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Nuts and Bolts

Threaded Fastener Issues:


Types
Materials/Grades
Tightening Torque

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Threaded Fasteners
Did you know that?
the Boeing 747 uses about 2.5 million
fasteners
70,000 titanium costing $150,000
400,000 other fasteners costing about $250,000
30,000 squeeze rivets, 50cents each installed

In certain applications (such as an engine


head), you should tighten the bolt as much as
possible, if it does not fail by twisting during
tightening, there is a very good possibility
that the bolt will never fail
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Why are fasteners used?


Advantages
Removable
Easy to install
Wide variety of standard parts

Disadvantages
loosening
failure
cost

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Types

Machine screws

Wood screws

Tapping screws

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Standard Thread Systems


Unified or American
SI (ISO)

ACME

Pipe
Whitworth (UK)

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Typical Designation
1/2 - 13 UNC - 2A
external thread
(B means internal)

Terminology of screw threads


Sharp vee threads shown for
clarity; the crests and roots are
actually flattened or rounded
during the forming operation.

Class of fit
(1 is loosest tolerance, 3 is tightest)
Thread Series
UNC (Unified Coarse)
UNF (Unified Fine)
Pitch (threads/inch)
Nominal Diameter
(also shown as decimal or screw #)
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Bolt Grades

Grade indicates the


tensile strength of the
bolt
Determined by bolt
material and heat
treating

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Tightening Torque
It is typical on engines for bolts to have a
specified tightening torque. Why?
It results in a quantified preload on the bolts
Insures that parts never separate
Maintains friction (no sliding to shear forces)
Insures even distribution of loading
prevent warpage of mating parts
uniform pressure distribution over seal or gasket
Prevents

bolt from loosening


Reduces fatique effects
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Bolt Manufacturing
Processes

Forging (upsetting)

Rolling

a)

b)

Thread-rolling processes: a) reciprocating flat dies; and b) two-roller dies.


Threaded fasteners, such as bolts, are made economically by these
processes at high rates of production
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Manufacturing Processes continued

Turning on screw machines

(a) Differences in the diameters of machined and rolled threads. (b) Grain flow in
machined and rolled threads. Unlike machining, which cuts through the grains of
the metal, rolled threads have improved strength because of cold working and
favorable grain flow.
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References
Kalpakjian, S. Manufacturing Engineering
and Technology, 2nd Edition, Addison
Wesley, 1992.
Spotts, M.F., Design of Machine Elements.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985.
Shigley, Joseph and Mitchell, Larry,
Mechanical Engineering Design. McGrawHillBook Company, 1983.

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