vO are negative, the chopper
operates in third quadrant.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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109
109

When both CH2 and CH3 are OFF, the load


current iO continues to flow in the same
direction D1 and D4 and the output voltage
vO = V.
Therefore the chopper operates in second
quadrant as vO is positive but iO is negative.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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110
110

Effect Of Source &


Load Inductance
The source inductance should be as small as
possible to limit the transient voltage.
Also source inductance may cause
commutation problem for the chopper.
Usually an input filter is used to overcome the
problem of source inductance.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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111
111

The load ripple current is inversely


proportional to load inductance and chopping
frequency.
Peak load current depends on load inductance.
To limit the load ripple current, a smoothing
inductor is connected in series with the load.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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112
112

Problem
For the first quadrant chopper shown in figure,
express the following variables as functions of V,
R and duty cycle d in case load is resistive.
Average output voltage and current
Output current at the instant of commutation
Average and RMS free wheeling diode current.
RMS value of output voltage
RMS and average thyristor currents.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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113
113

i0
C hopper
V

FW D

+
L
O
A
D

v0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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114
114

tON
Average output voltage, Vdc
V dV
T
Vdc dV
Average output current, I dc

R
R
The thyristor is commutated at the instant t tON
V
output current at the instant of commutation is
R
since V is the output voltage at that instant.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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115
115

Free wheeling diode (FWD) will never


conduct in a resistive load.
Average & RMS free wheeling diode
currents are zero.
VO RMS
But

tON

v dt
2
0

vO V during tON

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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116
116

tON

VO RMS

VO RMS

tON
V

V
dt

VO RMS dV
tON
Where duty cycle, d
T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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117
117

RMS value of thyristor current


= RMS value of load current

VO RMS

R
dV

R
Average value of thyristor current
= Average value of load current
dV

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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118
118

Impulse
Commutated Chopper
Impulse commutated choppers are widely used in
high power circuits where load fluctuation is not
large.
This chopper is also known as
Parallel capacitor turn-off chopper
Voltage commutated chopper
Classical chopper.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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119
119

L
+

a
b

iT 1

IL

_ C

iC

FW D

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

+
L
O
A
D

vO

_
120
120

To start the circuit, capacitor C is initially


charged with polarity (with plate a positive) by
triggering the thyristor T2.
Capacitor C gets charged through VS, C, T2 and
load.
As the charging current decays to zero thyristor
T2 will be turned-off.
With capacitor charged with plate a positive the
circuit is ready for operation.
Assume that the load current remains constant
during the commutation process.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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121
121

For convenience the chopper operation is


divided into five modes.
Mode-1
Mode-2
Mode-3
Mode-4
Mode-5
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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122
122

Mode-1 Operation
L

IL

+
V

_ C

iC

L
O
A
D

_
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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123
123

Thyristor T1 is fired at t = 0.
The supply voltage comes across the load.
Load current IL flows through T1 and load.
At the same time capacitor discharges through T1, D1,
L1, & C and the capacitor reverses its voltage.
This reverse voltage on capacitor is held constant by
diode D1.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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124
124

Capacitor Discharge Current


C
iC t V
sin t
L
1
Where

LC
& Capacitor Voltage
VC t V cos t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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125
125

Mode-2 Operation
IL
L

V
V

IL
C
T

L
O
A
D

_
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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126
126

Thyristor T2 is now fired to commutate thyristor T1.


When T2 is ON capacitor voltage reverse biases T1
and turns if off.
The capacitor discharges through the load from V
to 0.
Discharge time is known as circuit turn-off time.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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127
127

Circuit turn-off time is given by


VC C
tC
IL
Where I L is load current.
t C depends on load current, it must be designed
for the worst case condition which occur at the
maximum value of load current and minimum
value of capacitor voltage.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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128
128

Capacitor recharges back to the supply voltage


(with plate a positive).
This time is called the recharging time and is
given by
VS C
td
IL
The total time required for the capacitor to
discharge and recharge is called the
commutation time and it is given by tr tC td
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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129
129

At the end of Mode-2 capacitor has recharged


to VS and the free wheeling diode starts
conducting.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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130
130

Mode-3 Operation
IL
+

V
V

_ C

IL
T

_
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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FW D

L
O
A
D

131
131

FWD starts conducting and the load current


decays.
The energy stored in source inductance LS is
transferred to capacitor.
Hence capacitor charges to a voltage higher
than supply voltage, T2 naturally turns off.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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132
132

The instantaneous capacitor voltage is


VC t VS I L

LS
sin S t
C

Where

1
LS C

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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133
133

Mode-4 Operation
L

+
V
V

IL

+
C

_ C

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

L
O
A
D

FW D
134
134

Capacitor has been overcharged i.e. its voltage


is above supply voltage.
Capacitor starts discharging in reverse
direction.
Hence capacitor current becomes negative.
The capacitor discharges through LS, VS, FWD,
D1 and L.
When this current reduces to zero D1 will stop
conducting and the capacitor voltage will be
same as the supply voltage
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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135
135

Mode-5 Operation
IL
FW D

L
O
A
D

Both thyristors are off


and the load current
flows through the FWD.
This mode will end once
thyristor T1 is fired.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

136
136

ic

C a p a c ito r C u rr e n t
IL

0
Ip

iT 1

IL

t
Ip

C u rre n t th ro u g h T 1
t

0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

137
137

vT1
Vc

V o l ta g e a c r o s s T 1
t

vo
V s+ V c
Vs

O u tp u t V o lta g e
t

vc
Vc
-V c

t
C a p a c ito r V o lta g e

tc

td

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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138
138

Disadvantages
A starting circuit is required and the starting circuit
should be such that it triggers thyristor T2 first.
Load voltage jumps to almost twice the supply
voltage when the commutation is initiated.
The discharging and charging time of commutation
capacitor are dependent on the load current and
this limits high frequency operation, especially at
low load current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

139
139

Chopper cannot be tested without connecting


load.
Thyristor T1 has to carry load current as well
as resonant current resulting in increasing its
peak current rating.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan


Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Rao

140
140