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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF

KNUCKLE JOINT
by
HARSHA VARDHAN PUNNA S
Guided by
Dr. PERIASAMY

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present project is to study the stresses in Knuckle joint
using analytical method. A knuckle joint is designed for increasing
the capacity to withstand load. It is proposed that instead of mild steel
high strength high modulus Molybdenum can be used for further
enhancing the capacity to withstand higher loads. The knuckle joint
proposed work is to study the behavior of pin for an applied force of
150 KN. The diameter of the pin is proposed to be around 25 mm and
the factor of safety of 2. CAD model of knuckle is prepared in
CATIA. Static analysis is done in ANSYS by constraining the
knuckle and for applied loads, the stress contour, displacement
contour, strain energy contour are obtained. These Finite Element
Analysis results are verified by comparing with analytical
calculations.

INTRODUCTION
Knuckle joint is one of the important components of vehicle which
is used to transmit axial tensile force.
Knuckle joint is used to connect two rods whose axes either
coincide or intersect and lie in one plane.
A knuckle joint may be failed on the following three modes
1. Shear failure of pin (single shear).
2. Crushing of pin against rod.
3. Tensile failure of flat end bar.
APPLICATIONS:
Joint in the car steering
Joint between the links of a bicycle chain
Joint in the tractor

Parts of knuckle joint

BENDING FAILURE OF PIN


When the pin is tight in the eye and the fork, failure occurs due to
shear.
On other hand, when the pin is loose, it is subjected to bending
moment.
It is assumed that the load acting on the pin is uniformly distributed
in the eye, but uniformly varying in two parts of the fork.

MATERIAL
The material of the knuckle joint is considered as Molybdenum in
order to do the stress analysis.
Molybdenum, a refractory metal is widely used as an alloying
element.
It has good thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point
and excellent strength.
Molybdenum can be used for various applications in its pure form.
Properties:
Tensile stress
= 324MPa
Shear stress
= 500MPa
Compressive stress = 400MPa

DESIGN STANDARDIZATION

DESIGN CALCULATIONS
The
rods are subjected to direct tensile load, Therefore tensile strength
of the rod,
P = (/4) x t
150000=(/4)x324
d=24mm
Diameter of the rod (d)=24mm
Diameter of pin, d1 = d=24mm
Outer diameter of eye, d2 = 2d=48mm
Diameter of knuckle pin head and collar, d3 = 1.5d=36mm
Thickness of single eye or rod end, t = 1.25d=30mm
Thickness of fork, t1 = 0.75d=18mm
Thickness of pin head, t2 = 0.5d=12mm

Failure
of the knuckle pin in shear:
Since the pin is in double shear, therefore cross-sectional area of the pin
under shearing
P = 2 x (/4) (d1x s
150000=2 x (/4) (24x s
=165.87MPa

It is less than allowable shear stress so it is safe.


The value of maximum bending moment is given by:
M = [(P/2) {(t1/3) + (t/2)}] [(P/2)x (t/4)]
M = (P/2) [(t1/3) + (t/4)]
M = 1012.5 KN-mm
And section modulus,Z = (/32) x (d1
Since maximum bending (tensile) stress,t= M/Z
d1= 32 mm

Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension:


The single eye or rod end may tear off due to the tensile load
P = (d2 d1) t t
150000=(48-32)x30xt
t=312.5 MPa
Failure of the single eye or rod end in shearing:
The single eye or rod end may fail in shearing due to tensile load.
P = (d2 d1) t s
150000=(48-32)x30s
s=312.5 MPa
Failure of the single eye or rod end in crushing:
The single eye or pin may fail in Crushing due to the tensile load.
P = d 1 t c
150000=32x30xc
c=208MPa

Failure
of the forked end in tension:
The forked end or double eye may fail in tension due to the tensile load.
P = (d2 d1) 2t1 t
150000=2(48-32)18xt
t=260.4MPa
Failure of the forked end in shear:
The forked end may fail in shearing due to the tensile load.
P = (d2 d1) 2t1 s
150000=2(48-32)18xs
s=260.4MPa
Failure of the forked end in crushing:
The forked end or pin may fail in crushing due to the tensile load.
P = d1 2 t 1 c
150000=32x2x18xc
c=173.6MPa

MODELLING

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Knuckle joint with boundary condition

von-mises stress

Maximum principal stress

Shear stress

Total deformation

Stresses and Deformation results of


Molybdenum
S.no

Types

Max

Min

Shear stress(xy plane)

567.12 Mpa

-249.83Mpa

Total deformation

0.09410 mm

0.00 mm

Maximum principal

734.9 Mpa

-45.272 Mpa

552.95 Mpa

1.4907 Mpa

Stress
4

Von mises stress

THEORETICAL CALCULATION
Normal
stress in x-x direction:
=
P = 150000 N A = 803.84 mm2
= = 186.604
Maximum principal stress:
= 550 x 0.3 = 165 N/mm2
= +
=+
= 262.80<= 275

Minimum principal stress:


=
=Maximum shear stress:
=
=
= 169.5<= 275
Von mises theory:

= 169.4 < 275

Comparison of results
Stress

Theoretical

Allowable limit

Maximum principle stress

262.8

275

Maximum shear stress

169.5

550

Von mises

169.4

275

It is observed that the maximum principle stress


allowable limit 275 MPa is greater than theoretical limit of
maximum principle stress 262 MPa. Similarly allowable limit
of both von mises and Maximum shear stress value found
greater than the theoretical limits of von mises and Maximum
shear stress.

CONCLUSION
The knuckle joint designed in the present study is for withstanding an
applied force of 150 KN. The diameter of the pin is proposed to be
around 24 mm. The material of the knuckle joint is considered as
molybdenum. Based on the above, a CAD model was developed
using CATIA. In order to carry out the stress analysis, mesh was
developed for the knuckle joint. ANSYS software was run and the
stress contour, displacement contour, strain energy contour were
obtained.
Based on the ANSYS analysis, it shows that a pin of 24 mm diameter
can withstand a load of 150 kN if a factor of safety of 2 is used. The
FEA is carried out for knuckle joint model and the result of analysis
indicate that the von mises stress has changed from 552.95 Mpa to
1.4907 Mpa. Hence the design is safe.

REFERENCES
1. J.K. Gupta, R.S. Khurmi. A textbook of machine design. Ram Nagar,
New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing House. ISBN 81-219-2537-1 (2008).
2."KnuckleJoint."Merriam-Webster.com.Merriam
Webster,Web.14Dec.2013.
http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/knuckle joint>.
3. Jones DRH, Engineering Materials 3 materials failure analysis.
Oxford (UK) Pergamon Press (1993).
4. Bhandari, V.B. (2001). Introduction to machine design. New Delhi:
Tata McGraw-Hill.2001.
5. Joseph E. Shigley, Charles R. Mischke, Thomas H. Brown, (2004).
Standard handbook of machine design (3rd ed). New York: McGrawHill. ISBN 978-0-07-144164-3