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Consumer learning

•A process by which individuals acquire the purchase

and consumption knowledge and experience that they
apply to future related behavior.

Marketers must teach consumers:

–where to buy
–how to use
–how to maintain
–how to dispose of products
Elements of Learning Theories
 Motivation
 Cues
 Response
 Reinforcement
Learning Theories
- -Behavioral Theories: based on the premise that learning takes place as the
result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus
response theory.

 Classical Conditioning
 Instrumental Conditioning
 Modeling or Observational Learning

- Cognitive Theory: of learning based on mental information processing, often

in response to problem solving.
Classical Conditioning

According to which a stimulus is paired with

another stimulus ( pavlovian Exp’t)

-unconditional stimulus (UCS: meat) -towards

which customer already has a pre existing
response,so the response to which does not have
to be conditioned.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS:bell ringing)-stimulus

to which Customer either does not have a
response or a preexisting response needs
modification, so a new response needs to be
Classical Conditioning
 Classical conditioning process in which a preson learns an
associationb/w 2 stimuli due to their constant appearance as a
pair.due to this continous pairing C’r tend to attribute to the
previously unknown stimuli ( pdt/ service) whatever they feel
about the paired stimulus.

 Isnot reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new


Works in Advertising.
 E.g identical slides of 2 similar pens paired with diff music.
Strategic Applications of
Classical Conditioning
 Repetition
 Stimulus Generalization
 Stimulus Discrimination
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-
and-error process, with habits forced as the result
of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting
from certain responses or behaviors.
Strategic Applications of Classical
 Repetition-increases strength of associations b/t CS
and UCS and slows forgetting but over time may
result in advertising wearout.
 Cosmetic variations reduce satiation- diff back
grounds, spokespersons.

 Substantive Variations-
 Stimulus Generalization

 Stimulus Discrimination
Substantive Variations
 Arechanges in
advertisement contents
across different
versions of the same
Stimulus Generalization (SG)

Making the same response to slightly different

stimuli.The inability to perceive differences between
slightly dissimilar stimuli.

 SG and Marketing

 Me- To products.
 Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
 Family Branding
 Licensing
Product Line Extension
Manufacturer Licenses
Its Name
Stimulus Discrimination

The ability to select a specific stimulus from

among similar stimuli because of perceived
• Positioning
• Differentiation
Instrumental Conditioning
-Behaviour occurs because it is rewarding .

-Behaviour can be Shaped by rewarding that behaviour.

Marketing applications
 Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)- pdt as its own
intrinsic reward.
 Reinforcement Schedules
– Shaping
– E.g casinos
– Lotteries , sweep stakes.
Observational Learning
/ Modelling

A process by which individuals observe the

behavior of others, and consequences of
such behavior. Also known as modeling or
vicarious learning.
Consumers Learn by Modeling
II Cognitive Learning Theory
Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving.

Information Processing
A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing
that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved.
Retention-Information is stored in long-term
Involvement Theory

A theory of consumer learning which

postulates that consumers engage in a range
of information processing activity from
extensive to limited problem solving,
depending on the relevance of the purchase.

 Split
Split Brain theory
Encouraging Right and Left Brain
Involvement Theory and Consumer
 Involvement Theory and Media Strategy
 Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion

A theory that proposes that highly involved

consumers are best reached through ads that focus
on the specific attributes of the product (the
central route) while uninvolved consumers can be
attracted through peripheral advertising cues such
as the model or the setting (the peripheral route
Measures of Consumer
 Recognition and Recall Measures
– Aided and Unaided Recall
– Copytesting Measures
 Attitudinal
and Behavioral Measures of
Brand Loyalty