Slide 1

Chapter 2
The Physical Layer

Slide 2

The Theoretical Basis for Data Communication
• • • Fourier Analysis Bandwidth-Limited Signals Maximum Data Rate of a Channel

Slide 3

Bandwidth-Limited Signals


1/T 1/2T

A binary signal and its root-mean-square Fourier amplitudes. (b) – (c) Successive approximations to the original signal.

Slide 4

Bandwidth-Limited Signals (2)
1/T 1/2T 1/3T 1/4T

(d) – (e) Successive approximations to the original signal.

Slide 5

Bandwidth-Limited Signals (3)
Time it takes to transmit 8 bit (see slide 3) 1/T If there is a limitation to 3000 Hz telephone voice grade line 1/T, 1/2T, … 1/NT < 3000

Relation between data rate and harmonics.

Slide 6

Guided Transmission Data
• • • • Magnetic Media Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Fiber Optics

Slide 7

Twisted Pair

(a) Category 3 UTP. (b) Category 5 UTP.

Slide 8

Coaxial Cable
Radio-grade flexible coaxial cable. A: outer plastic sheath B: copper screen C: inner dielectric insulator D: copper core

A coaxial cable.

Slide 9

Fiber Optics

(a) Three examples of a light ray from inside a silica fiber impinging on the air/silica boundary at different angles. (b) Light trapped by total internal reflection.

Slide 10

Transmission of Light through Fiber

Attenuation of light through fiber in the infrared region.

Slide 11

Fiber Cables

(a) Side view of a single fiber. (b) End view of a sheath with three fibers.

Monday Sept 28th, 2009
Slide 12

Fiber Cables (2)

A comparison of semiconductor diodes and LEDs as light sources.

Slide 13

Fiber Optic Networks

A fiber optic ring with active repeaters.

Slide 14

Fiber Optic Networks (2)

A passive star connection in a fiber optics network.

Slide 15

Wireless Transmission
• • • • • The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Transmission Microwave Transmission Infrared and Millimeter Waves Lightwave Transmission

Thursday Oct 1st, 2009 and Oct 5th, 2009

Slide 16

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

LF Low Frequency MF Medium Frequency HF High Frequency VHF Very High Frequency UHF Ultra High Frequency SHF Super High Frequency EHF Extremely High F. THF Tremendously High F.

The electromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication.

Slide 17

Radio Transmission

(a) In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves follow the curvature of the earth. (b) In the HF band, they bounce off the ionosphere.

Slide 18

Politics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Unlicensed bands for short range use Spread spectrum modulation often required I : Industrial, S : Scientific, M: Medical

The ISM bands in the United States.

Slide 19

Lightwave Transmission

Convection currents can interfere with laser communication systems. A bidirectional system with two lasers is pictured here.

Slide 20

Communication Satellites
• • • • Geostationary Satellites Medium-Earth Orbit Satellites Low-Earth Orbit Satellites Satellites versus Fiber

Slide 21

Communication Satellites

Area with highly charged particles would destroy satellites Medium-Earth Orbit

Low-Earth Orbit

Communication satellites and some of their properties, including altitude above the earth, round-trip delay time and number of satellites needed for global coverage.

Slide 22

Communication Satellites
First telecom satellite :Telstar July 10, 1962 15 hours for the satellite to get in view. 8 km/s, 4,800 km above the earth Signal amplified it 10 billion times

Antennas: 49 m high, 64 m wide, 30 tons. • Andover • Pleumeur bodou Antenna (near Perros Guirec)

Slide 23

Communication Satellites (2)

The principal satellite bands.

Allows for 1degree geostationary spacing

Slide 24

Communication Satellites (3)

VSAT : Very Small Aperture Terminals

VSATs using a hub.

Slide 25

Low-Earth Orbit Satellites Iridium

66 satellites

(a) The Iridium satellites from six necklaces around the earth. (b) 1628 moving cells cover the earth.

Slide 26



Globalstar 48 satellites

(a) Relaying in space. (b) Relaying on the ground.

Slide 27

Public Switched Telephone System
Structure of the Telephone System The Politics of Telephones The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL and Wireless Trunks and Multiplexing Switching

• • • • •

Slide 28

Structure of the Telephone System

(a) Fully-interconnected network. (b) Centralized switch. (c) Two-level hierarchy.

Slide 29

Structure of the Telephone System (2)

A typical circuit route for a medium-distance call.

Slide 30

Major Components of the Telephone System

Local loops
Analog twisted pairs going to houses and businesses

Digital fiber optics connecting the switching offices

Switching offices
Where calls are moved from one trunk to another

Slide 31

The Politics of Telephones
Geographic organisation : LATA : Local Access and Transport Area (164 in the US) Company organisation : LEC : Local Exchange Carrier IXC : InterXchange Carrier

The relationship of LATAs, LECs, and IXCs. All the circles are LEC switching offices. Each hexagon belongs to the IXC whose number is on it.

Slide 32

The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL, and Wireless

The use of both analog and digital transmissions for a computer to computer call. Conversion is done by the modems and codecs.

Thursday Oct 8th 2009
Slide 33


(a) A binary signal (b) Amplitude modulation

(c) Frequency modulation (d) Phase modulation

Slide 34

Modems (2)

Bandwidth Symbol Baud



(a) QPSK. 2bits per symbol. 1 sample = 2-bit value (b) QAM-16. 4 bits per symbol. 1 sample = 4-bit value (c) QAM-64. 6 bits per symbol. 1 sample = 6-bit value

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Slide 35

Modems (3)

(a) V32 for 9600 bps. 4 data bit and one parity bit at 2400 baud (b) V32 bis for 14,400 bps. 6 data bit and one parity bit at 2400 baud V34 for 28,800 bps. 12 data bit at 2400 baud V34bis for 33,600 bps. 14 data bit at 2400 baud V90 for 33,6 kbps upstream and 54 kbps downstream. V92 for 48 kbps upstream and 54 kbps downstream

Slide 36

Digital Subscriber Lines

Bandwidth versus distanced over category 3 UTP for DSL.

Slide 37

Digital Subscriber Lines (2)

Operation of ADSL using DMT (Discrete MultiTone) modulation. Each channel uses a V34 like scheme

Slide 38

Digital Subscriber Lines (3)

A typical ADSL equipment configuration.
DSLAM : Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer NID : Network Interface Device

Slide 39

Wireless Local Loops
Or Wimax 802.16

Architecture of an LMDS system.

Slide 40

Frequency Division Multiplexing

(a) The original bandwidths. (b) The bandwidths raised in frequency. (b) The multiplexed channel.

Slide 41

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wavelength division multiplexing used for fiber optics.

Slide 42

Time Division Multiplexing
125 microseconds to allow for 8000 samples per second (Pulse code modulation for voice)

Used for Copper Wires

US Japan T1 carrier 24 channels (1 for synchronisation). 7 bit data. 193 bit frame or 1.544 Mbps International E1 carrier 32 channels (2 for signalling). 8 bit data. 256 bit frame or 2.048 Mbps

Slide 43

Time Division Multiplexing (2)

Differential Pulse Code Modulation : Delta modulation. Idea is to transmit the difference. Here delta is stored on 1 bit.

Slide 44

Time Division Multiplexing (3)

Multiplexing T1 streams into higher carriers. T4 = 6T3 = 6*7T2 = 6*7*4T1 E5 = 4E4 = 16E3 = 64E2 = 256E1

Slide 45

Time Division Multiplexing (4) SONET/SDH : fiber optics trunks (1985)
Wednesday Oct 12th 2009

Used for long distance 810 bytes every 125 microseconds

Two back-to-back SONET frames. Synchronous Optical NETwork

Slide 46

Time Division Multiplexing (5)

STS-768 STS-1536 STS-3072

OC-768 OC-1536 OC-3072

STM-256 STM-512 STM-1024

39,813,120 79,626,120 159,252,240

38,486,016 76,972,032 153,944,064 (2007 not manufactured yet)

SONET and SDH multiplex rates.

Slide 47

Circuit Switching

(a) Circuit switching. (b) Packet switching.

Slide 48

Message Switching

(a) Circuit switching (b) Message switching (c) Packet switching
(b) never used in practice

Slide 49

Packet Switching

A comparison of circuit switched and packet-switched networks. Packet switch is more fault tolerant

Slide 50

The Mobile Telephone System

– –

First-Generation Mobile Phones: Analog Voice
1946, Car-based system, 1 frequency, 1 channel 1960, 2 frequencies, 23 channels, very limited

Second-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice
1982, AMPS, cells with different frequencies per channels

Third-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice and Data

Wednesday Oct 8th 2008

Slide 51

Advanced Mobile Phone System

AMPS : Bell Labs 1982

(a) Frequencies are not reused in adjacent cells. (b) To add more users, smaller cells can be used.

Slide 52

Channel Categories
Control (base to mobile) to manage the system Paging (base to mobile) to alert users to calls for them Access (bidirectional) for call setup and channel assignment Data (bidirectional) for voice, fax, or data

AMPS handles 832 channels, divided into 4 categories: • • • •

Slide 53

D-AMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System

(a) A D-AMPS channel with three users. (b) A D-AMPS channel with six users.

GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
Slide 54

GSM uses 124 frequency channels, each of which uses an eight-slot TDM system

Slide 55

GSM (2)

A portion of the GSM framing structure.

Slide 56

CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access
00011011 means 1 11100100 means 0 They are all « orthogonal » A•B = 0 (Σ aibi/8 = 0) A • A = 1 (Σ aiai/8 = 1)

A is reserved a « chip » sequence

A transmits 1 B transmits 0 C does not transmit D does not transmit

1 : C has transmitted 1 0 : C has not transmitted -1 C has transmitted 0

(a) Binary chip sequences for four stations (b) Bipolar chip sequences (notation convention) (c) Six examples of transmissions (d) Recovery of station C’s signal

Slide 57

Third-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice and Data

Basic services an IMT-2000 network should provide • • • •
• •

High-quality voice transmission Messaging (replace e-mail, fax, SMS, chat, etc.) Multimedia (music, videos, films, TV, etc.) Internet access (web surfing, w/multimedia.)
W-CDMA (Wideband) or UMTS pushed by Ericsson CDMA2000 pushed by Qualcomm

Slide 58

Cable Television
• • • • • Community Antenna Television Internet over Cable Spectrum Allocation Cable Modems ADSL versus Cable

Slide 59

Community Antenna Television

An early cable television system.

Slide 60

Internet over Cable

Cable television

HFC : Hybrid Fiber Coax

Slide 61

Internet over Cable (2)

The fixed telephone system. Dedicated connection to the home!!

Slide 62

Spectrum Allocation

Frequency allocation in a typical cable TV system used for Internet access

Slide 63

Cable Modems

Typical details of the upstream and downstream channels in North America.

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