Personalit y & Emotions

 Why are some people quiet and passive?  Why are some people loud and aggressive?  Are certain personality types better adapted for certain job



“A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior”

Determinants of Personality
 Heredity
Example: Identical twins who are separated at birth and raised apart in very different situations have been found to share personality traits and job preferences. There is a genetic influence on personality.

 Environment

Example: Family influences, educational influences and other environmental forces shape personality.

“Personality is therefore shaped by both heredity and environment.”

Personality Theories

1-Trait Theory
 The personality theory that states that in order to

understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits.  According to trait theory combining these traits into a group forms an individual’s personality.  Different trait theorists have identified thousands of traits over the years.  More recently researchers have argued that all traits can be reduced to five basic factors. They are called The “Big Five” Personality Traits.

The “Big Five” Personality Traits
Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability
Openness to Experience

The “Big Five” Personality Traits diagram
1. Extraversion 2. Agreeableness Gregarious, assertive, sociable. (as opposed to reserved, timid quiet) Cooperative, warm, agreeable (as opposed to cold, disagreeable, antagonistic) Hardworking, organized, dependable (as opposed to lazy, disorganized, unreliable) Calm, self-confident, cool (as opposed to insecure, anxious, depressed) Creative, curious, cultured ( rather than practical with narrow interests)

3. Conscientiousness 4. Emotional Stability 5. Openness to Experience


The degree to which an individual believes that the ends justify the means and behave in a manner which aims at increasing their level of power within an organization.


The personality theory that emphasizes individual growth and improvement.

The humanistic approach contribute an understanding of the self to personality theory and contends that the self concept is the most important part of an individual's personality.

The broad theory that describe personality as a composite of an individual's psychological process.

 Dispositions, In this approach simply means the tendencies of individuals to respond to situations in consistent ways. Influence by both genetics and experience. It can be modified.  Personality dispositions include emotions, cognitions, attitude, expectancies, & fantasies.


The personality theory that emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior.


Personality Characteristics in Organizations
 Managers should learn as much as possible

about personality in order to understand their employees.  Hundreds of personality characteristics have been identified.

Personality Characteristics in Organizations?

Personality Characteristics in Organizations

Locus of control Self esteem Self monitoring Positive/Negative Affect

1-Locus Of Contr ol

An individual’s generalized behavior about internal control (self control) versus external control (control by the situations or others)

Internal Locus of control

External Locus of control

People who believe they control what happens to them.

People who believe that circumstances or other people control Their fate.

Which one is better?
Internal locus of control


External locus of control

Internal Locus of Control
 Have higher job satisfaction  To be more likely to assume managerial     

positions Prefer participative management styles Display higher work motivations Hold stronger beliefs that efforts lead to performance Receive higher salaries Less anxiety than externals

2. Self Esteem

“The extent to which people base their behavior

on cues from other people and situations.”

 High self monitors pay attention to what is appropriate in

particular situations and to the behavior of other people and they behave accordingly.  Low self monitors in contrast are not as vigilant to situational cues and act from internal states rather than paying attention to the situation. As a result the behavior of low self-monitors are consistent across situations.  High self-monitors appear to be more unpredictable and less consistent.

3. Self-Monitoring

“An individual’s general feeling of self-worth.”

People having high self-esteem have positive feelings about themselves, perceive to have strengths as well as weaknesses and believe that their strengths are more important than their weaknesses. Individuals with low self-esteem view themselves negatively. Low-esteem individuals are more affected by what other people think of them and they compliment individuals who give them positive feedback while cutting down people who give them negative feedback. Success tends to raise self-esteem while failure tends to lower it. Managers should encourage employees to raise their self-esteem by giving them appropriate challenges and opportunities for success.

 

 

4. Positive/Ne gative Af fect

 Positive Affect

“An individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself/herself, other people and the world in general.”

 Negative Affect

“ An individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself/herself, other people and the world in general.

The Jungian Approach and MBTI
Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung built his work on the notion that people are fundamentally different, but also fundamentally alike.

MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator)
 He introduced “Psychological Types” which says that the population was

made up two types-----extraverted and introverted.  He went on identifying two types of perception---sensing and intuiting.  He identified two types of judgment---thinking and feeling.
 During the 1940’s, a mother-daughter team became fascinated with

individual differences among people and with the work of Carl Jung.  Katherine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers, developed the MyersBriggs Type Indicator(MBTI) to put Jung’s theory into practical use.  The MBTI is used extensively in organizations as a basis for understanding individual differences.  The MBTI has been used in career management, team building, conflict management and understanding management styles.


Preferences There are four preferences in type theory, and two possible choices for each of the four preferences. The combination of these preferences makes up an individual’s psychological type. Extraversion/Introversion Sensing/Intuiting Thinking/Feeling Judging/Perceiving

1. 2. 3. 4.

ExtraversionA preference indicating that an individual is energized with other people.

IntroversionA preference indicating that an individual is energized by time alone.





 Outgoing  Publicly Expressive  Interacting  Speaks, then thinks  Gregarious

 Quiet  Reserved  Concentrating  Thinks, then speaks  Reflective

SensingGathering information through the five senses. IntuitingGathering information through “sixth sense” and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists.

SENSING    

    



Practical Specific Feet on the ground Details Concrete

General Abstract Head in the clouds Possibilities Theoretical

3-Thinking / Feeling
ThinkingMaking decisions in a logical, objective fashion. FeelingMaking decisions in a personal, value oriented way.

THINKING  Analytical  Clarity  Head  Justice  Rules




 Subjective  Harmony  Heart  Mercy  Circumstances

4-Judging / Perceiving
JudgingPreferring closure and completion in making decisions. PerceivingPreferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility.

 Structured  Time Oriented  Decisive  Makes lists/ uses them  Organized



Flexible Open ended Exploring Makes lists/ loses them  Spontaneous

The Lifestyle Approach

From the point of view of broad lifestyles, two types of personalities have been identified.
   

Are impatient with the rate of work Move and eat rapidly Want to measure everything Do several things simultaneously

      

Never feel urgency and are patient Are relaxed Eat in leisurely fashion enjoy themselves Do not display their achievements Play for fun Rather than to prove themselves

Personality-Job Fit Theory
 Holland (1985) has proposed a “personality-job

fit” theory of personality.  This theory makes a case for job-specific personality types.  He has suggested 6 personality types and has prepared an instrument containing 160 occupational titles.  Based on respondent’s preferences, their personality profiles are prepared.

Holland’s Personality Types for Different Occupations
ti c

In ve s



Re al is

ti g

at e

(I )

Conventional (C)

isi n

g( E)

So ci al (

En ter pr


Artistic (A)

Description of Type
Realistic (R) Practical, Stable, conformist, Straight forward, honest

Like physical activities, enjoy exercising skills, like a challenge and try hard to achieve.

estigative (I) nitive, independent, analytical ious, original. Artistic (A) Creative, imaginative, disorderly Impractical, emotional. Social (S) Social able, cooperative, emphatic Friendly.

Enjoy activities that require thinking, like organizing Researching and predicting outcomes. Prefer less order environments and activities, like Ambiguity, enjoy activities involving creativity.

Enjoy human contact, working in helpful groups or Teams, values helping others develop. Like dealing, verbal contact and dominating others Enjoy, situation that give a sense of winning Prefer well-defined activities, like a highly regulated Environment.

erprising (E) biguous, assertive, dominant, fidence, active.

nventional (C) d, conformist, uncreative, practical, cient, orderly, dislike ambiguity.

Personal Effectiveness
 Individuals with different types of personalities can be  

 

equally effective. One precondition of personal effectiveness is better self-awareness. One simple model for self-awareness which is widely used is the Johari Window, developed by Luft and Ingham. In this model there are two main dimensions for understanding the self. Those aspects of a person’s behavior that are know to him/her and those aspects of behavior that are known to those with whom he or she interacts. A combination of these two dimensions reveals four areas of knowledge about the self.

Two Characteristics of personal effectiveness
 Openness
1. Self-Disclosure-The extent to which one shares ideas, feelings, experiences, impressions, perceptions and various other personal data with others shows one’s degree of openness, which is an important quality and contributes a great deal to a person’s effectiveness. 2. Receiving Feedback Feedback on those aspects of a person about which others are aware but the person is not, may be positive or negative. Generally, there is no problem with the positive feedback.

Characteristics of personal effectiveness cont.
 Perceptiveness
The ability to pick up verbal and non-verbal cues from others indicates perceptiveness. Like openness, perceptiveness can be used appropriately or inappropriately. If a person is too conscious of other’s feelings, he or she may inhibit interaction. Effective perceptiveness can be increased by checking other’s reactions to what is said.

Johari Window
Feed back Know to Self Unknown to Self

Know to others


Open Area
Hidden Area

Blind Area Unknown Area

Unknown to others

The Feelings experienced towards an object, person or event that create a state of readiness.

Types of Emotions at workplace:
Anger Fear Joy Love Sadness Surprise

Disgust Envy

Irritation Rage Torment

Alarm Anxiety

Cheerfulness Contentment Enthrallment Affection Optimism Longing Pride Lust Relief Zest


Neglect No subSadness Categories Shame Suffering Of emotion Sympathy

Cognitive Dissonance
Occur when people perceive an inconsistency between their beliefs, feeling and behavior.

Emotional Intelligence
The ability to monitor our own & other feelings & emotions to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide our thinking and actions .

Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
SelfAWARENESS Social Skill Self regulation

Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
Empathy Self Motivation

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