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DOI 10.1007/s40313-015-01960

for Integrating Process Based on Maximum Sensitivity

Gopi Krishna Rao Panyam Vuppu1 Subramanyam Makam Venkata2

Satyaprasad Kodati3

Brazilian Society for AutomaticsSBA 2015

the proportional integral derivative controller in series with

a second-order lead/lag filter for pure integrating process

with time delay based on internal model control principle

to achieve efficient disturbance rejection and robustness.

A setpoint filter is introduced to reduce the overshoot in

the setpoint response. Further, the robustness of the controller is examined by incorporating perturbations in the

time delay parameter for model mismatch. The proposed

method demonstrated good disturbance rejection and

robust- ness in comparison with recently developed

methods with the controller tuned to have same robustness

rank with the cal- culation of the peak of maximum

sensitivity (M S ).

Keywords Integrating process IMC Performance PID

Setpoint filter

1 Introduction

Vast majority of chemical processes like batch chemical

reactors and liquid-level systems are non-self-regulating

(integrating) in nature. Many of the chemical processes run

as batches because of possible formulation changes (Chien

and Fruehauf 1990; Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a). Design

of the

gopikrishnarao@gmail.com

Technology, Nandyal, A.P., India

Nandyal, A.P., India

Kakinada, A.P., India

disturbance rejection is a cumbersome task (Shamsuzzoha

and Lee 2008a). Such processes can be modelled as

integrat- ing processes with delay time (IPDT) [Eq. (1)] for

the design of the controller (Chien and Fruehauf 1990;

Vanavil et al.

2013). An IPDT transfer function contains two parameters,

gain (K) and time delay ( ), and is considered sufficient

to model the dynamics of such processes.

G M (s) =

K e s

(1)

algorithm and assured satisfactory performance have made

the PID controller, as the versatile and extensively used

com- pensator in the process industries (Lee et al. 2008; Pai

et al.

2010). PID can compensate the effects of processes with

delay and no delay. A study has indicated that 97 % of the

controllers in the industry use PID algorithm for regulator

operation (Lee et al. 2008; Pai et al. 2010; Eris and

Kurtulan

2011; Gopi Krishna Rao et al. 2013; Desborough and

Miller

2002). The IFAC Conference on Advances in PID Control

held in Brescia (Italy) during 2830 March 2012

concluded that there is no perfect alternative to the PID

controller at least at the bottom layer in the process

industries (Alcntara et al. 2013; Shamsuzzoha 2014).

The internal model control (IMC) provides a simple

struc- ture for assessment and amalgamation of

performance of the control system (Saxena and Hote 2012;

Morari and Zafiriou

1989; Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2007, 2008b). The effectiveness of IMC tuning rules for setpoint and disturbance, and

the derived PID controller attracted the attention of the

control engineers and industries in the last decade

(Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2007, 2008b). The PID controller

tuned with IMC tuning rules provides a clear compromise

123

between robustness and

Fig. 1 Feedback control

structure

L (s)

+

R

(s _

)

Feedback Controller

GP(s)

Process

+

Y(s)

IMC Tuning

with only one tuning parameter (Lee et al. 2008; Saxena

and Hote 2012; Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2007, 2008b; Rivera

et al. 1986; Horn et al. 1996; Gopi Krishna Rao et al.

2014a).

The PID controller design for IPDT based on IMC principle was first proposed by Chien and Fruehauf (1990) for

closed-loop performance. Later many researchers, viz. Lee

et al. (2000), Tan et al. (2003), Arbogast and Cooper

(2007), Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008a), Chia and Lefkowitz

(2010), Zhao et al. (2011a, b), Panda et al. (2011), Liu

and Gao (2011), Paul et al. (2012). Anusha and Rao

(2012), Sham- suzzoha et al. (2012), Vanavil et al. (2013),

Paul et al. (2013), Shamsuzzoha (2014), Jin and Liu

(2014), Simhacha- lam and Mudi (2014), made efforts in

enhancing the servo and regulator responses of the PID

controller for integrating processes.

In process control applications, load disturbance rejection is a prominent issue. Good servo (setpoint) operation is

achieved with PID controllers designed based on IMC

princi- ple, but they provide poor regulator (disturbance)

operation. The design of a controller, which has emphasis

of distur- bance rejection than servo operation, is an

important design feature (Morari and Zafiriou 1989;

Shamsuzzoha and Lee

2008b; Gopi Krishna Rao et al. 2014a; Paul et al. 2012;

Seborg et al. 2004). This can be accomplished by designing the controller for regulator (disturbance) response,

rather than setpoint tracking (Gopi Krishna Rao et al.

2014a). PID controller with a lead/lag filter was suggested

in the literature (Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a; Vanavil et

al. 2013; Morari and Zafiriou 1989; Shamsuzzoha and

Lee 2007, 2008b; Rivera et al. 1986; Horn et al. 1996;

Gopi Krishna Rao et al.

2014a, b; Lee et al. 1998; ODwyer 2006) for disturbance

rejection. The structure of IMC filter defines the effectiveness of the PID controller.

in

which the process model is inherently a fundamental

compo- nent of the controller. The plant model G M (s) is

factorised into invertible G M (s), non-invertible G M + (s)

components [Eq. (2)] (Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a, b, c;

Saxena and Hote

123

Lead-Lag

Filter

G C (s)

D(s)

++

Rao et al. 2014a, b; Lee et al. 1998). The IMC controller

1

Q(s)

(3)] is [Eq.

the product of G 1

M (s) and G f (s), where G M (s)

is inverse of minimum phase component of plant model G M

(s). G f (s) is a low-pass filter used to make Q(s) proper or

semi- proper.

(2)

G (s) = G

(s)G M(s)

M

Q(s) = G 1M (s)G f (s)

(3)

from the IMC controller [Fig. 2] with small changes, which

is mathematically represented as Eq. (4).

G C (s ) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G M(s)

(4)

et al. (1986) used the filter of the form 1/ (1 + s)n , which

was also adopted by Gopi Krishna Rao et al. (2013) which

provided good setpoint tracking with sluggish disturbance

rejection. Horn et al. (1996) proposed filter of the form

(1 + s) (1 + s)n for type-1 systems, and Shamsuzzoha

and Lee (2007) evaluated the optimal IMC filter structure

of the form (1 + s)r (1 + s)r +n for first-order models.

To improve the efficiency of the PID controller for the

disturbance rejection an IMC filter of the form, Eq. (5) is

pro- posed for the first-order process with time delay

(FOPDT).

The optimal IMC filter [Eq. (6)] for the FOPDT is achieved

from Eq. (5) with n = 2. The enhanced performance of the

PID controller is achieved with higher-order filter in comparison with the lower-order filter.

G f (s ) =

( a s + 1)

(6)

1 - rG M + (s)(as + 1)

(s

2

+ 1)

(7)

as in Eq. (7) cannot be applied directly for integrating

process as a term vanishes at s = 0. According to Lee

et al. (2000), Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008a), Shamsuzzoha et al. (2012) integrator can be considered as stable

or unstable pole near zero. The robust closed-loop operation of the controller can be achieved with a plant model

with stable pole near zero than the model with an integrator.

The commonly used estimated models of the processes

particularly chemical processes are the FOPDT (Gopi

Krishna Rao et al. 2014a, b). The plant model G M (s) of

the IPDT system [Eq. (1)] is modelled as FOPDT by considering a

stable pole near zero Eq. (8).

G M (s) =

Ke- s

s+P

(8)

P K e- s

G M (s) = Ps + 1

(9)

1 +

s 2(a s + 1 )

2s

- 1 - 2 s (as + 1)

(14)

PID controller; comparing it with that of a PID controller

with a lead/lag filter of Eq. (15), the PID controller

parameters are achieved as Eq. (16) and the coefficients of

the lead/lag filter are Eq. (17).

1

GC = K P 1 +

ds 2 + cs + 1

+ Td s

Ti s

2 +

KP =

(16b)

(16c)

+P

a=

+ - a

32+ 1.5

(3 + - 2a )

b=

c=

(16a)

(15)

bs 2 + as + 1

P K (3 + - 2a)

Ti = P +

1

+

s+1

PK

r

(s + 1)3 1 +

predic- tive term after inversion, and thus, it forms the noninvertible portion.

PK +

(10)

, G (Ms ) = eG M- (s ) =

s

(13)

1 + 2s

M (s) is carried out

-2 s

G C (s) =

Td =

Ps

(12)

Krishna

C

Eq.

Rao(14)

et al. 2015) to the delay term e- s results in G (s) as

e- s =

G M-1 - ( s ) ( a s + 1 ) 2 ( s + 1)

3

s+1

(as+1)2

r(s + 1)3 - (as +

PK

1)2 e- s

(5)

n+1

+ 1)

( as+

2

G f (s) = 1)

(s + 1)3

G C (s) =

G C (s) =

(s

controller,

is

a2

(17b)

+ 1.52 + a

(3 + - 2a )

2

(17a)

(17c)

(3 + - 2a )

d = 2a

(17d)

The a provides additional degree of freedom, cancelling the

Q(s) =

Ps+1

PK

( a s + 1)

1)3

(s +

(11)

= 0; simplification yields

123

Table 1 PID controller performance of case study 1

Tuning method

KP

Ti

Td

Ms

Disturbance

tr e

Proposed

Setpoint

Peak

IAE

IAE

14.7

5.56

2.553

0.0956

103.7

4.933

3.568

1.85

1.9

1.9

47.222

52.9

0.416

0.484

9.235

12.9

14.74

9.431

11.3

0.531

24.533

2.467

1.9

49.734

0.487

12.32

24

11

0.536

35.137

2.286

1.9

72.322

0.493

16.36

23.42

ChienFruehauf

15.28

0.526

37.96

3.339

1.9

80.216

0.464

18.02

23.65

Horn et al.

11.8

1.6

103.7

3.568

1.9

62.342

0.554

16.41

26.98

Rivera et al.

3.31

0.484

103.7

3.568

1.9

0.532

40.61

23.44

Paul et al.

15.12

0.531

37.64

3.336

1.9

>140

78.82

0.463

17.69

23.56

6.5

0.5083

103.7

3.568

1.9

>140

0.463

38.44

21.01

Gopi

Krishna

Rao et al.

(2013)

Fig. 3 Load disturbance

response nominal model case

study 1

r

a = P 1 -

1 -

(18)

variable is sufficient to achieve the performance from the

controller.

3 Setpoint Filter

The IMC-PID controllers described above are specifically

designed for disturbance rejection with the IMC filter

G f (s) = (as + 1)2 (s + 1)3 . The closed-loop transfer

function produces a lead term (as + 1) causing excessive

overshoot in the servo response for step change in setpoint

input. The occurrence of overshoot in the output response

to

step

123changes in setpoint is inherent in integrating systems.

By

Tuning method

tr e

Proposed

Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008a)

14.7

5.56

Lee et al. (2000)

Peak

IAE

51

49

0.455

0.520

9.221

12.9

11.3

47.1

0.522

12.26

11

71.8

0.53

16.35

ChienFruehauf

15.28

78.7

0.498

18.01

Horn et al.

11.8

59.8

0.588

16.27

Rivera et al.

3.31

0.567

40.61

Paul et al.

15.12

>140

78.7

0.496

17.68

6.5

>140

0.501

38.45

Gopi

Krishna

Rao et al.

(2013)

the addition of a setpoint filter G f r (s) of the form Eq. (19)

is

possible to enhance the servo performance, and the

overshoot reduced.

Fig. 4 Load disturbance

response perturbed model case

study 1

and without setpoint filter case

study 1

G f r (s) =

s+1

as + 1

(19)

Two pure integrating processes with delay time (IPDT) are

considered for simulation to demonstrate effectiveness of

the PID controller with lead/lag filter designed with

proposed IMC filter for disturbance rejection. The

processes consid- ered have been studied and presented by

other researchers. The performance evaluation is carried

out in terms of

The closed-loop performance is evaluated for load disturbance/setpoint using integral absolute error (IAE) (Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a; Gopi Krishna Rao et al. 2014a;

Stephanopoulos 1984). IAE is defined as (Gopi Krishna

Rao et al. 2014a, b; Stephanopoulos 1984)

IAE =

(20)

|e(t )dt |

123

2012).

above

final value after the application of step change in load

distur- bance.

4.3 Recovery Time

The evaluation of the controller for robustness to model

mismatches is conducted with maximum sensitivity (MS ).

The recovery time (tr e ) is the time period from the instance

|S( j )| is the inverse

of the shortest distance from N yquist plot to the critical

point (Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a; Gopi Krishna Rao et

al.

2014a, b; Seborg et al. 2004; Selvi et al. 2007). The

stability margin of the system is enhanced with the decrease

in M S value. For uniform comparison, the controllers are

designed to have same M S value by adjusting the , which

affects K P

alone. The range of M S for a satisfactory performance of

the

control system is 1.22.0 (Gopi Krishna Rao et al. 2014a,

b; Seborg et al. 2004; Selvi et al. 2007).

The performances of the PID controller based on IMC

method with conventional filter projected by Rivera et al.

(1986) and filter proposed by Horn et al. (1996), Liu and

Gao (2011), Gopi Krishna Rao et al. (2013) and tuning

tech- niques proposed for IPDT by Lee et al. (2000),

Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008a, c), Chien and Fruehauf

(1990) and Paul et al. (2013) are compared with proposed

method for conciseness, and for uniform comparison, the

controllers are designed to possess identical robustness on

the grounds of maximum sen- sitivity M S .

Case

study 1

Table 3 PID controller performance of case study 2

Tuning method

KP

Ti

petro- chemical industries is performed using distillation

technique, and the operation of distillation column (DC) is

very critical (Shamsuzzoha and Lee 2008a). The DC model

considered by Chien and Fruehauf (1990) and

Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008a) is considered for the study,

Setpoint

Td

Ms transferDisturbance

which

has the

function

tr e

Proposed

Shamsuzzoha and Lee (2008c)

23.75

19.3

4.142

1.466

103

34.169

21.75

1.467

58.634

Paul et al.

23.5

1.492

53

Horn et al.

20.6

3.098

103

Rivera et al.

9.15

1.344

103

Gopi

Krishna

Rao et al.

(2013)

Shamsuzzo

ha and Lee

(2008a)

Proposed

123

(for Ms =

1.63)

10.8

1.4751

24

16.15

2.913

1.490

Peak

IAE

IAE

1.4

1.4

59.01

59.02

0.127

0.143

6.006

6.043

19.05

25.53

1.195

1.4

84.77

0.151

9.879

25.7

2.830

1.4

80.28

0.138

8.863

26.45

2.913

1.4

72.5

0.164

8.441

30.7

2.913

1.4

147

0.167

17

29.23

103

2.913

1.4

140.5

0.146

15.39

26.08

0.0323

1.5

1.63

180

0.283

28.11

20.33

6.860

103

2.913

1.63

41.7

0.107

3.67

16.29

Fig. 8 Load disturbance

response nominal model case

study 2

2

Tuning method

Peak

t

re

Proposed

IAE

23.75

19.3

59

58.22

0.131

0.149

6.006

6.025

21.75

84.2

0.156

9.876

Paul et al.

23.5

80

0.141

8.861

Horn et al.

20.6

72.5

0.169

8.417

Rivera et al.

9.15

146.1

0.171

17

Gopi

Krishna

Rao et al.

Proposed (for M s = 1. 63)

(2013)

10.8

138.8

0.149

15.4

24

178.7

0.288

28.1

16.15

41.72

0.111

3.602

0

G M (s) =

.4 s

.2 e -7

s

(21)

as G M (s) = 20e-7.4s (100s + 1). All the techniques considered are designed for robustness of M S = 1.9. Step change

in load disturbance input of magnitude 0.25 is applied at

t = 0. The simulation results of Table 1 and Fig. 3 indicate that in comparison with the other techniques

considered, the proposed method provides improved

disturbance rejec- tion. A model mismatch of 10 % is

introduced in the time delay ( ) for the evaluation of the

robustness of the controller G M (s) = 0.2e-8.14 s /s. The

simulation results of Table 2 and Fig. 4 indicate the

robustness of the proposed method.

The integral systems produce overshoot in the output

24.0803s+1

response to step changes

in setpoint. A setpoint lead/lag

servo performance and

overshoot with the pro1 14eliminate

.7 s +1 \ is introduced to enhance

filterdesigned

G f r (s)method.

=

posed

Figure 5 represents

the closed-loop

response

of the proposed design method with and withthe

out setpoint filter. IAE is reduced to 14.74 from 20.76.

disturbance of magnitude 0.25 and setpoint of 1,

respectively.

Case study 2

A well-known IPDT model [Eq. (22)] considered by

Chien and Fruehauf (1990), Shamsuzzoha and Lee

(2008a, c), Nageswara Rao et al. (2011) and Paul et al.

(2013) is consid- ered for the study .

G M (s) = 0.0506

e-6s

(22)

G M (s) = 5.06e-6s (100s + 1). All the techniques considered are designed for robustness of M S = 1.4. Shamsuzzoha

and Lee (2008a) method is designed for robustness of M S =

1.63, as it was the least possible maximum sensitivity

achievable

by this method

forof

this

case 3study.

Step 8change

in that

load

The simulation

results

Table

and Fig.

indicate

disturbance input of magnitude 0.25 is applied at t = 0.

in comparison with other techniques considered, the proposed method provides improved disturbance rejection. A

model mismatch of 10 % is introduced in the time delay

( ) for the evaluation of the robustness of the

controller G M (s) = 0.0506e-6.6 s /s. The simulation results

of

Table 4 and Fig. 19 23indicate

.75 s +1 \ the robustness of the

a setpoint filter G f r (s) =

35.3854s+1

proposed method.

the closed-loop response of the proposed design method

The setpoint response and the overshoot are accounted

with

by

and without setpoint filter.

. Figure 10 represents

5 Conclusions

n+1

a) An

IMC filterfor

of the

G f (s)

(ascontroller

+ 1) (s based

+

is proposed

theform

design

of =

PID

n

1)

123

Fig. 9 Load disturbance

response perturbed model case

study 2

with and without setpoint

filter case study 2

efficiency.

b) The pure integrating process with delay time is

modelled

as first-order process with time delay for the design of

c) the controller.

The tuning formula for the proposed PID tuning is summarised as

KP =

Td =

P,

P K (3 + - 2a)

P2

2

+P

Ti = P + , 2

r

a = P 1 -

1- P

31

the setpoint response as the proposed method is

,

basically designed for disturbance rejection.

123

tuning parameter for a given process/plant model, and

it provides the compromise between performance and

robustness.

f) Two benchmark processes are considered in the simulation study to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed

method with the controllers designed to have same

robustness in terms of maximum sensitivity (M S ).

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