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METHOD OF MOMENTS

INTRODUCTION
Matrix Method Reduce the original function
equation to a Matrix Equation
The name Method of Moments has been given to
the mathematical procedure for obtaining the
matrix equations
First applied to EM problems in 1960s and has
become a predominant method today
The Method of Moments gives a general
procedure for treating field problems but the
details of the solution vary widely with the
particular problem

WHY MOM?

Choose the basis


functions

Integral
Eqn
Lf=g

Subsectionalize
the Geometry

Diagonal
terms

Create Matrix
Eqn

Off diagonal
terms

Closed forms,
Approximations

Choose testing functions

Inverse Matrix

Use to
determine the
parameters of
interest

BASIC STEPS

Formulate the problem in terms of an integral


equation
Represent the unknown quantity using a set of
basis functions
Convert the integral equation into a matrix
equation using a set of testing functions
Solve the matrix equation and calculate the
desired quantities

BASIC PRINCIPLE
convert the governing equation of a given
To
boundary value problem into a matrix equation
that can be solved numerically on a computer.
Consider the equation

Where

f be expanded in a series of functions in the


Let
domain of L as

Where are constants and are called basis


functions
Using Linearity one has
Now define a set of weighting functions in the
range of and take the inner product with each
yielding

This can be written in the matrix form as

The solution can be found by

Let us discuss each of the steps involved in detail

CONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL
EQUATION
Maxwells Equations
Vector Greens theorem
Volume and surface relations
Limiting Processes
Stratton-Chu integral representation
Boundary conditions
Integral Equations

APPLICATIONS : ELECTROSTATIC
CASE

Construction of the integral equation

Where: is the potential


Poisson Equation:
Well known potential function

If is given then the problem is to find

L is the integral operator

Note:

CHARGED CONDUCTING PLATE

CHARGED CONDUCTING PLATE


AND MOM

Integral Eqn: Let at z=0 on plate

Maxwells Equations

Vector Wave Equations

Vector Greens Theorem

Choose Q as


Stratton-Chu
Formula
In the vector Greens Theorem choose

On simplifying we get

E FIELD INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATION

Integral Representation

With r on Scatterer and E and H are total fields

H FIELD INTEGRAL
REPRESENTATION

Integral Representation

With r on Scatterer and E and H are total fields

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NORMAL


AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS

For PEC

INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR PEC

BASIS FUNCTIONS

The second step in the moment method is to


expand the unknown function of the integral
equation terms of basis functions
Two classes i)Entire Domain
ii) Subdomain
We mostly use Sub domain functions in EM
problems

HOW TO CHOOSE?

Decide what the final parameters of interest are


Understand the nature of Integral/Differential
operators
Use basis functions which demonstrate the
physical characteristics of the expanding
quantities

Numerically simple to work with

Use yours/others experience

POPULAR BASIS FUNCTIONS

Piecewise constant (Pulse)

Piecewise linear (triangle)

Piecewise Sinusoid

Truncated Cosine

TESTING FUNCTIONS

convert an integral equation into a matrix


To
equation we have to choose a set of testing
functions

Commonly use testing functions:


1. Dirac Delta:

Point collocation
2. Galerkins formulation: Basis fn = testing fn

APPLICATIONS : ELECTROSTATIC
CASE

Construction of the integral equation

Where: is the potential


Poisson Equation:
Well known potential function

If is given then the problem is to find

L is the integral operator

Note:

CHARGED CONDUCTING PLATE


AND MOM

Integral Eqn: Let at z=0 on plate

Subsection and point matching solution


Define basis functions
Let

Then
Satisfy at midpoint of each

MoM interpretation


Numerical
Considerations
Matrix Element

Self patch: m=n


Closed form
for circular patch

diagonal terms
Off
Closed form
Numerical Integration
Combinations
Simple approximation

Determining the matrix elements is sometimes the


most important and time consuming aspect of MoM