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Argument & Reasoning

Argument & Reasoning

rhetoric
According to Aristotle,
________, or
the art of persuasion is "the
ability, in each particular case, to
see the available means of
persuasion. He described three
main forms of rhetoric
(persuasion):

Three Forms of
Persuasion

ETHO Appeal to ________.


charact When
_______:

S speaker is seener
the
as trustworthy,
knowledgeable, andintereste
___________ in
d
the audience, the audience
will
likely accept what the speaker
says as true.

Acme Gizmotronics, the company that you've


trusted for over 100 , has recently entered
the Worldyears
Wide Web! Now you can purchase our

quality
fine
products through the internet. Our
gizmos, widgets, and thingamabobs can
be
famous
shippedguarantee
to you within minutes. All come with the
lifetime
the world depends
that makes Acme the company
on
that
for it's gizmo needs.

Our spokesperson, Mr. Coyote says "I've used Acme


products for years. Their slingshots, rocket
launchers, crowbars, pogo sticks, and power pills
are the best around. And don't forget their highthe company
I trust the
powered dynamite!
I buythat
everything
from
Acme. They are
."
most

Three Forms of
Persuasion

PATHO Appeal to emotio


_______:
_______. Pathetic

S emotional appeals,
n persuades
or
arousinby _________ the emotions.
audiences
g

Three Forms of
Persuasion

LOGO Appeal to reason


_______:
______. Logos
S
refers
to different systems of
reasoning, working together to
persuade an audience.

Three Types of Reasoning


Deducti Reasoning: From general to
1. _________
specific.
ve
General

Spec

These
types of arguments are called
Syllogis
__________
and are proven by analyzing
ms
the claims:
True
A. All men or mortal
True
B. Socrates is a man
True
C. Therefore, Socrates is mortal

Deductive Reasoning
Not all syllogisms give true conclusions.
True
A. All cats are mortal
True
B. Socrates is mortal
C. Therefore, Socrates isa____ False
cat
When we use deductive reasoning
in
enthymem
normal conversation, we usually
use an
e the
__________. Enthymemes allow
commonaudience
to supply the _____________
senseto support the claim.
evidence

Deductive Reasoning
Enthymemes simplify the syllogism to two
steps:
Ex. Connie is a cheerleader, therefore
Connie is very popular.
True

A. Connie
is a cheerleader
Cheerleaders
are
B. ____________________
popular
C. Connie is very popular

?
?

Deductive Reasoning
Questions to ask about Deductive
Arguments:
Is Isthe
General
Statement True?
Connie
a Cheerleader?

Is Are
theCheerleaders
Specific Example True?
popular?

Does the Specific Example apply to


the
General
Statement?
Is Connie
popular?
Is it because she

is a cheerleader, or for other

Three Types of Reasoning


Inductiv Reasoning from specific
1._________:
to egeneral.
Spec

General

We use inductive reasoning all the


time, however, it does not certaint
provide
________,probabilit
but only _________.y
y

Inductive Reasoning
Ex. Evidence:I met 5 people from Conroe,
they were all mean.

Conclusion:People from Conroe are


mean.
Questions: Are there enough

examples?
(you only met 5 people)
Are the examples typical?
(anything unusual?)
Are there important
exceptions, or special

Inductive Reasoning
Ex. Evidence:The sun has risen every day
for the past year.

Conclusion:The sun will rise tomorrow.


Questions: Are there enough examples?
(365+)
Are the examples typical?
(Yes, usual occurrence)
Are there important
exceptions?

Three Types of Reasoning


Cause &
3. _____________:
All effects have a
Effect cause.
specific

CAUSE - - -> - - -> - - -> EFFECT


Ex1. Evidence: Jane studied for
hours.
Conclusion:She will get an A on the
test
Questions: Is the Cause connected to
the Effect? Will studying
for hours ensure an A?

Cause & Effect


Ex2. Evidence:As the sale of ice cream

increases, the murder rate


goes
up.ice cream causes
Eating

Conclusion:
murder.
Questions: Is the Cause connected to

the Effect? Could there be


another explanation? i.e.
More ice cream is sold in
the summer when it is hot,
heat causes tempers to
flair, etc.

Types of Faulty Reasoning

Glittering
________________:
Vague and
Generality
general
statements that cannot
prove
be
________ ordisprove
_________. Ex.
n
Pepsi
is the n
best soda.
Card
____________:
Pilling up
backin
Stackingide about an ____ without
information
a
g
much ______.
Ex. Join the Army.
Youll meet new people, go
different places and can even get
a college education.

Types of Faulty Reasoning

Bandwagon
_______________:
Everyone else is
Appealit, you
doing
____ should do it also.
Ex. We are all going to the party,
you dont want to be left out.
Unrelated
_________________:
An
endorsement
Testimonial by someone who is
disconnect from the product /
___________
idea.
ed Ex. George Foreman
endorsing Meineke mufflers.

Types of Faulty Reasoning

Name
___________:
Attacks the person
Callingthan the idea. Ad
rather
(___________) Ex. OhHomenim
yeah, well I
have a better class average than
you do.