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Data, Database and Database
• Data – Collection of raw facts and figures .

• Information – processed meaningful and usable

data .

• Database - collection of interrelated data items.

• Database System - collection of interrelated

data items that is organized so that it can easily
be accessed, managed, and updated .
Database Management System
• A DBMS is a complex set of software programs
that controls the organization, storage,
management, and retrieval of data in a database.

• The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to

store and retrieve database information that is
both convenient and efficient and secure.

• A DBMS contains collection of inter-related data &

collection of programs to access the data
File System vs DBMS
• A file system is one in which data is stored in
operating system files. Before the evolution of DBMS,
organisations used to store information in file

• Disadvantages
– Data Redundancy & Inconsistency
– Difficulty in Accessing data
– Data Isolation
– Integrity Problems
– Atomicity Problems
– Concurrent Access Anomalies
– Security Problems
Data Abstraction
• The major purpose of a database system is to provide
users with an abstract view of the system.

• The system hides certain details of how data is stored

and created and maintained

• Complexity should be hidden from database users.

• Data abstraction is the process of distilling data down to

its essentials.
3- Levels of Data Abstraction
Schema and Instance
• Database Schema
Overall Structure of the database.
Database system has several schemas according to
the level of abstraction.
Physical schema - Physical level.
Logical schema - Logical level.
Sub-schemas (view level) - View level.

• Database Instance
The information in a database at a particular point in
Data Independence
• The ability to modify a scheme definition in one level without
affecting a scheme definition in a higher level.

• There are two kinds:

– Physical Data Independence

• The ability to modify the physical scheme without causing

application programs to be rewritten

• Modifications at this level are usually to improve performance

Data Independence contd…

– Logical data independence

• The ability to modify the conceptual scheme without

causing application programs to be rewritten

• Usually done when logical structure of database is

DBMS – Component

• Database Language – to create and manipulate data

• 3 Types
– Data Definition Language (DDL)
Used to specify a database scheme
DDL statements are compiled, resulting in a set of tables
stored in a special file called a data dictionary
The data directory contains metadata (data about data)
DBMS – Component contd…

– Data Manipulation Language (DML)

Language which enables users to access and manipulate data.

The goal is to provide efficient human interaction with the

There are two types of DML:

• Procedural: the user specifies what data is needed and how
to get it
• Nonprocedural: the user only specifies what data is needed

A query language is a portion of a DML involving information

retrieval only.
DBMS – Component contd…

– Data Control Language

Language which enables data security.
Creates users and assigns permissions and rights to the
various users.
DBMS – Users
• Database Administrator
Person having central control over data and programs accessing that
Duties of the Database Administrator include:

• Scheme definition
• Storage structure and access method definition
• Scheme and physical organization modification
• Granting of authorization for data access
• Integrity constraint specification
DBMS – Users contd…

• Application Programmers
computer professionals interacting with the system through application programs written in a
host language.

• Sophisticated users
Interact with the system without writing programs. They form requests by writing queries in a
database query language.
DBMS – Users contd…

• Specialized users
Sophisticated users writing special database application programs.
These may be CADD systems, knowledge-based and expert
systems, complex data systems (audio/video), etc.

• Naive users
Unsophisticated users who interact with the system by using
permanent application programs (e.g. automated teller machine).
DBMS – Advantages
• Data independence

• Efficient data access

• Data integrity & security

• Data administration

• Concurrent access, crash recovery

• Reduced application development time

DBMS – Disadvantages

• The Cost of using a DBMS

• Require expertise and resources to administer
• Database Damage
• Confidentiality, privacy and security
DBMS – Applications




Credit card transaction





Human Resource

What is ERP ?
ERP is a

Facilitates company-wide
integrated information systems,
covering all functional areas.

 Performs core Corporate

activities and increases customer
service augmenting Corporate

Distribution, Integrated
Management Customer/ Logistics

Human Accounting
Resources and Finance

The Major Components of Enterprise Resource

Planning demonstrate the Cross Function
Approach of ERP
What is ERP ? Cont….

“Enterprise Resource Planning Software, or

ERP, doesn’t live up to its acronym. Forget
about planning – it doesn’t do that – and
forget about resource, a throwaway term.
But remember the enterprise part. This is
ERP’s true ambition. It attempts to
integrate all departments and functions
across a company onto a single Computer
Order Fulfillment
• With ERP

Service Finance


Sales Manufacturing

& Supply
The Cost of ERP
 An ERP implementation is like the corporate
of a brain transplant.
 We Pulled the plug on every company
application and moved to PeopleSoft software.
 The risk was certainly disruption of
business, because if you do not do ERP
properly, you can kill your company,
guaranteed. Hardware
Reengineering 15%

15% Training and Change

15% Management
Data Conversions
ERP Implementation Methodologies
Different companies may install the same ERP
software in totally different processes. The
same company may implement different ERP
software in the same approach. There are
three commonly used methodologies for
implementing ERP systems.
 The Big Bang
 Modular Implementation
 Process-Oriented
Implementation Methodologies Cont….

The Big Bang

 The big bang approach promised to reduce
the integration cost in the condition of
thorough and careful execution.
 This method dominated early ERP
implementations, it partially contributed the
higher rate of failure in ERP implementation.
Today, not many companies dare to attempt it
 The premise of this implementation method
is treating ERP implementation as the
implementation of a large-scale information
Implementation Methodologies Cont….

Modular Implementation
 The method of modular implementation goes
after one ERP module at a time. This limits the
scope of implementation usually to one
functional department.
 This approach suits companies that do not
share many common processes across
departments or business units.
 Independent modules of ERP systems are
installed in each unit, while integration of ERP
modules is taken place at the later stage of the
project. This has been the most commonly used
Implementation Methodologies Cont….

Modular Implementation

 Each business unit may have their own

"instances" of ERP and databases.

 It reduces the risk of installation,

customization and operation of ERP systems
by reducing the scope of the implementation.

 The successful implementation of one

module can benefit the overall success of an
ERP project
Implementation Methodologies Cont….

Process-Oriented Implementation
 IT focus on the support of one or a few
critical business processes which involves a
few business units.
 The process-oriented implementation may
eventually grow into a full-blown
implementation of the ERP system.
 The initial customization of the ERP system is
limited to functionality closely related to the
intended business processes.
 This approach is utilized by many small to
mid-sized companies which tend to have less
complex internal business processes.
Critical Successful Factors of
ERP Implementation
 Implementation of an ERP system is a major
investment and commitment for any
 The size and complexity of the ERP projects are
the major factors that impact the cost of ERP
 Different companies may implement the same
ERP software in totally different approaches and
the same company may integrate different ERP
software applications by following the same
 However, there are factors common to the
Success Factors Cont.

Steps of Critical Successful Factors

of ERP Implementation

Project Planning

Architectural Design

Data Requirements

Phased Approach

Data Conversion

Organization Commitments
Success Factors Cont.

Project Planning
ERP implementation starts with project
planning - setting project goals,
identifying high level business
requirements, establishing project teams
and estimating the project costs.

The project planning offers the

opportunity to re-evaluate the project at
great details. If the ERP project is not
justified at the planning phase,
organizations shouldn't hesitate to cancel
the project.
Success Factors Cont.

Architectural Design

High level architectural decision is made

in the process of ERP vendor selection, it
remains a critical successful factor in
integrating ERP with other e-business
applications, e-commerce applications or
legacy systems.

Choice of middleware, interface software

or programming languages drastically
impact the implementation cost and release
Success Factors Cont.
Data Requirements
Unlike in-house e-business applications,
much of the packaged ERP implementation.

It involves the integration of ERP systems

with existing e-business software (CRM, SCM
and SFA) and legacy information systems.
Appropriate level of data requirements is
critical for an ERP to interact with other

Data requirements usually reflect details

of business requirements.

It costs ten times to correct a mistake at

later phase of ERP implementation than the
effort to correctly define requirements at
Success Factors Cont.
Phased Approach

It is important to break an ERP project

down to manageable pieces by setting up
pilot programs and short-term milestones.

Dependent on the IT experience, some

organizations choose the easiest piece as the
pilot project, while others may implement a
mission-critical application first.

The pilot project can both demonstrate the

benefits of ERP and help gain hands-on ERP
implementation experience.
Success Factors Cont.
Data Conversion
Second generation ERP systems use
relational database management systems
(RDBMS) to store enterprise data.

If a large amount of data are stored in

other database systems or in different data
formats, data conversion is a daunting tasks
which is often underestimated in ERP

A two-hour data conversion task could be

turned into to a two-month efforts as the
result of DBA group's lack of technical
Success Factors Cont.
Organization Commitments
The involvement of ERP implementation
goes far beyond IT department to many
other functional departments.

The commitment and smooth coordination

from all parties is the key to the success of
ERP project.

The commitments come from the

understanding of how ERP can benefit each
For example, if the warehouse staff isn't completely
functional department.
sold on the inventory control module's benefits, they
may not input the kind of usage data that is
essential to the project's success
Causes of ERP Failures
Major Four Components Could Cause the
Failure of an ERP Project
Failure of Hardware
Failure of ERP Software Implementation
• Module-based ERP software is the core
of ERP systems.
Failure of Accommodating Evolution of
Business Processes
• Business processes fall into three
levels - strategic planning, management
control and operational control.
Failure of User Acceptance (Employee)

 An unapparent source of trouble or

danger; a hidden hazard: “potential pitfalls
stemming from their optimistic inflation

 A source of danger or difficulty not easily

foreseen and avoided
Top 8 Pitfalls
If even one of these pitfalls exists there's a
good chance that the ERP implementation will
fail. The Top 8 Pitfalls of ERP Implementations
1.When there is no executive sponsor

2.When the project is viewed as being of

interest to only one department

3.When there is no full-time project manager

4.When, because of the hardware/software/

communications intensity, the IS people
make the decisions.
Top 8 Pitfalls
5.When there is a lack of internal resources
applied to the project

6.When there is no documentation of the

implementation procedure

7.Lack of training

8. If there is a massive change of everything