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ADVANCED MEN &

MATERIAL
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
IN UNDERGROUND COAL
MINES
By: Rohit Kumar Singh
113MN0492

Causewise break-up of Indian coal mines


accidents(1989-1999)

Source:
https://faculty.franklin.uga.edu/amandal/sites/faculty.franklin.uga.edu.amandal/files/Fatal_accidents_in_Indian_Coal_Min

Cause of mine accidents and fatalities per million


manshifts in Indian and South-African
nomenclature(1989-1997)

Source: https://faculty.franklin.uga.edu/amandal/sites/faculty.franklin.uga.edu.amandal/files/Fatal_accidents_in_Indian_Coal_Mines.pdf

Frequency of mining industry fatalities, by major event


group, age 16 years and over, 2004-2008
EVENT

FREQUENCY

PERCENT

Transportation

326

37.8

Contact with objects/equipment

291

33.8

Fires and explosions

96

11.1

Exposure to harmful environments

78

9.0

All other events

71

8.2

Total

862

100.0

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics

Choice of transportation system depends on various


factors:
Access to mineral deposit
Geographical and environmental conditions in the mines
Productivity of a mine
Which transport system will be profitable for mines
Safety of workers working
How easily a failure in the system can be rectified and
starts working again
Mining method being used

Transportation system in underground mines can be


broadly classified into two categories: Transportation system for men and equipment

Transportation system for ores/coal, etc.

Image Source : Google Images

Transport system for men and equipment


Vertical
Shafts

For
persons,
equipment
and
material

Travelling
time is
less
Maximum
carrying
load
depends
on
installatio
n
Automatic
and
Manual
Image Source : Google Images

Incline
Generally
s

inclined at
16 to 18
degree
from
horizontal
Often used
for belt
conveyor
transport

Large
machines
can be
transported
without
dismantling

Transport system for men and equipment


Track
System

Manrider
trains

Fast
transport
Over
large
distances
Efficiency
and
speed
depends
on the
standard
of
roadway
grading
and
installatio
n of track
Used in
mines
with drift

To take
men and
equipme
nt into
mines
Safest
way of
transport
ation
If track
fails then
rail stops
working

Image Source : Google Images

Transport system for men and equipment


Mono
Rails

For
persons,
equipment
and
material
Travelling
time is less
and fastest

Electric
vehicle
s
For men
transportat
ion inside
mines

Works on
battery
usually
Runs on
electricity

Being used
at very few
places
Image Source : Google Images

Easy way
to roam in
bigger and
larger
mines for
inspection

RTV
s
Rubber tired
vehicles are
flexible

Caterpillar
track
vehicles for
special
purpose.
Usually 2 or 4
seaters
e.g RTV1140

Transport system for ore and waste materials


LHD

For ores
and coals

SDL
For ores
and coals

Loads,
hauls,
dumps
Run on
electricity
and diesel.
Can be
remote
controlled
too.

Works at
face
Image Source : Google Images

Works at
face

Manually
operated
and can be
remote
controlled
too

Transport system for ore and waste materials


Conveyo
r belt
Fast
transport

Hydrauli
c and
mine
pumps

To
transport
slurry,
ventilation
etc.

Over large
distance
Safer and
can work
continuousl
y.
Less
maintenan
ce is
required

Image Source : Google Images

Uses a
motor
pump and
pipes.

Transport system for ore and waste materials


SHAF Two
T
shafts

available,
one for
men and
other for
coal

Require
pulley,
wire
ropes
and
other
safety
systems.

Image Source : Google Images

Mine
cars Fast and
easy.

Require
motors,
wire
ropes,
railway
tracks
etc.
Different
haulages
have
different
speeds,
benefits
etc.

Transport system for ore and waste materials


Mine
Rails

For
material
s and
coals
Railway
tracks
needed

RTV
S
Rubber

Fast way
of
transpor
tation

Stops
working
if track
problems

Image Source : Google Images

tyred
vehicles

Usually
for
transpor
tation
from
face to
shafts
If
galleries
are
spacious
soil has
good
grip. e.g
RTV900x
t

Future of transport system in mines

In order to
Minimize input cost
Improve production
Improve safety
Sustainable mining
Several research and developments are being done by several
Mining industries.

Image Source : Google Images

Future of transport system in mines


Few concept projects on which people are working are:

Airships: Used to transport personnel and equipment


to remote areas where there is no road and electricity.
It will reduce the input cost significantly and help
companies to start earning profit at an early stage. It
can be used for asteroid mining too.
Mining bots: Used at severe and dangerous
conditions so that workers safety is not neglected and
extraction can be done efficiently. E.g. in very deep
mines where daily transportation of workers will take
time.

Image Source : Google Images

Importance of transportation system in mines


To have access to mine deposits.
To continue the mining activity.
To extract ores from mines.
To increase the production of ores.
To make a mine earn profit.
To transport man power safely.
To transport equipment and materials properly.
To reduce the number of accidents due to transportation system

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.geovia.com/blog/future-mining-equipment-transportation
http://www2.liikennevirasto.fi/julkaisut/pdf3/ls_2013-02_transport_needs_web.pdf
http://www.infomine.com/library/publications/docs/InternationalMining/Budniok2010.pdf
http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c2en.html
Elements of mining technology, Vol-3 by Deshmukh D.J
http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c05/e6-37-06-07.pdf
http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/cwc/transportation-fatalities-in-the-mining-sector-20042008.pdf

THANK YOU