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Alkanes

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

1:
1: Classification
Classification of
of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
1.

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons:


saturated (only single C-C bonds)
hydrocarbon (only C and H)
H
H

C
H

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

2:
2: Bondings
Bondings in
in hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon
Carbon atoms has 4 valence electrons
need 4 electrons to reach octet
electron arrangement.
four bonds to each carbon atom
Hydrogen atoms has 1 valence electron
need 1 electron to reach duplet
electron arrangement.
one bond to each hydrogen atom
Carbon and hydrogen atoms can bond to each
other to form very extensive and molecular
systems.
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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

3:
3: Molecular
Molecular Formulas
Formulas of
of Alkanes
Alkanes
Write the molecular formula for each of the
alkanes below.

H
H

H
H

H
H

CC

CC

H
H

H
H

CC22H
H66

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H H
H H
H

CC

CC

H
H

H
H H
H H
H

CC

CC

H
H

CC44H
H1010
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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

CC55H
H1212

CC66H
H1414
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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

What is
alkanes?

the

general

molecular

formula

for

Alkanes have the general formula

CnH2n+2
n = no.of carbon atoms in the molecule

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

4:
4: Nomenclature
Nomenclature of
of Alkanes
Alkanes
1. The name of alkanes consist of 2 parts :
the root & ending.
2. Root- tells the number of carbon atoms in
the longest continuous carbon chain.
3. Ending-tells the family of the compound.
No. of
carbon
atoms

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Root
name

Meth

Eth

Prop

But

Pent

Hex

Hept

Oct

Non

Dec

The root names for the first ten straight-chain alkanes

Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

Naming Alkanes
Example : Butane
Name of
alkane

Root

Ending

Butane

But (no. of
carbon atoms

-ane (the
family is
alkane)

= 4)

No. of
C atoms

1 C

Structural
Formula

Nomenclature /
Molecular formula
Methane
Methane

CH
CH44

2 C

3 C

Ethane
Ethane

Propane
Propane

CC2H
2H66

CC3H
3H88

H
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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

No. of
C atoms

4 C

6 C

Structural
Formula

Nomenclature /
Molecular formula
Butane
Butane

Hexane
Hexane

CC44H
H1010

CC66H
H1414

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

Structural Formula
Shows how the atoms in molecule
are bonded together and by
what types of bonds.
Example :
H

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5:
5: Physical
Physical Properties
Properties
Alkanes- covalent compounds

a) Melting and Boiling Point


* Low melting and boiling points because these
molecules are held together by weak
intermolecular forces.

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

a) Melting and Boiling Point

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

a) Melting and Boiling Point


The boiling point increases between
20-30C per -CH2 group.
Boiling points and melting points
increase as number of carbon atoms
per molecule increases.
Then, size of molecules increases
(molecular mass increases)
Forces between molecules (van der
Waals forces) are stronger
More heat energy is needed to
overcome the forces

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b) Physical State at Room


Temperature
CH4 - C4H10
C5H12 - C17H38
C18H38

: gas
: liquid
: solid

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c) Solubility
-Soluble in non polar solvents (organic
solvents),
-Insoluble in water.

d) Density
* The density of the alkanes increases
with increasing number of carbon atoms,
BUT is less dense than that of
water.
Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in
an alkane-water mixture.
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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.

e) Electrical Conductivity
Cannot conduct electricity
because :
alkanes are covalent compounds,
do not have ions but are
made up of molecules.

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Chemical Properties of alkanes


Unreactive compounds
Saturated compounds.
The strong C-C and C-H bonds must
be broken for the alkanes to react.
Although alkanes do not react with
most chemicals, they do react with
oxygen and halogens.
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Combustion
The reaction with oxygen
Complete combustion of methane / in
the presence of sufficient oxygen :
CH4(g) + 2O2(g)
CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
Incomplete combustion / insufficient
oxygen available :
2CH4(g) + 3O2(g)
CO(g) + 4H2O(l)
CH4(g) + O2(g)
C(s) + 2H2O(l)
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Halogenation
Reaction with halogen
Takes place readily in sunlight.
C-H bonds-broken, formed C-halogens
bonds
Halogenation - example of a substitution
reaction
Substitution reaction when one atom or a
group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by
another atom or group of atoms.
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Halogenation
Example-Mixture of methane and
chlorine is exposed to ultravolet
light-varying amounts of four
different products are formed.
CH3Cl chloromethane
CH4
CH2Cl2 dichloromethane
CHCl3 trichloromethane
CCl4
CH4(g) + Cl2(g)

tetrachloromethane
CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g)21

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Copyright 2006, MRSM Kuantan. All rights reserved.