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You are on page 1of 140

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

Introduction

Chopper is a static device.

A variable dc voltage is obtained from a

constant dc voltage source.

Also known as dc-to-dc converter.

Widely used for motor control.

Also used in regenerative braking.

Thyristor converter offers greater efficiency,

faster response, lower maintenance, smaller

size and smooth control.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

Step-down choppers.

Step-up choppers.

In step down chopper output voltage is less

than input voltage.

In step up chopper output voltage is more

than input voltage.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

Principle Of

Step-down Chopper

C hopper

i0

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch.

When thyristor is ON, supply voltage appears

across the load

When thyristor is OFF, the voltage across the

load will be zero.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

v0

V

V

tON

dc

tOFF

i0

V /R

Idc

T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

t

6

I dc Average value of output or load current.

tON Time interval for which SCR conducts.

tOFF Time interval for which SCR is OFF.

T tON tOFF Period of switching or chopping period.

1

f Freq. of chopper switching or chopping freq.

T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

tON

Vdc V

tON tOFF

tON

Vdc V

V .d

T

tON

but

d duty cycle

t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

Vdc

I dc

R

V tON

V

I dc

d

R T

R

RMS value of output voltage

1

VO

T

tON

v dt

2

o

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

Therefore RMS output voltage

1

VO

T

tON

V

dt

tON

V

VO

tON

.V

T

T

VO d .V

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

10

10

Output power PO VO I O

VO

But

IO

R

Output power

2

O

V

PO

R

2

dV

PO

R

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

11

11

V

Ri

I dc

R

Ri

d

The output voltage can be varied by

varying the duty cycle.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

12

12

Methods Of Control

The output dc voltage can be varied by the

following methods.

Pulse width modulation control or constant

frequency operation.

Variable frequency control.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

13

13

tON is varied keeping chopping frequency f &

chopping period T constant.

Output voltage is varied by varying the ON

time tON

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

14

14

V

tON

tOFF

t

T

V

tO N

tOFF

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

t

15

15

Chopping frequency f is varied keeping

either tON or tOFF constant.

To obtain full output voltage range, frequency

has to be varied over a wide range.

This method produces harmonics in the output

and for large tOFF load current may become

discontinuous

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

16

16

v0

V

tON

tOFF

T

v0

V

tO N

tO FF

t

T

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

17

17

Step-down Chopper

With R-L Load

C hopper

i0

+

R

FW D

L

E

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

18

18

across load.

Current flows from supply to load.

When chopper is OFF, load current continues

to flow in the same direction through FWD due

to energy stored in inductor L.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

19

19

discontinuous depending on the values of L

and duty cycle d

For a continuous current operation, load current

varies between two limits Imax and Imin

When current becomes equal to Imax the chopper

is turned-off and it is turned-on when current

reduces to Imin.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

20

20

v0

O u tp u t

v o lta g e

V

tO N

i0

tO FF

Im ax

O u tp u t

c u rre n t

I m in

C o n tin u o u s

c u rre n t

t

i0

O u tp u t

c u rre n t

D is c o n tin u o u s

c u rre n t

t

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

21

21

Expressions For

Load Current

iO For Continuous Current Operation

When

Chopper Is ON (0 t tON)

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

22

22

i0

+

R

E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

23

23

diO

V iO R L

E

dt

Taking Laplace Transform

V

E

RI O S L S .I O S iO 0

S

S

At t 0, initial current iO 0 I min

I min

V E

IO S

R

R

LS S S

L

L

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

24

24

V E

iO t

1 e

R

R

t

L

R

t

L

I min e

i.e., during the period chopper is ON.

At the instant the chopper is turned off,

load current is iO tON I max

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

25

25

i0

R

L

E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

26

26

diO

0 RiO L

E

dt

Talking Laplace transform

E

0 RI O S L SI O S iO 0

S

Redefining time origin we have at t 0,

initial current iO 0

max

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

27

27

I max

E

IO S

R

R

S

LS S

L

L

iO t I max e

R

t

L

E

1 e

R

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

R

t

L

28

28

i.e., during the period chopper is OFF

At the instant the chopper is turned ON or at

the end of the off period, the load current is

iO tOFF I min

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

29

29

From equation

V E

iO t

1

At

R

t

L

R

t

L

I min e

t tON dT , iO t I max

I max

V E

1 e

R

dRT

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

I min e

dRT

30

30

From equation

E

iO t I max e 1 e

R

R

t

L

At

R

t

L

t tOFF 1 d T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

31

31

I min I max e

1 d RT

1 e

1 d RT

I max

V E

1 e

R

dRT

L

I min e

dRT

L

we get,

I max

dRT

L

V 1 e

E

RT

R

R

L

1 e

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

32

32

I min I max e

1 d RT

L

1 e

1 d RT

we get,

V e 1

E

I min

RT

R L

R

e 1

I max I min is known as the steady state ripple.

dRT

L

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

33

33

I I max I min

Average output voltage

Vdc d .V

Average output current

I max I min

I dc approx

2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

34

34

from I min to I max instantaneous

load current is given by

iO I min

I .t

iO I min

for 0 t tON dT

dT

I max I min

t

dT

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

35

35

I O RMS

I O RMS

I O RMS

dT

dT

dT

dT

dT

dT

2

i

0 dt

0

I min

dT

dt

I max I min

2

t

dt

dT

dT

I max I min t

2

min

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

36

36

I max I min

I O RMS I

3

I CH

I CH

2

min

dT

dT

1

2

i dt

2

0

I max I min

I min

dT

0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

dt

37

37

I CH d I

2

min

I max I min

I CH d I O RMS

Effective input resistance is

V

Ri

IS

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

38

38

1

2

Where

I S Average source current

I S dI dc

V

Ri

dI dc

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

39

39

I

L

+

D

+

V

C hopper

L

O

A

D

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

40

40

higher than the input voltage V.

The values of L and C are chosen depending

upon the requirement of output voltage and

current.

When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is

connected across the supply.

The inductor current I rises and the inductor

stores energy during the ON time of the

chopper, tON.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

41

41

is forced to flow through the diode D and load

for a period, tOFF.

The current tends to decrease resulting in

reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L.

Therefore voltage across load is given by

dI

VO V L

i.e., VO V

dt

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

42

42

will provide a continuous output voltage .

Diode D prevents any current flow from

capacitor to the source.

Step up choppers are used for regenerative

braking of dc motors.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

43

43

Assume the average inductor current to be

I during ON and OFF time of Chopper.

When Chopper is ON

Voltage across inductor L V

Therefore energy stored in inductor

= V .I .tON

Where tON ON period of chopper.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

44

44

(energy is supplied by inductor to load)

Voltage across L VO V

where tOFF OFF period of Chopper.

Neglecting losses, energy stored in inductor

L = energy supplied by inductor L

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

45

45

VItON VO V ItOFF

VO

V tON tOFF

tOFF

T

VO V

T tON

Where

T = Chopping period or period

of switching.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

46

46

T tON tOFF

VO V

VO V

tON

1

T

1

1 d

tON

Where d

duty cyle

T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

47

47

range of 0 d 1 the output voltage VO

will vary in the range V VO

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

48

48

Performance Parameters

The thyristor requires a certain minimum time

to turn ON and turn OFF.

Duty cycle d can be varied only between a min.

& max. value, limiting the min. and max. value

of the output voltage.

Ripple in the load current depends inversely on

the chopping frequency, f.

To reduce the load ripple current, frequency

should be as high as possible.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

49

49

Problem

A Chopper circuit is operating on TRC at a

frequency of 2 kHz on a 460 V supply. If the

load voltage is 350 volts, calculate the

conduction period of the thyristor in each

cycle.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

50

50

Chopping period

Output voltage

1

T

f

1

T

0.5 m sec

3

2 10

tON

Vdc

V

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

51

51

T Vdc

tON

V

3

0.5 10 350

tON

460

tON 0.38 msec

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

52

52

Problem

Input to the step up chopper is 200 V. The

output required is 600 V. If the conducting time

of thyristor is 200 sec. Compute

Chopping frequency,

If the pulse width is halved for constant

frequency of operation, find the new output

voltage.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

53

53

T

Vdc V

T tON

600 200

6

T 200 10

Solving for T

T 300 s

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

54

54

Chopping frequency

1

f

T

1

f

3.33KHz

6

300 10

Pulse width is halved

tON

200 10

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

100 s

55

55

Frequency is constant

f 3.33KHz

1

T 300 s

f

T

Output voltage = V

T tON

300 10

300

Volts

6

300 100 10

200

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

56

56

Problem

A dc chopper has a resistive load of 20 and

input voltage VS = 220V. When chopper is ON,

its voltage drop is 1.5 volts and chopping

frequency is 10 kHz. If the duty cycle is 80%,

determine the average output voltage and the

chopper on time.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

57

57

tON

d

0.80

T

Vch = Voltage drop across chopper = 1.5 volts

Average output voltage

tON

Vdc

VS Vch

T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

58

58

Chopper ON time,

tON dT

Chopping period,

1

T

f

1

3

T

0.110 secs 100 secs

3

10 10

Chopper ON time,

tON dT

tON 0.80 0.110

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

59

59

Problem

In a dc chopper, the average load current is 30

Amps, chopping frequency is 250 Hz, supply

voltage is 110 volts. Calculate the ON and

OFF periods of the chopper if the load

resistance is 2 ohms.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

60

60

1

1

Chopping period, T

4 10 3 4 msecs

f 250

Vdc

I dc

& Vdc dV

R

dV

I dc

R

I dc R 30 2

d

0.545

V

110

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

61

61

Chopper ON period,

3

Chopper OFF period,

tOFF T tON

tOFF 4 103 2.18 103

3

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

62

62

= 10 and input voltage of V = 200 V. When

chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 2 V and the

chopping frequency is 1 kHz. If the duty cycle

is 60%, determine

Average output voltage

RMS value of output voltage

Effective input resistance of chopper

Chopper efficiency.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

63

63

C hopper

i0

v0

d 0.60, f 1 kHz.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

64

64

Vdc d V Vch

RMS value of output voltage

VO d V Vch

VO 0.6 200 2 153.37 Volts

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

65

65

V

V

Ri

I S I dc

Vdc 118.8

I dc

11.88 Amps

R

10

V

V

200

Ri

16.83

I S I dc 11.88

Output power is

1

PO

T

dT

2

0

v

1

dt

R

T

dT

0

0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

V Vch

R

dt

66

66

d V Vch

PO

R

PO

0.6 200 2

10

2352.24 watts

Input power,

1

Pi

T

1

PO

T

dT

Vi dt

O

V V Vch

0 R dt

dT

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

67

67

dV V Vch

PO

R

0.6 200 200 2

PO

2376 watts

10

Chopper efficiency,

PO

100

Pi

2352.24

100 99%

2376

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

68

68

Problem

A chopper is supplying an inductive load with a

free-wheeling diode. The load inductance is 5 H

and resistance is 10.. The input voltage to the

chopper is 200 volts and the chopper is operating

at a frequency of 1000 Hz. If the ON/OFF time

ratio is 2:3. Calculate

Maximum and minimum values of load current

in one cycle of chopper operation.

Average load current

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

69

69

V 200 V , tON : tOFF 2 : 3

Chopping period,

1

1

T

1 msecs

f 1000

tON 2

tOFF 3

tON

2

tOFF

3

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

70

70

T tON tOFF

2

T tOFF tOFF

3

5

T tOFF

3

tOFF

3

T

5

3

3

T 1 10 0.6 msec

5

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

71

71

tON T tOFF

tON 1 0.6 103 0.4 msec

Duty cycle,

3

tON 0.4 10

d

0.4

3

T

110

Maximum value of load current is given by

I max

dRT

L

V 1 e

E

RT

R

R

L

1 e

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

72

72

the load circuit, E = 0

I max

I max

dRT

L

V 1 e

RT

R

1 e L

3

0.4

10

10

5

200 1 e

101103

10

1 e 5

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

73

73

1 e

I max 20

0.8103

1 e

2103

I max 8.0047A

Minimum value of load current with E = 0

is given by

I min

dRT

L

V e

RT

R

e L

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

74

74

7.995

A

0.4101103

5

200 e

I min

101103

10

e 5

Average load current

I max I min

I dc

2

8.0047 7.995

I dc

8 A

2

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

75

75

Problem

A chopper feeding on RL load is shown in

figure, with V = 200 V, R = 5, L = 5 mH,

f = 1 kHz, d = 0.5 and E = 0 V. Calculate

Maximum and minimum values of load

current.

Average value of load current.

RMS load current.

Effective input resistance as seen by source.

RMS chopper current.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

76

76

V = 200 V, R = 5 , L = 5 mH,

f = 1kHz, d = 0.5, E = 0

Chopping period is

1

1

3

T

1 10 secs

3

f 110

C hopper

i0

+

R

FW D

L

E

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

v0

77

77

I max

I max

I max

dRT

L

V 1 e

E

RT

R

R

L

1 e

3

0.5

10

3

200 1 e 510

51103

5

1 e 5103

1 e 0.5

40

24.9 A

1

1 e

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

78

78

I min

dRT

L

V e

RT

R

e L

I min

I min

1

E

R

1

1

0

1

0.551103

3

200 e 510

51103

5

e 5103

e0.5 1

40 1 15.1 A

e 1

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

79

79

I1 I 2

I dc

2

for linear variation of currents

24.9 15.1

I dc

20 A

2

RMS load current is given by

I max I min

1

2

2

I O RMS I min

I min I max I min

3

80

80

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

I O RMS 15.1

24.9 15.1

96.04

I O RMS 228.01

147.98

3

1

2

20.2 A

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

81

81

1

2

V

Ri

IS

I S = Average source current

I S dI dc

I S 0.5 20 10 A

Therefore effective input resistance is

V 200

Ri

20

IS

10

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

82

82

Classification Of Choppers

Choppers are classified as

Class A Chopper

Class B Chopper

Class C Chopper

Class D Chopper

Class E Chopper

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

83

83

Class A Chopper

i0

C hopper

V

FW D

+

L

O

A

D

v0

v0 V

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

i0

84

84

connected across the load.

When chopper is OFF, vO = 0 and the load

current continues to flow in the same direction

through the FWD.

The average values of output voltage and

current are always positive.

Class A Chopper is a first quadrant chopper .

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

85

85

which power always flows form source to load.

It is used to control the speed of dc motor.

The output current equations obtained in step

down chopper with R-L load can be used to

study the performance of Class A Chopper.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

86

86

ig

T h y r is to r

g a te p u ls e

t

i0

O u tp u t c u rre n t

CH O N

t

F W D C o n d u c ts

v0

tO N

O u tp u t v o lta g e

t

T

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

87

87

Class B Chopper

D

i0

v0

+

R

L

v0

C hopper

E

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

i0

88

88

through L and R in a direction opposite to that

shown in figure.

During the ON period of the chopper, the

inductance L stores energy.

When Chopper is OFF, diode D conducts, and

part of the energy stored in inductor L is

returned to the supply.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

89

89

Average output current is negative.

Therefore Class B Chopper operates in second

quadrant.

In this chopper, power flows from load to source.

Class B Chopper is used for regenerative braking

of dc motor.

Class B Chopper is a step-up chopper.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

90

90

ig

T h y r is to r

g a te p u ls e

t

i0

tO F F

tO N

T

t

O u tp u t c u rre n t

Im

ax

Im

in

v0

D

c o n d u c ts C h o p p e r

c o n d u c ts

O u tp u t v o lta g e

t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

91

91

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

92

92

voltage equation is given by

LdiO

V

RiO E

dt

For the initial condition i.e.,

iO t I min at t 0

The solution of the above equation is obtained

along similar lines as in step-down chopper

with R-L load

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

93

93

V E

iO t

1 e I min e

R

At t tOFF

i O t I max

R

t

L

I max

R

t

L

0 t tOFF

R

R

tOFF

V E

OFF

L

L

I

e

min

R

equation is given by

LdiO

0

RiO E

dt

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

94

94

The solution for the stated initial condition is

iO t I max e

R

t

L

E

L

1 e

R

iO t I min

At t tON

I min I max e

0 t tON

R

tON

L

tON

E

1 e L

R

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

95

95

Class C Chopper

CH

i0

v0

V

CH

v0

C hopper

E

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

i0

96

96

Class B Choppers.

For first quadrant operation, CH1 is ON or D2

conducts.

For second quadrant operation, CH2 is ON or D1

conducts.

When CH1 is ON, the load current is positive.

The output voltage is equal to V & the load

receives power from the source.

When CH1 is turned OFF, energy stored in

inductance L forces current to flow through the

diode D2 and the output voltage is zero.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

97

97

When CH2 is triggered, the voltage E forces

current to flow in opposite direction through L

and CH2 .

The output voltage is zero.

On turning OFF CH2 , the energy stored in the

inductance drives current through diode D1 and

the supply

Output voltage is V, the input current becomes

negative and power flows from load to source.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

98

98

Average output current can take both positive

and negative values.

Choppers CH1 & CH2 should not be turned

ON simultaneously as it would result in short

circuiting the supply.

Class C Chopper can be used both for dc motor

control and regenerative braking of dc motor.

Class C Chopper can be used as a step-up or

step-down chopper.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

99

99

ig1

G a te p u ls e

of C H 1

t

ig2

G a te p u ls e

of C H 2

t

i0

O u tp u t c u rre n t

t

D

CH 1

O N

CH 2

O N

CH 1

O N

CH 2

O N

O u tp u t v o lta g e

t

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

100

100

Class D Chopper

v0

CH

R

V

+

D

i0

v0

CH

i0

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

101

101

When both CH1 and CH2 are triggered

simultaneously, the output voltage vO = V and

output current flows through the load.

When CH1 and CH2 are turned OFF, the load

current continues to flow in the same direction

through load, D1 and D2 , due to the energy

stored in the inductor L.

Output voltage vO = - V .

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

102

102

ON time is more than the OFF time

Average output voltage becomes negative if

tON < tOFF .

Hence the direction of load current is always

positive but load voltage can be positive or

negative.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

103

103

ig 1

G a te p u ls e

of C H 1

t

ig 2

G a te p u ls e

of C H 2

t

i0

O u tp u t c u rre n t

v0

C H 1,C H

O N

D 1 ,D 2 C o n d u c tin g

O u tp u t v o lta g e

V

A v era g e v0

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

t

104

104

ig1

G a te p u ls e

of C H 1

t

ig2

G a te p u ls e

of C H 2

t

i0

O u tp u t c u rre n t

CH

CH

1

2

t

D 1, D

v0

O u tp u t v o lta g e

V

A v era g e v0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

t

105

105

Class E Chopper

CH

CH

i0

V

+

CH

L

v0

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

CH

106

106

v0

CH

D

2

1

- D

- D

4

4

C o n d u c ts

C o n d u c ts

CH

CH

1

4

- CH 4 O N

- D 2 C o n d u c ts

i0

CH 3 - CH 2 O N

C H 2 - D 4 C o n d u c ts

D 2 - D 3 C o n d u c ts

C H 4 - D 2 C o n d u c ts

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

107

107

When CH1 and CH4 are triggered, output

current iO flows in positive direction through

CH1 and CH4, and with output voltage vO = V.

This gives the first quadrant operation.

When both CH1 and CH4 are OFF, the energy

stored in the inductor L drives iO through D2

and D3 in the same direction, but output

voltage vO = -V.

108

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Rao

108

fourth quadrant.

When CH2 and CH3 are triggered, the load

current iO flows in opposite direction & output

voltage vO = -V.

Since both iO and vO are negative, the chopper

operates in third quadrant.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

109

109

current iO continues to flow in the same

direction D1 and D4 and the output voltage

vO = V.

Therefore the chopper operates in second

quadrant as vO is positive but iO is negative.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

110

110

Load Inductance

The source inductance should be as small as

possible to limit the transient voltage.

Also source inductance may cause

commutation problem for the chopper.

Usually an input filter is used to overcome the

problem of source inductance.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

111

111

proportional to load inductance and chopping

frequency.

Peak load current depends on load inductance.

To limit the load ripple current, a smoothing

inductor is connected in series with the load.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

112

112

Problem

For the first quadrant chopper shown in figure,

express the following variables as functions of V,

R and duty cycle d in case load is resistive.

Average output voltage and current

Output current at the instant of commutation

Average and RMS free wheeling diode current.

RMS value of output voltage

RMS and average thyristor currents.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

113

113

i0

C hopper

V

FW D

+

L

O

A

D

v0

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

114

114

tON

Average output voltage, Vdc

V dV

T

Vdc dV

Average output current, I dc

R

R

The thyristor is commutated at the instant t tON

V

output current at the instant of commutation is

R

since V is the output voltage at that instant.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

115

115

conduct in a resistive load.

Average & RMS free wheeling diode

currents are zero.

VO RMS

But

tON

v dt

2

0

vO V during tON

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

116

116

tON

VO RMS

VO RMS

tON

V

V

dt

VO RMS dV

tON

Where duty cycle, d

T

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

117

117

= RMS value of load current

VO RMS

R

dV

R

Average value of thyristor current

= Average value of load current

dV

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

118

118

Impulse

Commutated Chopper

Impulse commutated choppers are widely used in

high power circuits where load fluctuation is not

large.

This chopper is also known as

Parallel capacitor turn-off chopper

Voltage commutated chopper

Classical chopper.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

119

119

L

+

a

b

iT 1

IL

_ C

iC

FW D

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

+

L

O

A

D

vO

_

120

120

charged with polarity (with plate a positive) by

triggering the thyristor T2.

Capacitor C gets charged through VS, C, T2 and

load.

As the charging current decays to zero thyristor

T2 will be turned-off.

With capacitor charged with plate a positive the

circuit is ready for operation.

Assume that the load current remains constant

during the commutation process.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

121

121

divided into five modes.

Mode-1

Mode-2

Mode-3

Mode-4

Mode-5

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

122

122

Mode-1 Operation

L

IL

+

V

_ C

iC

L

O

A

D

_

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

123

123

Thyristor T1 is fired at t = 0.

The supply voltage comes across the load.

Load current IL flows through T1 and load.

At the same time capacitor discharges through T1, D1,

L1, & C and the capacitor reverses its voltage.

This reverse voltage on capacitor is held constant by

diode D1.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

124

124

C

iC t V

sin t

L

1

Where

LC

& Capacitor Voltage

VC t V cos t

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

125

125

Mode-2 Operation

IL

L

V

V

IL

C

T

L

O

A

D

_

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

126

126

When T2 is ON capacitor voltage reverse biases T1

and turns if off.

The capacitor discharges through the load from V

to 0.

Discharge time is known as circuit turn-off time.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

127

127

VC C

tC

IL

Where I L is load current.

t C depends on load current, it must be designed

for the worst case condition which occur at the

maximum value of load current and minimum

value of capacitor voltage.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

128

128

(with plate a positive).

This time is called the recharging time and is

given by

VS C

td

IL

The total time required for the capacitor to

discharge and recharge is called the

commutation time and it is given by tr tC td

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

129

129

to VS and the free wheeling diode starts

conducting.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

130

130

Mode-3 Operation

IL

+

V

V

_ C

IL

T

_

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

FW D

L

O

A

D

131

131

decays.

The energy stored in source inductance LS is

transferred to capacitor.

Hence capacitor charges to a voltage higher

than supply voltage, T2 naturally turns off.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

132

132

VC t VS I L

LS

sin S t

C

Where

1

LS C

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

133

133

Mode-4 Operation

L

+

V

V

IL

+

C

_ C

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

L

O

A

D

FW D

134

134

is above supply voltage.

Capacitor starts discharging in reverse

direction.

Hence capacitor current becomes negative.

The capacitor discharges through LS, VS, FWD,

D1 and L.

When this current reduces to zero D1 will stop

conducting and the capacitor voltage will be

same as the supply voltage

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

135

135

Mode-5 Operation

IL

FW D

L

O

A

D

and the load current

flows through the FWD.

This mode will end once

thyristor T1 is fired.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

136

136

ic

C a p a c ito r C u rr e n t

IL

0

Ip

iT 1

IL

t

Ip

C u rre n t th ro u g h T 1

t

0

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

137

137

vT1

Vc

V o l ta g e a c r o s s T 1

t

vo

V s+ V c

Vs

O u tp u t V o lta g e

t

vc

Vc

-V c

t

C a p a c ito r V o lta g e

tc

td

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

138

138

Disadvantages

A starting circuit is required and the starting circuit

should be such that it triggers thyristor T2 first.

Load voltage jumps to almost twice the supply

voltage when the commutation is initiated.

The discharging and charging time of commutation

capacitor are dependent on the load current and

this limits high frequency operation, especially at

low load current.

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

139

139

load.

Thyristor T1 has to carry load current as well

as resonant current resulting in increasing its

peak current rating.

Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT

Rao

140

140

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