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Aplikasi Komputer dalam Manufaktur

Muslim Mahardika, ST, M.Eng, PhD.


Universitas Gadjah Mada
Indonesia

Tugas

Review jurnal internasional


Tahun 2010 2015
Review bahasa Indonesia: 1 halaman
Yang dikumpulkan:
File MS Word
File PPT 5 menit
File jurnal

Classification

Chemical dan Electro Chemical Machining

Introduction
Chemical Dissolution
Chemical dissolution aided by
electric current
Controlled electrical discharge
Electron beams and laser beams of
high energy intensity

Chemical Machining
Most metal (ceramics too) are
attached by specific chemicals
acids or alkalis
The metal is dissolved atom by atom
Only part of surface is etched away
The remaining parts must be
protected by wax, paint or polymer

Chemical Machining
application Engraving has practiced for hundred years name
plate and instrument panel
Chemical milling to remove pockets of materials
aircraft component
Chemical blanking to cut thin sheet
Photochemical machining the mask is made by
photochemical techniques
Thermochemical deburring high temperature version
of chemical machining for thermosetting plastics
Chemical jet machining the etchant (spread out to the
workpiece)
Thermochemical machining hot and corrosive etchant

Chemical Machining

Chemical
machining

Electrochemical
machining

Material removal
rate

0.012 0.07
mm/min

1.5 cm3/1000
A.min

Surface finish,
micrometer, Ra

2 on Al
1.5 on steel
0.6 on Ti

Electric current

4-24 V
50-40000 A
DC

Chemical Machining

Chemical Machining consideration


Almost all materials can be machined
including ceramics
Productivity low to medium
Chemical materials expensive
Complex surface can be machined
Be careful with undercut compensation
must be calculated in advance
No force acting on the materials less
crack and thin sheet can be machined

Chemical Machining consideration


Surface must be cleaned after
machining avoid further reaction
Surface must be cleaned before
machining grease, oil
Before machining, residual stress
must be eliminated

Electro Chemical Machining


The rate of material dissolution is
greatly increases with dc current
The workpiece must be conductive
Electrolyte Na chloride, Na nitride,
sulfuric acid, etc)
The machine is rigid to prevent
vibration and innacuracies

Electro Chemical Machining


Electro Chemical Milling remove material from large
surface
Electrochemical Machining uses metal or graphite
cathode which is the negative of shape to be produced
Shaped-tube electrolyte machining (STEM) uses
insulated titanium tube as a cathode, with acid
electrolyte (diameter 0.25 to 6 mm, aspect ratio 300:1)
Electrochemical grinding uses conductive grinding
wheel (copper-bonded Al2O3 or metal-bonded diamond).
Workpiece remains cool and pressures are low)

Electro Chemical Machining


Removal occurs in ionic state
Hardness of material is of no
consequence
Surface integrity excellent
No heat damage
Residual stress minimal or absent
Surface finish good
Superalloy, heat-treated steel can be
machined

Electro Chemical Machining

High cost 10000 A, USD 100K


High power electricity 200 5000 A
Dangerous, corrosive
Direct cleaning after machining
Accuracy can not be predicted before
test run

Electro Chemical Machining


Volume removed in
unit time: Vt = W/j
(m3/A.s)
W: Material removal
rate (g/s.m2)
: density (g/m3)
j: current density
(A/m2)

Electro Chemical Machining

Electro Chemical Machining

Electro Chemical Machining


All conductive materials can be
machined
Production rate medium
Consume high energy
Application: aircraft industry, part of
jet engine, turbine blade, hole with
high aspect ratio
Hole, profile, contour, complex shape

Electro Chemical Machining


workpiece -

Electro Chemical Machining


Two types of machine vertical and
horizontal
More than 1 cutting tool
Cutting tool/tool electrode difficult to get
worn
Spark occurred can destroy the surface
finish
Factor consideration: Workpiece materials,
cutting speed and feed rate, tolerance,
surface finish, thermal shock

Electro Chemical Machining


Design of electrolyte hole good in
flow and uniform current

Electro Chemical Machining


Energy

Electro Chemical Machining

Electro Chemical Machining design


consideration To get 30,
tool electrode
must be < 30
To get 1.5R,
tool electrode
must be <
1.5R

Electro Chemical Machining


Be careful with
undercut

Special cutting
tool needed
expensive
manipulation in
cutting direction

Electro Chemical Grinding

Electro Chemical Grinding

Electro Chemical Broaching

Electro Stream Drilling or Capillary


Drilling

Use glass tubes to direct the electrolyte and make small hole