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HBR- FEBRUARY 2008

PRESENTATION TIME

THAN

Q&A

FOR Better LEARNING

By
ATIF IMSCIENCES
03329125916
HBR- FEBRUARY 2008

PRESENTATION
TIME:10MIN

THAN

Q &A
For better learning
 Research initiative is on “Experience based learning in
complex environment”
 Managers stopped learning from experience.
 Alex is expert of software world.
 Made classical version of software for NASA, also included
as part of research participant.
 Decision making of managers is examined in variety of
contexts.
 A research done on “Experience based learning”
EXPERIMENT 1:
 Alex is taken as in charge for computer based
software of simulation, which has to control,
monitor, and manage in terms of cost and time.
 Alex decisions were representative of decision of
his whole group selected.
 Group of 4 engineers of Alex hit towers of success
in developmental work but left behind in other
tasks because group founded less to tasks.
 Small group can’t grab all tasks, consequently
sown seeds of uncontrollable problems, Alex
experience burned out.
 Further hiring in midst of project was the option
with Alex but than problem countered was the
assimilation of new entrants.
 Project got failed because of Alex negligence in
early phases of project which cherished
snowballing software errors.
 Project completed defectively and late than
schedule.
 Simulation game played with Alex and all other
participants of research when finally asked about
the fault they replied

 Researcher founded that only few of managers


learned from consequences of their past decisions
and want to change their approach as well.
 Thus learning from real life past projects not
utilized which is break down of learning.
 WHY BREAKDOWN OF LEARNING
 Decision is based on pre-existing stock of
knowledge called MENTAL MODEL.
 Consist on assumptions about cause & effect
relationships with the environment.
 On basis of consequences of decisions people learns
new facts and make new discoveries about
environmental relationships.
 Discoveries which can be generalized to other are
considered appropriate according to Mental Model.
 In short we have Hypothesis—about relationships
b/w cause and effects on basis of action and result
we interpret them BUT things are not that simple in
complex environment.
 In complicated real world there are three types of
complications which break the Learning cycle.
 1. TIME LAG:
 Delay b/w cause and effect make it difficult to link them
 Length of lag even disturbed the relationship b/w cause and
effect.
 EXP 2:
 Participants were given simulated game to manage medium
size satellite software, which grew in size with product
requirement addition.
 Each participant has to opt for 1 out of 4 operating
environment, which varies on basis of
1. Lag of hiring decision & Arrival of members
2. Lag of Arrival & Assimilation
 Participants having higher lag were in more problems and
countered more faults as compare to participants having less
time lag.
 In post game debriefing the participants decided that late
hiring countered the problem.
 Even they mentioned for provision of other options like
extending deadlines, zeroing few tasks etc. BUT IN
 Follow up experiment the hiring done late again in long time
LAGS project which means that “IF PEOPLE HAVE THE
ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE THEY DID NOT NECESSARUILY
ACT ON IT”
 2. FALLIBLE ESTIMATES:
 Initial estimates for projects shape the trajectory of
decisions that manger take during project life cycle.
 Estimate of productivity of team members influence
decisions about size of team, which in return affect the
team’s actual output.
 EXP 3:
 Conducted to find out manager initial estimate
decisions about productivity and than periodically
actual team productivity.
 Each manager has to select 1 out 3 initial estimates.
1.Low 2.medium 3.high
 And than having 3 chances during report for refining
his productivity report.
 a.5month(designing) b.10months(coding) c.15 months
(end coding)
 To find out his productivity estimate changes or not.
 3. INITIAL GOAL BIAS:
 Managers begin with set of goals related to cost and time.
 Mostly projects encountered with unexpected which embarks for a change in
initially settled cost and time restraints.
 Do manager make amendments for demand of change or just goes on even
wrong goes on, again researcher did experiment
 EXP 4:
 Two groups to manage a project
 1. Cost group (994 persons—complete in schedule of 272 days).
 2. Quality assurance group. (with minimum defects)
 Both groups in midst journey got unexpected and unattainable.
 Neither group readjusted the target and got failed.
 Cost group got grab on cost but made schedule very late.
 Quality group made less defects but at the cost of sacrifice of huge cost.
 A manager at time goes on even if wrong goes on.
 They decide, even having experience, on basis of MENTAL MODEL settled by
them during non-experience reign.
IMPLICATIONS
 Assigning complex project to impressive,
veteran, and experienced manager at times
can’t perform desirably if manager is going
with mental model.
 Expert appointment means creating
expectations of negligible failure but that’s not
a reality.
FIXING LEARNING CYCLE PROBLEMS

COGINATIVE FEED BACK


 Feed back which provides insight into the relationships among factors in
project management.
MODEL-BASED DECISION TOOLS AND GUIDELINES
 Tools or systems for supporting decision making of manager on basis of
past problems and productivity analysis for prediction of prevailing
problems and estimation of productivity.
CALIBRATE FORECASTING TOOLS TO PROJECT
 Decision supporting tools should calibrate to specific project context.
SET GOALS FOR BEHAVIOR-- NOT TARGETS FOR PERFORMANCE
 Manager when comes to know that his performance will be measured
against target settled in beginning than manger don’t care for cost and
quality.
 In beginning goals setting and target is not appropriate.
 During goal setting organization should first decide on behavior they
wish to develop and than set goals that encourage such behavior.
DEVELOPING SIMULATION
 Virtual environment to managers should be provided and trained before
letting them to project.
 Process is for manager learning how to learn and apply past learning
Simulation MENTAL
MODEL

TIME LAG

ASSIMILATION PRODUCTIVITY

ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE

SNOWBOLLING
ERRORS

COGNITIVE FEED BACK


BREAKDOWN
OF LEARNING