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Dr. Manu Sharma
Ms. Malar

If psychiatrists are not trained in CBT, it

leaves them therapeutically impotent, and
therefore less able to lead a
multidisciplinary team

CBTs represent a large portion of empirically

supported treatments
cognitions or thoughts can influence
emotions and behaviors across a variety of
Panic disorder- Clark (1986, UK) and Barlow
(1988, USA)
enactive, performance-based procedures as
well as cognitive interventions to produce
changes in thinking, feeling and behavior
(Kendall, 1993)

Adapting CBT for children

and adolescents
Extrapolate from findings with adults
As with adult CBT, the therapy model

continues to evolve and is beginning to be

Pacing the content and speed of therapy
Limitations in metacognition and ineptitude
in labelling feelings
Major deficits in social skills or interpersonal
Higher use of behavioral techniques

Modes of Assessment
Behavioral interview
Rating scales
Information from other people
Direct observation of behavior in clinical
Role play
Behavior tests

Behavioral interview
Initial analysis of the problem situation:

Behavioral excess/deficits/assests
Clarification of the problem
ABC Technique
Motivational analysis
Developmental analysis
Sociological changes
Behavioral changes
Biological changes
Coping, avoidance, beliefs

Behavioral interview
At the moment you were feeling anxious, what
was going through your mind?
What were you thinking to yourself?
What were you saying to yourself?
Did you have an image in your mind at the time?
Did you see anything in particular?
What were you afraid might happen?
What was the worst thing you thought might

Behavioral interview
Requires the patient to collect information on
their problems between sessions
Needs to be specific with clearly defined
What to collect: Frequency, intensity &
duration of the targets
Provide patients with a record form
Keep it as simple as possible
Record information as soon possible after the

Thought diary.

2001 by The Royal College of Psychiatrists

Behavioral interview
Rating scales
BDI- children version
Conners parent/teachers rating scale

CBT formulation
Incorporates consideration of the following:
Predisposing Factors
Precipitating Factors
Perpetuating Factors
Consideration of these factors & thereby guide
any therapeutic intervention

CB Methods
Socratic questioning
Guided discovery
Advantages & disadvantages
Identifying errors in thinking
Generating rational explanations
Role play
Social skills, Assertiveness training

Behavioral methods
Breathing exercises
Behavioral activation
Activity scheduling

The content of the cognition may be typical

of the disorder or mood.

no one will love me, I will be alone; it will be
a disaster; its not fair
Cognitive distortions: emotional disorders,
OCD, depression, somatization, PTSD
Cognitive deficit of social skills and problemsolving: Conduct disorder, ADHD

The cognitive model of

Early experience
Parents quarrel and separate
Father leaves home
Formation of dysfunctional core beliefs
I always drive people away,
Im no good, Im worthless
Development of dysfunctional
Unless I always please people, theyll reject
If people get to know me, theyll see Im no

The cognitive model of

Critical incident
Boyfriend goes out with another girl
Assumptions activated
Negative automatic thoughts
Its my fault, Ill never have another friend,
No one loves me, Ill be alone forever,
Im worthless

CBT for depression

Setting the agenda for the session,
Review of homework from the previous session,
Goal setting of tasks for the session and practising

tasks in the session.

Homework is agreed, which may involve tasks practised
in the session and problem-solving to anticipate
Frequent summarizing with feedback.
Making a problem list not only clarifies things, but also
enables the young person to experience CBT as
collaborative, in that the therapist is trying to understand
the young persons perspective and priorities.

CBT for depression

1. Self-control skills, self-consequation

(reinforcing themselves more, punishing themselves

less), self-monitoring (paying attention to positive
things they do), self-evaluation (setting less
perfectionistic standards for their performance) and
assertiveness training;
2. Social skills, including methods of initiating
interactions, maintaining interactions, handling
conflict, and using relaxation and imagery;
3. Cognitive restructuring, involving confronting
children about the lack of evidence for their
distorted perceptions

Anxiety disorders
Pathological anxietycatastrophisation,

underestimate of the coping resources and

the likely rescue factors from the feared
Negatively distorted cognitive appraisal,
where the child is likely to be obsessively selffocused, hypercritical, concerned about
Physiological alerting and arousal leading to
somatic sensations--behavioral avoidance-

Anxiety disorders
A modified thought diary
Subjective units of distress scale
The aim is to enable the child to recognize triggers

and early signs of anxious arousal.

The child is then taught anxiety management
skills such as applied relaxation and positive
The catastrophising cognitions may be challenged
Positive self-talk is developed-- If I just sit still
and get on with my work, I will begin to feel

Anxiety disorders
FEAR-a 16-session programme (Kendall et al, 1990)
Feeling frightened? (Awareness of bodily cues,
identifying anxiety and learning to relax)
Expecting bad things to happen? (Identifying
and correcting maladaptive self-talk by using
positive self-talk)
Attitudes and actions that can help. (Coping
and problem-solving strategies)
Results and rewards. (Self-evaluation and
coping with failure)

Anxiety disorders
Family Anxiety Management (FAM) (Barratt et
al, 1996)
This teaches parents contingency
management (rewarding appropriate coping
behaviour and extinguishing avoidance
Coping Cat/Koala program

Cognitive model of obsessivecompulsive disorder.

2001 by The Royal College of Psychiatrists

Other distortions:
The belief that thinking something is the
same as doing it thoughtaction fusion;
undue sensitivity to responsibility for
omission (If I don't remove every speck of
dirt, someone might become contaminated).

The aim is to enable the child to appreciate

that anyone can have odd thoughts and

the way to deal with them is to ignore
Trying to avoid, suppress or neutralize the
thoughts will only cause them to return more
strongly than before.
The therapist might use stories about habits
and intrusive thoughts and the effects of

Conduct disorder
Tend to attribute hostility to others and

underestimate their own aggression in any

When upset they anticipate fewer feelings of
fear or sadness, interpreting strong feelings as
anger and react aggressively.
They value aggression as effective in
problem-solving and enhancing their selfesteem.

Conduct disorder
Children with conduct disorders find it hard to

generate verbal assertive (negotiating)

solutions to IP problems.
And resort to action-oriented and aggressive
Anger management programmes help
adolescents to identify their aggressive
behaviour and the conditions that provoke
and maintain it.

Conduct disorder
CBT must be part of a multi-modal approach
Social-skills training
Rewarding prosocial behaviour ,

supplemented by instruction, discussion,

modelling strategies, rehearsal, prompting
and feedback.
Role-play and the use of videotape feedback.
Problem-solving skills training
Concepts of fairness, safety and what the
other person feels

Self-instructional progs--Core problems of

inattentiveness, impulsivity and restless

(the inability to stop, look, listen and think).
Results have been variable and disappointing.
The training has frequently been too short,
unrelated to clinical need

The five-step
1 Watching a trainer model and talk through a
task, including planning and talking through
possible difficulties (cognitive modelling)
2 Carrying out the task, prompted by a trainer
3 Carrying out the task, prompting themselves
4 Carrying out the task, prompting themselves
by whispering
5 Carrying out the task silently using covert

Pain management
Behavioral: contracting, time out, modelling,
parental counselling
Cognitive: Relaxation, distraction, imagery,
coping skills, social skills

Child sexual abuse

I am being hurt physically (sexually) by this
Either I am bad or this adult is.
But adults do things for your good.
This is called punishment.
Thats what this adult told me, that I was being
punished for being bad.
So its my fault and I must deserve this.
Therefore I am as bad as whatever is done to
If I am hurt often, it means I must be very bad.

Child sexual abuse

Memory encoding

Loving and hating; wanting & fearing
Experiencing trust & betrayal together
Living with distorted IP boundaries

Child sexual abuse

Therapy focuses on:
Self-empowerment (did the best you could as
a child)

Other areas
Eating disorders
School refusal
Dissociative disorders

The younger the child, the more the parents

will need to be included in the therapy

Avoiding reassurance for a child with OCD
and using positive reinforcement for
compliance with a child with a conduct
Family's structure and its belief system
Complementary behavioral input for parentsODD, CD
Engaging the child or adolescent

Advantages of CBT
Educative and instructive
Emphasizes getting better rather than feeling

Can be researched and the psychotherapy
with max evidence

Cognitive maturity of children
Inept in labelling feelings, thoughts
Mental retardation
Developmental problems
Severe symptoms
Psychotic symptoms

C-B therapists need the ability to engage their

patients and create a collaborative working

C-B treatments are generally specific for
particular conditions.
A psychoeducational element of giving info by
discussion supplemented with fact-sheets is
Cited as generally more effective for children
than non C-B interventions.